Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 2.1
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
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CD44 molecule (Indian blood group)(CD44) CD44 molecule (Indian blood group)(CD44) Related Genes Homo sapiens
CHROMOSOME 11,
CYTOBAND 11p13,
ENSEMBL_GENE_ID ENSG00000026508,
GENERIF_SUMMARY Interaction of CD44 when cross-linked on rheumatoid synovial cells with hyaluronan fragments present in the surrounding extracellular matrix augments Fas expression and Fas-mediated apoptosis of synovial cells., Hyaluronate receptors mediate glioma cell migration and proliferation. The expression of the HA-receptors, CD44, and RHAMM, is virtually ubiquitous amongst glioma cell lines, and glioma tumor specimens., Expression in uterine smooth muscle tumors, cd44 dependent group A Streptococcus binding to keratinocytes induce cytoskeletal rearrangements, results suggest that CD44S and CD44v5 are differentially expressed in early and advanced ovarian serous carcinomas and support previous studies that suggest a role for CD44 and stromal hyaluronic acid in the dissemination of ovarian epithelial cancer, sCD44 levels could be a useful prognostic marker for aggressive lymphoma, Three SIBLINGs (small integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoproteins) enhance factor H's cofactor activity enabling MCP-like cellular evasion of complement-mediated attack., wide prevalence of CD44 cleavage suggests that it plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human tumors, variant isoforms involved in plasma cell adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells and in the multiple myeloma disease process, In mice, CD44 plays a role in resolving the inflammatory response following lung injury by clearance of inflammatory hyaluronan fragments, clearance of apoptotic PMNs, and generation of active TGFbeta 1., A novel PKC-regulated mechanism controls CD44 ezrin association and directional cell motility., TNFalpha and IL-8 regulate the expression and function of CD44 variant proteins in human colon carcinoma cells., CD44 directs membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase to lamellipodia by associating with its hemopexin-like domain., CD44 interaction with the TGF-betaRI kinase promotes activation of multiple signaling pathways required for ankyrin-membrane interaction, tumor cell migration, and oncogenic events during HA and TGF-beta-mediated metastatic breast tumor progression, CD44 has a functional role in inflammatory processes and tumor susceptibility, a signal transduction cascade or cross-talk emanating from CD44 to c-Met, Initial steps of Shigella binding and cell entry depend on the cholesterol/sphingolipid raft-mediated CD44-IpaB interaction., Data suggest that intramembranous processing of CD44 occurs by a presenilin-1-dependent gamma-secretase activity at two distinct sites., CD44 spontaneously released from normal bronchial epithelial cells can accumulate as an integral component of the matrix, where it may play a role in the organization of matrices and in anchoring growth factors and chemokines to the matrix, Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction inhibits migration of osteoclast-like cells by down-regulating MMP-9., Engagement of CD44 either by its natural ligand hyaluronan or a specific antibody on a cell line induced tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of focal adhesion kinase., reduction in the expression of CD44 may confer growth advantage and malignant properties to tumour cells, Autocrine/paracrine prostaglandin E2 production by non-small cell lung cancer cells regulates antigen in cox-2-dependent invasion, exon v10-encoded B[X(7)]B motif is solely responsible for the enhanced adhesive activity of exon v10-containing CD44 isoforms, results show that genes such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1alpha, and beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) were specifically up-regulated by CD44 ligation, suggesting a novel role for CD44 in immunoregulation and inflammation, CD44 induction in THP-1 monocytic cells is the result of the distinct involvement of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling and may require JNK-dependent activation of Egr-1., Butyrate significantly inhibited transcription of the CD44 gene and abolished epidermal growth factor-mediated up-regulation of the reporter gene luciferase subcloned upstream to the CD44 promoter (-1.1 kb) and transfected to HM7 cells, studied CD44v6 expression in intraductal papilloma, and its malignant transformation, intraductal breast carcinoma, Increase of CD44s, MMP-9, and Ki-67 were involved in the growth and local invasion of osteosarcoma., Antagonistic signaling pathways regulate alternative splicing in T cells., Crystal retention in human kidney may depend on expression of CD44 antigen-, osteopontin-, and hyaluronic acid-rich cell coats by damaged distal tubular epithelium., CD44 silencing is controlled in part by a complex and tumor cell-specific process involving hypermethylation of the CD44 gene promoter and exon 1 regions., regulation of interaction with hyaluronan by E-cadherin and role in mediating tumor invasion and branching morphogenesis, CD44 interaction with the alpha 1(IV)1263-1277 region from basement membrane collagen is modulated by ligand glycosylation, Our present findings suggest important implications for understanding CD44-dependent signal transduction and a potential role of PS/gamma-secretase activity in the functional regulation of adhesion molecules., expressed by cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage in vitro and by oligodendrogliomas in vivo; could play a role in migration of tumor cells in oligodendrocytic tumors, Crosslinking of CD44 on osteoblastic cells with specific antibodies augmented the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, role of CD44 variant isoform v10 in adhesion of lymphocytes to melanoma cells, Review. CD44 and ezrin and their respective complex have properties suggesting that they may be important in the process of tumour-endothelium interactions, cell migrations, cell adhesion, tumour progression and metastasis., Data demonstrate that blockade of the ERK pathway suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 3, 9, and 14, and CD44, and markedly inhibited the invasiveness of tumor cells., that Src contributes in part to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cell invasion by increasing CD44 levels., CD44 interaction with p115RhoGEF and ROK plays a pivotal role in promoting Gab-1 phosphorylation leading to Gab-1.PI 3-kinase membrane localization, AKT signaling, and cytokine (M-CSF) production during HA-mediated breast cancer progression, The presence of Abeta 1-40 fragment, alone or in combination with IL1beta, induced an increase in the percentage of cells expressing CD44, Higher relative expression of SR55 protein was associated with an altered pattern of CD44 variants incorporating exon v7 as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot analysis., hydrolysis by hyaluronan oligosaccharides, Expressions of CD44s and CD44v6 play an important role in tumor progression., CD44 alternative v9 exon contains a splicing enhancer responsive to the SR proteins 9G8, ASF/SF2, and SRp20, CD44v5 expression is independently positively correlated with the agressiveness of thymic epithelial tumors., Post-translational modification of CD44s represents the principal regulatory mechanism of CD44s-mediated functions in melanoma., CD44 expression correlates with T stage in renal cell carcinoma, although this correlation does not reach statistical significance; no association of CD44 expression with survival is found in renal cell carcinoma patients who underwent nephrectomy., The expression of CD44 standard in 30 oligodendrogliomas was studied in order to verify its possible prognostic role. CD44H could have prognostic value regarding the occurrence of relapses., CD44 is important for bronchial epithelial cell binding to hyaluronic acid and that cytokines known to be expressed in inflammation can increase binding independently of the level of CD44 expression., We conclude that the cell adhesion molecule CD44 is expressed infrequently in papillary serous endometrial carcinoma., analysis of the hyaluronan recognition mode of CD44, CD44v6 expression and cell adhesion in HepG2 cells depends on osteopontin, CD44-hyaluronic acid interactions may contribute to lymphocytotropism to skin in acute GVHD., CD44 v6 has a role in metastatic potential of carcinoma cells increasing the migration capacity and participating in invasion via changes in adhesion to the extracellular ligands, but is not necessary to modify the clinical history of the metastases, CD44v6 is upregulated in transformated colon cancer cells, high CD44 expression is associated with mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer, cleavage of CD44 catalyzed by ADAM10 is augmented by the intracellular signaling elicited by engagement of CD44, through Rac1-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangement, and suggest that CD44 cleavage contributes to the migration and invasion of tumor cells, RhoA induced clustering of MMP-9 was observed in advancing lamellipodia at the forefront of endothelial cells, where this proteinase colocalized with RhoA and CD44, Detection of PCNA and CD44mRNA expression in colorectal cancer may be useful for evaluating liver metastasis of cancer cells., CD44 variant isoforms on 55 transitional cell carcinoma tissue specimens were examined and expression of CD44v5 was inversely related to tumor grade, dermatan sulfate-CD44H proteoglycan is essential for fibroblast migration into fibrin clots and that platelet-derived growth factor, the stimulus for migration, induces the production of chondroitin-sulfate- and dermatan-sulfate-glycanated CD44H., CD44 expression in renal allografts correlates with renal function., NMR analysis of the hyaluronan-binding domain of CD44, Maximal CD44 expression on isolated monocytes is decreased in patients with a poor collateralization compared with patients with a good collateralization., Heparanase, CD44v6 and nm23 may play important roles in the invasive infiltration and lymph node metastasis in gastric carcinomas, CD44 was mainly expressed by the endothelial cells of high endothelial venules, fibroblasts in stromal compartments and large mononuclear cells.Its expression suggest that it participates in trafficking of leukocytes,especially lymphocytes to the omentum., The ability of TSG-6 to modulate the interaction of hyaluronan with CD44 has important implications for CD44-mediated cell activity at sites of inflammation, where TSG-6 is expressed., Data suggest that hyaluronan-CD44 interaction with Rac1-protein kinase N gamma plays a pivotal role in phospholipase C gamma1-regulated calcium signaling and cortactin-cytoskeleton function required for keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion and differentiation., CD44 expression in primary lesions is related to higher frequency of extrahepatic metastasis. This may be clinicopathologically useful parameter in predicting occurrence of distant metastasis., alpha2beta1 integrin and CD44/CSPG receptor binding on human melanoma cell activation has been evaluated herein using triple-helical peptide ligands incorporating collagen peptides., role in tumor induced angiogenesis, Recombinant CD44-hyaluronic acid binding domain represents a novel class of angiogenesis inhibitors based on a cell-surface receptor., CD44 variants have roles in a feedback loop in endothelial cells in human atheroma and abdominal aortic aneurysm, Osteopontin protein-binding activity was inhibited by the CD44 blocking antibody., Cd44 expression identifies astrocyte-restricted precursor cells., The conserved binding ability of the Hemopexin domains suggests that CD44 may act as a core molecule assembling multiple Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinases on the cell surface., modulating role of CD44 in osteoclast formation appears to depend on the microenvironment, CD44 variant 4 may influence the progression of colorectal cancer., CD44v10 takes part in local cancer progression. (CD44v10), High CD44 expression is associated with colorectal carcinomas, statistical relationship found between HPV16 infection and the expression of CD44v6 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, CD44-mediated hyaluronan binding in myeloid cells is regulated by phosphorylated ERM and the actin cytoskeleton., Engagement of CD44 mediates deactivation of human monocytes in the presence of tumor cells, an effect apparently involved in IL-1 receptor associated kinase-M (IRAK-M) up-regulation., data obtained with human arterial smooth muscle cells in vitro support a role of CD44 in the smooth muscle cell response to the metabolic and hormonal disorders of diabetes, We conclude that CD44v6 expression correlates with a higher proliferative activity and with a stem cell-like phenotype in both cell lines and with cellular atypia in HT1197 cells., CD44 and membranous E-cadherin expression were correlated with the depth of primary tumour invasion., CD44v6 expression is associated with deep stromal invasion in cervical carcinoma, CD44 expression may be a favorable prognostic factor in patients with node-negative invasive breast carcinoma., TNF-alpha-induced CD44 expression was regulated by AP-1 through the activation of the CaMK-II pathway, whereas LPS-induced CD44 transcription was regulated specifically by Egr-1 through JNK activation., after the 10-year follow-up, expression of CD44v7-v8 was associated with poor prognosis for breast cancer patients, measurement of CD44v6 expression in peripheral blood by RT-PCR is not suitable for detection of circulating tumor cells., CD44 and CD49d are putative activity markers and CD44 a potential novel therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis., Serine 180 is the site for chondroitin sulfate addition in CD44H and that this negatively regulates hyaluronan binding., Function of tumor-derived soluble CD44, like the transmembrane form of the receptor, can be regulated., Patients who later developed renal allograft rejection had statistically significantly increased soluble CD44 levels, but not soluble ICAM-1, IL-2R or CRP in plasma prior to transplantation., CD44 is part of the putative cell surface vitamin D binding protein binding site complex and functions to mediate the chemotactic cofactor effect., CD44 ligation by MAb induces activation of both initiator caspase-8 and -9 and effector caspase-3 and -7; but only inhibition of caspase-3/7 and caspase-8 reduces CD44 ligation-induced apoptosis, human cervical CD44 mRNA expression is induced by interleukin-1beta so hyaluronic acid in the cervical tissue is increased because of the expression of CD44, The cleavage of the ectodomains of L1 and CD44 is initiated in an endosomal compartment that is subsequently released in the form of exosomes., Directional migration of breast cancer cells towards hyaluronan is dependent on CD44, There was a significant positive correlation between the expression of CD44v6 and MMP-9 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma., results suggest an established Wnt signaling pathway in most gastric cancers, a close correlation of beta-catenin/TCF4-mediated signaling with tumor dissemination, and the unlikelihood of a direct effect of activated Wnt signaling on CD44 expression, Taken together, engagement of CD44 (e.g., hyaluronan) and glycated albumin induced the differentiation of resting monocytes into foam macrophages through the induction of MSRs., variant isoforms of CD44 on LS174T colon carcinoma cells possess selectin binding activity, in contrast to the standard isoform of CD44 on hematopoietic-progenitor cells., SRm160, a splicing coactivator, regulates CD44 alternative splicing in a Ras-dependent manner., EGF induces ADAM10-mediated CD44 cleavage through Rac1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and thereby promotes tumour cell migration and invasion., These results are consistent with the concept that tumor cells generate hyaluronan oligosaccharides that bind to tumor cell CD44 through the expression of their own constitutive hyaluronidases., Data suggest that CD44 expression level is linked to the cell cycle in gastrointestinal tumor cells, which in turn leads to cell cycle dependent alterations of their adhesion behaviour to endothelium., CD44 was methylated in the prostatic tumor epithelium from four of the five patients but not in the tumor stroma., CD44v6 functions in the carcinogenesis process of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma., results suggest that CD44 splicing variants might play a role in the invasion of trophoblast into maternal tissue in early pregnancy, There is a cryptic splice site, in intron 6 of the human CD44 gene, used during mRNA processing., Increased CD44 antigen is associated with relapses in non-small cell lung cancers, We conclude that cell matrix factors act cooperatively with cytokines to induce the expression of the components of the NADPH-oxidase in monocytic progenitor cells., CD44 interaction with LARG and EGFR plays a pivotal role in Rho/Ras co-activation, PLC epsilon-Ca2+ signaling, and Raf/ERK up-regulation required for CaMKII-mediated cytoskeleton function and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma progression, expression of HCELL confers robust and predominant tumor cell binding to E- and L-selectin, An IL-6-CD44 feedback loop in macrophages may aggravate atherosclerosis development., CD44 ligation triggers a novel caspase-independent cell death pathway via calpain-dependent AIF release in erythroleukemia cells., functional experiments, tet-regulated induction of CD44s potentiated the migration and invasion of MCF7F cells through HA-supplemented Matrigel, CD44-hyaluronan (HA) interaction is involved inand leukocyte adhesion., Hyaluronidase and CD44 hyaluronan receptor are expressed in squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma, Results suggest that hyaluronan suppresses PDGF beta-receptor activation by recruiting a CD44-associated tyrosine phosphatase to the receptor., The expressions of CD44 and nm23-H1 in the metastatic lymph node tumor had no difference compared with that in primary tumor of supraglottic or hypopharyngeal cancer., Overexpression of CD44v6 is associated with early-onset gastric carcinomas, up-regulated CD44s expression in metastases is associated with a shorter disease-free survival of colorectal neoplasms, BCR-ABL-expressing leukemic stem cells depend to a greater extent on CD44 for homing and engraftment than do normal hematopoietic stem cells, CD44 is a key regulator of acute myeloid leukemic stem cells, The order-to-disorder transition of the carboxyl-terminal region by hyaluronan binding may be involved in CD44-mediated cell migration., N-WASP plays a pivotal role in regulating hyaluronan-mediated CD44-ErbB2 interaction, beta-catenin signaling, and actin cytoskeleton functions that are required for tumor-specific behaviors and ovarian cancer progression, CD44 variant isoform (CD44v) is a functional P-selectin ligand on colon carcinoma, providing a novel perspective on the enhanced metastatic potential associated with tumor CD44v overexpression and the role of selectins in metastasis., interaction between membrane-bound hyaluronan and the cell surface CD44 was involved in the up-regulation of FasL expression on T cells and subsequent activation-induced cell death, increased CD44, ezrin, radixin, and moesin phosphorylation represents a key molecular abnormality that guides T cell adhesion and migration in SLE patients., Chondrocytes with low chondrogenic capacity expressed higher levels of IGF-1, MMP-2, aggrecanase 2, while chondrocytes with high chondrogenic capacity expressed higher levels of CD44, CD151, and CD49c., OPN-CD44(V) interaction promotes ECM-derived survival signal mediated through integrin activation, which may play an important role in the pathogenic development and progression of gastric cancer., CD44 surface expression is an important event in the activation of MMP-9 and migration of prostate cancer cells., study describes disease-specific CD44 variant expressed on synovial fluid cells of rheumatoid arthritis patients, an effect of CD44 on tumor cell motility may depend in part on its ability to partner with additional proteins, such as cell surface Rhamm., Cell adhesion protein CD44 (especially CD44v6 isoform) expression was up-regulated in cervical carcinoma associated with humanpapillomavirus (HPV) infection, novel mechanism of apoptosis induction in Crohn disease mediated by CD44v7 ligation, In endometrium, l-selectin is found in greater abundance in interstitial space than in epithelium., Loss of CD44 expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors was associated with disease progression., CD44+ breast cancer cells are successful in overcoming an engraftment incompatibility that exists when injecting human cells into mouse adipose tissue, claudin-7-associated EpCAM is recruited into (tetraspanin-enriched membrane microdomains) and forms a complex with CO-029 and CD44v6 that facilitates metastasis formation, Two novel CD44 antigens of high incidence have been identified, TNM staging, preoperative CEA and CD44v6 were independent prognostic factors for rectal cancer patients with total mesorectal excision., CD44-induced cell migration is dependent on its complex formation with Lyn and its consequent regulation of AKT phosphorylation in colon cancer cells., Low expression of CD44s is related to tumour cell invasiveness and may be of clinical relevance as a prognostic factor., Data indicate a positive association of CD44 expression with the malignant activities of CNE-2L2 cells and suggest a possible therapeutic effect of direct introduction of siRNA to CD44 into tumors in some solid tumors with high expression of CD44 gene., SolCD44 is elevated in the majority of head and neck cancer, CD44+alpha2beta1+ cell population is enriched in tumor-initiatin prostate cancer cells, AML1-ETO and its splice variant AML1-ETO9a regulate the expression of the CD44 gene, linking the 8;21 translocation to the regulation of a cell adhesion molecule that is involved in the growth and maintenance of the acute myeloid leukemia blast/stem cells, CD44 may have an important role in the development of malignancy and in the determination of biological features of keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin., CD44 is an important regulator of HGF/c-Met-mediated in vitro and in vivo barrier enhancement, a process with essential involvement of Tiam1, Rac1, dynamin 2, and cortactin., Fuzheng Yiliu granules enhance the immune adhesion function of RBCs and reduce the number of CD44(+)-cells in esophageal carcinoma patients., Signals from the extracellular association CD44-ezrin-actin are an important modulator of Fas-mediated apoptosis., our findings provided additional evidence that the pathological stress, such as chronic inflammation, altered the expression of CD44 isoforms in oral epithelia and saliva of oral lichen planus patients, Pesence of many CD44 isoforms, which cannot be distinguished with commercially used antibodies, but may play a different role in pathogenesis and spread of neuroblastoma., CD44 targeting by antibody, passively injected into DBA/1 mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and NOD mice with type I diabetes or actively generated by CD44 cDNA vaccination of SJL/j mice with autoimmune encephalomyelitis[review], gene expression profiling study of contribution of GM-CSF and IL-8 to the CD44-induced differentiation of acute monoblastic leukemia, The concentration of the soluble form of CD44, a competitive inhibitor for CD44 and hyaluronic acid binding, is higher in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis than in the peritoneal fluid of patients without endometriosis., Multisite v3 splicing enhancer is functional irrespective of flanking intron length and spatial organization within v3., Results indicate that siRNA targeting a discrete sequence of human CD44 may provide a potential therapeutic option for colon cancer., These findings indicate that the secretion of soluble CD44 contributes to colon cancer growth in vitro, possibly as a decoy receptor., CD44v6-positive sorted lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells showed loss of heterozygosity at the TSC2 locus; binding of CD44v6 antibody resulted in loss of cell viability., Finding identify OPN and CD44v6 as predictive markers of recurrence or aggressiveness in laryngeal intraepithelial neoplasia, and overall, point out an important signalling complex in the evolution of laryngeal dysplasia., Expression defines phenotypic stages in B cell precursor develoment., higher levels found in the placentas of pre-eclamptic compared with normotensive women, cell migration involving CD44-mediated signaling through ERK1/2 is modulated by hyaluronan, Significance of CD44 expression in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and explanaion for results on the relationship between CD44 expression and the biological behaviour of urothelial cells., The CD44 gene is silenced in NB4 acute promyelocytic leukemia cells by DNA methylation of a CpG island & underacetylation of histone H3 at the promoter. Brahma protein & phosphorylated RNA Pol II interact with the promoter region of CD44., These are the first data to suggest a role for osteocytes and OPN in the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells to aid in fracture repair., Various adhesion proteins, including CD44, are involved in the contact of human hematopoietic progenitor cells and human mesenchymal stromal cells., staining for TCL1, CD38, and CD44 are useful ancillary tests to identify B-cell tumors, These findings establish that the HCELL glycoform of CD44 confers tropism to bone and unveil a readily translatable roadmap for programming cellular trafficking by chemical engineering of glycans on a distinct membrane glycoprotein., Hyaluronic acid synthase-1 expression regulates bladder cancer growth, invasion, and angiogenesis through CD44., We believe that CD44s-mediated adhesion of malignant cells to other cells or to the extracellular matrix is responsible for the invasive features of biliary tract neoplasms, its aggressive progression, and its resistance to treatment., study demonstrates decreased expression of CD44s accompanied by increased expression of CD44v6 and increased stromal hyaluronan in breast cancer, The apparent metastatic potential associated with CD44 overexpression on colon carcinoma cells and the critical roles of P-selectin and fibrin(ogen) in metastatic spread are reported., The expression of CD44-v6 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma had a close relation to tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis., Crucial participants in tumour invasion and metastases are matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase inhibitors and cellular adhesion molecules. They play roles in tumour invasion and metastasis in non-small-cell lung carcinomas., Here we show that epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heregulin induce CD44 shedding in JIMT-1, an ErbB2-overexpressing cell line resistant to trastuzumab, accompanied by internalization and intramembrane proteolysis of CD44 and enhanced cellular motility., E-cad, CD44v6 and PCNA play important roles in invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)., B-CLL cells attached to and bound proMMP-9 and active MMP-9, and this was inhibited by blocking the expression or function of alpha4beta1 or CD44., demonstrated, for the first time, that breast cancer cell CD44v4 is a major E-selectin ligand in facilitating tumor cell migration across endothelial monolayers, diminished or lack of CD44 may be an accompaniment of enhanced metastatic potential, CEA and CD44v cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin at elevated shear stresses., HSP72 was associated with CD44v6 precursor fragments in human colonic carcinoma cells. The interaction between HSP72 and CD44v6 in human colonic carcinoma cells may contribute to study the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of colonic carcinoma., No apparent correlation is observed between CD44v6 expression in gastric carcinoma and that of sCD44v6 in the blood., Immunohistochemical assessment of both Survivin and CD44v6 status in negative surgical margin may be a valuable approach for predicting recurrence and survival after curative surgery for laryngeal cancer., analysis of variant CD44 expression by human fibroblasts, Clinical significance of the positive correlation of elevated CD44 blood levels and lymph node metastases of breast cancers., HA binding to tumor cells promotes Nanog protein association with CD44 followed by Nanog activation and the expression of pluripotent stem cell regulators, and forms a complex with Stat-3 in the nucleus leading to Stat-3 and MDR1 activation, In vitro reconstructed normal human epidermis expresses differentiation-related proteoglycans (CD44, syndecan-1, desmosealin, and 7C1)., CD44 has a pivotal role in the trans-endothelial migration of NPCs across brain endothelial cells, the pathogenesis, development and prognosis of laryngeal carcinoma maybe closely related to the high expression of PD4 and CD44v6, CD44v9 proteins., CD44 and nm23-H1 proteins play an important coordinated regulation role in the carcinogenesis, development and metastasis of laryngeal carcinoma., In breast tissue, CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) tumor cells seem to be associated with lack of lymph node metastasis and a tendency toward an increase of the relapse-free survival of the patients., TIMP1 functions as a differentiating and survival factor of GC B cells by modulating CD44 and SHP1 in the late centrocyte/post-GC stage, regardless of EBV infection., Report expression of tenascin-c and CD44 receptors in cardiac myxomas., High molecular weight hyaluronan-CD44 signaling from the apical surface-membrane regulates orientation of mitotic spindle axis to align the parallel to the basal extracellular matrix., E-cadherine and CD44 immunoexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma as prognosis factors., analysis of CD44 and CD24 expression in breast tumors, Hyaluronic acid promotes CD44-EGFR interaction, which in turn activates PKC signaling, involving Akt, Rac1, Phox, and the production of ROS, FAK, and MMP-2, to enhance melanoma cell motility., Bladder cancer stem (initiating) cells might be among EMA(-) CD44v6(+) subset., CD44-positive neuroblastomas produced multicellular metastases predominantly located in the intra- and periarterial space of the lung., In the absence of p53 function, the resulting derepressed CD44 expression is essential for the growth and tumor-initiating ability of highly tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells., CD44 but not CD24 may be involved in the breast cancer pathway and is a target for oncolytic virotherapy, This study demonstrates an important role of the dynamic raft reorganization induced by CD44 clustering in eliciting the matrix-derived survival signal through the CD44-SRC-integrin beta1 axis ., Some cases of chronic pancreatitis and autoimmune pancreatitis expressed CD44 in centroacinar cells and ductal cells., Among the NHE7-binding proteins identified, CD44, a cell surface glycoprotein receptor for hyaluronate and other ligands, showed regulated interaction with NHE7., senescence of primary NHP cells expressing progenitor cell markers CD44, alpha2beta1, p63, hTERT, and CK5/CK18, involves loss of telomerase expression, up-regulation of p16, and activation of p53., analysis of how the the CD44 tail is released from the cytoskeleton for nuclear translocation by regulated intramembrane proteolysis, Results show that oxidative stress induces MUC5B up-regulation, which requires CD44 as well as EGFR and MAPK activation., Immuno-localization of CD44 and osteopontin in developing human kidney., The diagnostic efficacy of urinary CD44 and cytokeratin 20 (CK20) mRNA in comparison with voided urine cytology (VUC) for the detection of bladder cancer, was evaluated., Monocyte CD44 and CD44v3 expression are altered in arterial disease but are returned towards levels seen in control subjects by dietary fish oil supplementation., the utility of immunohistochemical staining for CD44 in distinguishing prostatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma from its mimickers, CD44s and CD44v6 levels in head and neck epithelia, and in lymphocytes, and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Data show that hepatic CD44 expressions were related to insulin resistance and steatosis, suggesting their local implication in the progression of liver injury., ADAM10 is the predominant protease involved in the constitutive shedding of endogenous CD44 from melanoma cells, These results indicate that CD44 is a robust marker and is of functional importance for colorectal CSC for cancer initiation., hyaluronan induces cell death in activated T cells via CD44, OPN combined with CD44 is a promising independent predictor of tumor recurrence and survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients., CD44-binding site is localized within the N-terminal portion of the fibrin beta chains, including amino acid residues (beta15-66), CD44 is highly expressed in gastric adenocarcinoma and is correlated with a poor prognosis in patients with the intestinal type of gastric adenocarcinoma., Expression of both OPN and CD44s in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with advanced tumor stage and contributes to prognosis information., Epithelial CD44 expression was strong in all groups, while CD44 was significantly enhanced in connective tissue cells from both diabetic+periodontitis groups., Analogous to EAE, in subjects with MS, we found increased expression of Opn in DCs and increased expression of the Opn receptors CD44, beta(3), and alpha(v) on T cells., These results support a role for MT1-MMP in cell retraction during CD44-mediated cell invasion., the heparan sulfate proteoglycan form of epithelial CD44v3 plays a critical role in facilitating PMN recruitment during inflammatory episodes via directly binding to CD11b/CD18., CD44s may play a role in the formation of renal vein or vena cava extention, Dermatan sulfate proteoglycan biglycan is a potential selectin L/CD44 ligand involved in tethering/rolling of peripheral blood CD16(-) NK cells on endometrial microvascular endothelial cells., high CD44 expression in nephroblastoma group of tumors may confirm their high malignant potential., CD44 may be a marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in kidney allograft recipients., The affinity of Merlin to CD44 was increased after phosphorylation at S518 in vestibular schwannoma., that CD44 expression does not correlate with matrix assembly in chondrocytes and that CD44 has a regulatory function in chondrocytes, not necessarily on differentiation, but probably on proliferation., CD44 expression on breast cancer cells is a major contributing factor to cell adhesion, migration and invasion., Interactions among hyaluronan, CD44, and emmprin contribute to regulation of monocarboxylate transporter in the cell membrane of breast cancer cells., Increased eutopic endometrial-peritoneal mesothelial cells adherence and CD44 splice variant expression may contribute to the histogenesis of endometriotic lesions., TGF-beta treatment promotes MDA-MB-435s cell migration, involving MT1-MMP-mediated CD44 cleavage., Variants within CD44 genes linked to an inherited haplotype in a family with coeliac disease, COX-2 expression has a more significant impact than CD44 expression on the survival of colorectal cancer patients., The data suggest that Ezrin, but not CD44 and Six1, could be a prognostic factor and a predictor of potential lung metastasis in osteosarcoma., Given that expression of CD44 is not an absolute requirement for the survival of cells harbouring CD44 gene amplification, CD44 is unlikely to be a driver of the 11p13 amplicon., CD44 overexpression may be an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for overall survival in advanced cancer, Reduction of distinct high-molecular CD44v3, v5 and v8 variants following butyrate-induced differentiation in colon cancer cells., the prevalence of CD44+ tumour cells as a subpopulation of breast cancer stem cells was of no clinicopathological significance, but was correlated with higher Bcl-2 expression, Loss of CD44 and gain of DKK1 expression characterizes progression from Barrett esophagus to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma., Gastric cancer-initiating cells were identified from a panel of human gastric cancer cell lines using cell surface marker CD44., Our results indicate a role for CD44 in modulation of susceptibility to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity., CD44v6 is required for InlB-induced c-Met activation in Listeria invasion., description of proteolytic cleavage of CD44, Our results identify differences between CD44v6-positive and CD44v6-negative breast carcinoma cells in vivo., Data show that in the nucleus, the acetylated STAT3 dimer is associated with CD44 and binds to the cyclin D1 promoter, leading to increased cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation., Serum sCD44v6 may be a valuable marker in monitoring treatment response in patients with oral and maxillofacial squamous cell carcinoma., The linked synonymous variant found in exon 9 of the CD44 gene might be increasing susceptibility to osteoporosis in this family by affecting the splicing mechanism., surface expression of CD44 and activation of MMP9 on the cell surface are interdependent., High CD44 expression is associated with gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer., The expression of CD44v6 protein in supraglottic cancer is significantly increased. Expression has a close relationship with pathologic differentiation and clinical stage and cervical lymph node metastasis., Report prognostic significance of the cancer stem cell markers CD133, CD44, and CD166 in colorectal cancer., Results indicate that HA binding to CD44 promotes PKCepsilon activation, increases the phosphorylation of the stem cell marker, Nanog, leads to microRNA-21 (miR-21) production and PDCD4 reduction., Cross-linking of CD44 by high-molecular-weight hyaluronan and potentially other intact extracellular matrix components promotes regulatory T cell persistence and function., endogenous IL-18 might facilitate stomach cancer cell immune escape by suppressing CD70 and increasing metastatic ability by upregulating CD44 and VEGF, PKC activation can up-regulate CD44 expression by phosphorylation in human erythrocytes., Adhesion of haematopoietic stem cells to liver compartments is integrin and CD44 dependent and modulated by CXCR3 and CXCR4., positive expression of both CD44v6 and MMP-7, and negative expression of nuclear Cdx2 may serve as powerful predictors of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer, Both high pressure CO2 and 5% dextrose solution can increase the expression of CD44 and ICAM-1 in endometrial cancer cells., Data suggest that the coreceptor function of CD44v6 for c-Met and VEGFR-2 is a promising target to block angiogenesis in pathologic conditions., These data report for the first time frequent expression of neoplasia-associated CD44v3,v8-10 variants in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas., High CD44 expression is associated with tumor progression of follicular lymphoma., CD44 may play a role in red cell turnover, and its linkage to 4.1R may be relevant to this process., Data show that tumor cells containing the stem cell-like CD44(+)/CD24(-) signature had a lower expression of the M-phase cell cycle genes than the CD44(-)/CD24(+) cells, and in the CD44(+)/CD24(-) cocultures, these genes were induced., Data show HUVEC-UKF-NB-4 interaction led to distinct reductions of CD44v4, CD44v5, and CD44v7 levels., a decrease in CDH1, CDH13, and TIMP3 expression levels with an increase in CD44 can be used as an indicator for invasion in both ER-positive and -negative breast tumors., This is the first report of a significant correlation between COX-2, CD44v6, and nm23H1 in ESCC., Overexpression of CD44 is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma., coexpression of any of the CD44v with the receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility (RHAMM, CD168) identifies a subgroup of DLBCL patients with a very poor prognosis, independent of the International Prognostic Index, Data demonstrate that the invasive, mesenchymal CD44posCD24neg phenotype is under dynamic control in breast cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo., CD44v6 was associated with pT stage, lymph node metastasis, an infiltrating tumour margin and adverse prognosis of colorectal cancer, but was not an independent prognostic factor, up-regulation of CD44 and ICAM-1 expression on the surface of T. gondii-infected human monocytic THP-1 cells and fresh isolated human monocyte was demonstrated., The loss of CD44s expression in cancer cells in the deepest invaded area is a good marker for predicting potential metastasis to lymph nodes and liver in T3 colorectal cancer, Data indicate that CD44v6 expression determines the morphology and aggressiveness of IPMNs and is involved in development and invasion of IPMNs., CD44s expression in TURP chips might be a valuable adjunct to better predict outcome in incidental prostate cancer prior to radical prostatectomy., Data show that TNF-alpha induces the formation of fibrotic foci by cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells through activation of transforming growth factor-TGF-beta signaling in a manner dependent on hyaluronan-CD44-moesin interaction., Our findings define genetic markers in 14-3-3tau and CD44 that might improve the treatment and prognosis of soft-tissue sarcomas., ata demonstrate that the overexpression of Twist in breast cells can promote the generation of a cancer stem cell phenotype characterized by the high expression of CD44, little or no expression of CD24, and increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 activity., CD44 antigen expression was higher in melanomas with known metastases than in those without metastases, we identified CD44, located on chromosome 11p13, as a novel translocation partner of IGH in 9 of 114 cases of gastric, nongastric extranodal, follicular, and nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Hyaluronan can serve as a signal integrator by facilitating TGF-beta1-mediated CD44-EGF-R-ERK interactions and ultimately fibroblast phenotype., Cd44 expression is increased in asthmatic bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) cells and is involved ,as is collagen, and CD51, in mast cell-BSM cell adhesion particularly under inflammatory conditions., The interaction between CD44 & LSECtin is dependent on protein-glycan recognition. CD44 is the 1st identified endogenous ligand of LSECtin, & similarly, LSECtin is a novel ligand of CD44., observed by AFM that hyaluronan formed honeycomb-like network structures, to which the recombinant protein of CD44 extracellular domain intensively adhered, The overexpression of CD44v6 is an independent prognostic marker for predicting survival in breast cancer., CD44 fragmentation, consistent with a signature pattern reported for sequential metalloproteinase/gamma-secretase cleavage of CD44, is a common metabolic feature of chondrocytes undergoing dedifferentiation in vitro and osteoarthritic chondrocytes, COX2 was correlated with clinical stage and tumor volume in early-stage squamous carcinoma of cervix, while there was no correlation with P53, CD44V6 and clinical factors., EGFR genome modulation in the CD44+/CD24-/low subpopulation of the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468 leads to different coexisting subclones, Study describes a model that stroma-derived HGF and hyaluronan influence androgen receptor and CD44 functions in the secretory epithelia during prostate carcinogenesis., CD44v17 regulates the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which increases the invasion ability of MCF-7 cells through the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway., TM domains of L-selectin and CD44 play a crucial role in cell adhesion under flow by targeting receptors to microvilli or the cell body, respectively., ALDH1, CD44, and cytokeratin have roles in breast cancer progression, Data suggest that sCD44 may be a good marker for prognosis and a marker for monitoring response to therapy., HGF-induced motility in primary human melanocytes depends on c-Met-CD44v6 interaction, We characterized PCBP1 as a negative regulator of CD44 variants splicing in HepG2 cells, The decrease of CD44v6 expression promoted recurrence and carcinogenesis of parotid pleomorphic adenoma, and the expression was decreased further in the process; expression differences of CD44v6 appeared before the recurrence, CD44 is a senescence-induced cell adhesion gene responsible for the enhanced monocyte recruitment to senescent endothelial cells., Absent CD44v6 expression is an independent adverse predictor of urothelial bladder cancer recurrence and overall survival, Lack of CD44 expression was associated with lymph node involvement, regardless of CD24 status, whereas the lack of both CD44 and CD24 was connected with high histologic grade and unfavorable prognosis which, notably, was the worse among all phenotypes, Silencing CD44 can inhibit K562/A02 cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and effectively reverse the multidrug resistance of K562/A02 cells., MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4 protein expression in breast, colon, lung, and ovary neoplasms, as well as CD147 and CD44, were analysed., Combined anticancer agents formestane and herceptin are active on a subpopulation of CD44high/CD24low breast cancer cells., Activated CD44-expressing fraction of Vgamma4 gammadelta T cells plays a critical role in melanoma antitumor responses., CD133+ CD44+ subgroups may be human small intestinal stem cells, Results suggest that CD44 polymorphism is associated with breast cancer development, and CD44 polymorphism analysis may be effectively used in the risk assessment, prediction, prevention, diagnosis and genetic epidemiological analysis of breast cancer., high molecular weight of HA suppressed the FN-f-activated p38 via ICAM-1 and the CD44 in RA chondrocytes, Neither CD44H nor ezrin immunoexpression could predict the prognosis for patients with osteosarcoma in our small sample., Kidney tranplantation CD44 expression correlates with long term kidney function and intertitial fibrosis and tubular trophy., Expression of CD44 in endometrium and fallopian tubes from infertile women., Prognostic impact of this and other cancer stem cell markers expression in colorectal cancer., The pattern of CD44 expression in Neurofibromatosis type 1 is interpreted as a reflection of the interaction of CD44+ tumor cells with extracellular matrix, hence facilitating infiltrative behavior, Transportin regulates nuclear import of CD44., multivalent nature of CD44-HA interactions and suggest a molecular basis for the distinct biological properties of different size fractions of hyaluronan., These results demonstrate that, in the cell lines that we used, CD44 receptors play no role in the activation of c-Met, neither during Listeria monocytogenes entry via the function of inlB, nor upon HGF activation., CD44 upregulation is associated with invasive cell populations of breast cancer., EGFR promoter hypermethylation does not seem to represent a rare event in colorectal cancer and may be present differently in different tumor sites., These results provide a direct evidence for the involvement of CD44 in the hyaluronan-dependent regulation of osteoclast activity., Elevated levels of soluble CD44s and IFN-gamma were associated with advanced B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia as reflected by increased values as disease stage progresses., CD44 was the only biological factor tested which significantly correlated with response to radiotherapy in early stage larynx cancer patients, both at the mRNA and protein levels., thio substitution at specific positions of the DNA phosphate backbone results in specific and high-affinity binding of thioaptamers to CD44, lack of expression of CD44 isoforms containing exon v6 in the surface and foveolar epithelia of normal stomach and, its de novo expression in premalignant, as well as in sporadic and hereditary malignant lesions of the stomach, CD44 is epigenetically regulated in lymphoma and undergoes de novo methylation in distinct lymphoma subtypes like Burkitt lymphoma, study reports the new machinery by which RHAMM/ERK interaction induces the proliferative activity of cementifying fibroma cells via a specific signaling pathway through the CD44-EGFR axis, CD44 is a partner for podoplanin. Expression of the CD44 standard isoform is coordinately up-regulated with that of podoplanin during progression to aggressive SCCs in a mouse skin model of carcinogenesis, and during epithelial-mesenchymal transition., CD44 is identified as an early cell surface marker of the Muller glia lineage in transgenic mice., Cyclopamine and a monoclonal antibody to ligate CD44 more than additively induced the differentiation of HL-60 cells., An epithelial-expressed CD44 variant 6 plays a role in neutrophil (PMN) clearance during inflammatory episodes through regulation of the terminal detachment of PMNs from the apical epithelial surface into the lumen of the intestine., An inverse correlation between the expression of miR-199a-3p and CD44 protein was noted in primary hepatocellular carcinoma specimens., V3 isoform of versican interferes with CD44 and the CD44-EGFR/ErbB2 interaction, altering the signaling pathways, such as ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, that regulate cell proliferation and migration, membrane lipid organization regulates CD44 shedding, Data demonstrated that ALDH and CD44 select a subpopulation of cells that are highly tumorigenic., Germline polymorphisms in CD44 is associated with gastric adenocarcinoma., Results demonstrated that stem cell-like properties are enriched in CD44-expressing subpopulations of some lung cancer cell lines., both versican and CD44 play an important role regulating the behavior of malignant melanoma cells, Membrane-Associated RING-CH proteins MARCH VIII and MARCH IV associate with Bap31 and target CD81 and CD44 to lysosomes, retinaldehyde-induced skin hyperplasia is a Cd44-dependent phenomenon, genetic association with systemic lupus erythematosus to a haplotype between PDHX and CD44 was established., Abnormally elevated levels of oral lichen planus may contribute to the abnormal infiltration and accumulation of activated T cells by up-regulating CD44., The high expression of PD4, CD44 and PCNA proteins may be closely related to the pathogenesis, development and prognosis of laryngeal carcinoma., Both endothelial cell E- and P-selectins are implicated in ischemia/reperfusion-induced stem cell recruitment to the infarct site where transgenic CD44 serves as the ligand that engages P- and E-selectin on the cerebral microvasculature., hMSCs coordinately integrate CD44 ligation and integrin activation, circumventing chemokine-mediated signaling, yielding a step 2-bypass pathway of the canonical multistep paradigm of cell migration., Expression patterns of CD44 isoforms display strong variations dependent on cell type, state of activation, and differentiation stage; this is particularly evident in hematological neoplasias. [REVIEW], Dysregulation of the ezrin/radixin/moesin-RAGE complex might be an important step in rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton during proinflammatory cytokine-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human alveolar epithelial cells., CD44s and CD44v6 are expressed in certain types of lung cancer; in adenocarcinoma CD44s and CD44v6 expression is significantly correlated with lymph node metastases and tumor size, Lewis y antigen strengthens CD44-mediated adhesion and spreading of ovarian cancer cells., Results indicate that the CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells are transit progenitors and have no association with the molecular subtypes and clinicopathological parameters in invasive ductal carcinomas., CD44 mRNA of magnetically separated CD45EpCAM+ cell fraction of peritoneal washes is a useful genetic marker for predicting high-risk individuals among gastric cancer patients with stage II and III., The recent scientific literature regarding the role of hyaluronan-mediated CD44 signaling in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, is reviewed., Osteopontin stimulates autophagy directly through integrin/CD44 and p38 MAPK-mediated pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells, Data suggest that CD44+ cells have the biological characteristics of tumor stem cell and may be assumed as one of the markers of NPC tumor stem cells., regulation of CD44 alternative splicing causally contributes to EMT and breast cancer progression, Data show that ablation of CD44 induced loss of xCT from the cell surface and suppressed tumor growth in a mouse model of gastric cancer., The possible influence of Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax protein on CD44 via an NF-kappaB pathway is reproted., CD44 negative neuroblastoma cells possess all the phenotypic and molecular features required for a cancer-initiating cell., HA facilitates TGF-beta1-dependent fibroblast proliferation through promoting interaction between CD44 and EGFR, which then promotes specific MAPK/ERK activation, inducing cellular proliferation., Differential use of chondroitin sulfate to regulate hyaluronan binding by receptor CD44 in Inflammatory and Interleukin 4-activated Macrophages., Data conclude that fusion of the SLC1A2 gene coding region to CD44 regulatory elements likely causes SLC1A2 transcriptional dysregulation, because tumors expressing high SLC1A2 levels also tended to be CD44-SLC1A2-positive., The invasive behavior of UC-associated carcinoma is more associated with CD44 cleavage than with basement membrane disruption or sialyl-Lewis-antigen alteration., HIV-1 p17 matrix protein interacts with heparan sulfate side chain of CD44v3, syndecan-2, and syndecan-4 proteoglycans expressed on human activated CD4+ T cells affecting tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 2 production., Met receptors induce Sam68-dependent cell migration by activation of alternate extracellular signal-regulated kinase family members, A unique epigenetic profile consisting of 17 hypomethylated and 9 hypermethylated genes was seen in HNSCC CSCs., Valvular interstitial cell up-regulate CD44, a receptor that binds versican., Hyaluronan homeostasis is deranged in asthma, with increased production by fibroblasts and decreased CD44 expression on alveolar macrophages., The concentration of CD44 in the peripheral blood of HNSCC patients was significantly higher compared to a healthy control group., Platelet-derived P-selectin plays a prominant role in hematogenous metastasis from colon carcinoma via CD44v binding on tumor cells., Platelet-derived P-selectin plays a prominant role in hematogenous metastasis from colon carcinoma via CD44v binding on tumor cells., Although MMP-2 positivity was observed in 2 malignant cases, CD44 positivity was not associated with malignancy criteria in solitary fibrous tumors, Reduced expression of CD44 could be an indicator of high invasiveness of tumor by increasing cervical lymph node metastasis., Data show that the IL-6/JAK2/Stat3 pathway was preferentially active in CD44+CD24- breast cancer cells compared with other tumor cell types, and inhibition of JAK2 decreased their number and blocked growth of xenografts., Elevated levels of CD44 is associated with T cell leukemia., components of the extracellular matrix may provide survival signals to CLL cells through engagement of CD44., CagA H. pylori infection is responsible for the tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin and its nuclear translocation, which upregulates beta-catenin target gene CD44 in gastric carcinoma, c-Met recruits ICAM-1 as a coreceptor to compensate for the loss of CD44 in Cd44 null mice., novel Nanog/Stat-3 signaling pathway-specific mechanism involved in miR-21 production is significant for the formation of future intervention strategies in the treatment of HA/CD44-activated HNSCC, Studies indicate that 48 biomarkers have been identified for ccRCC patients, only CD44, CA9, p53, Ki67 and PCNA have shown prognostic value, and IMP-3 and VEGF-R2 are predictors of survival of pRCC patients., We propose that nuclear CD44/acetylated-STAT3 performs an unexpected tumour-progressing function by enhancing cell outgrowth into structures where cells with properties of cancer stem cells can be generated from differentiated somatic cells., fibroblasts isolated from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis exhibited an invasive phenotype that was dependent on hyaluronan synthase 2 and CD44, Survivin is a novel target of CD44-promoted breast tumor invasion, This study has discovered a novel tumor initiating cells (TIC) surface marker, CD44, which can be utilized to enrich efficiently the TICs in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC)., HAS2-HYAL2/CD44 system may support spontaneous chemokinesis of human cancer cells through self-degradation of HMW-HA to produce LMW-HA by an autocrine mechanism., Data show that the alternative spliced protein isoform of CD44 (CD44st) was expressed in multidrug resistant MCF-7/Adr, Lovo/Adr, K562/Adr and HL-60/Adr cells., CD133 and CD44 proteins were highly co-expressed in colorectal cancer with early liver metastases, and may be a potential biomarker for the early liver metastases., Glycosaminoglycans and glucose prevent apoptosis in 4-methylumbelliferone-treated human aortic smooth muscle cells in a process mediated by Toll-like receptor 4, CD44, and PI3K but not by ERK1/2, Data show that Pic, a class 2 SPATE protein produced by Shigella flexneri 2a targets a broad range of human leukocyte glycoproteins including CD43, CD44, CD45, CD93, CD162 and the surface-attached chemokine fractalkine., the expression of CD24, CD44, and VEGF correlated significantly positively with increasing tumor grade in human breast tumor tissues, single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD44 exon 2 is associated with breast cancer., Expression patterns of the pancreatic cancer stem cell surface markers CD44, CD24 and ESA were diverse in different pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines and changed with their local microenvironment., Data indicate that high CD44s expression was a negative prognostic marker with significance in patients with resected NSCLC, particularly those with AC histology, and was independent of tumor stage., Hypoxia, as indicated by HFI-1alpha expression, might be related to the worse prognosis found in CD44+CD24-/low positive breast tumors., we review the structural biology of CD44 and of HCELL, and present current data on the function of these molecules in mediating organ-specific homing/metastasis of CTCs., CD44 and Musashi-1 are frequently expressed in both premalignant gastric lesions and invasive gastric cancer, whereas CD133 expression is restricted mainly to neoplastic tissues., this is the first study to show an association between circulating sCD44 levels and survival in HER2-positive breast cancer patients., High CD44 expression is associated with cholangiocarcinoma., These findings suggest that CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) breast cancer stem-like cells play an important role in the clinical behavior of triple-negative breast cancer., LMP1 induces the CD44(high) CD24(low) cancer stem cells/cancer progenitor cells-like phenotype as well as self-renewal abilities in LMP1-expressing epithelial cell lines., Data suggest that serum CD44, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 can potentially be prognostic in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL)., Although CD133(+) and CD133(+)/CD44(+) were detectable in human primary gastric cancers, they neither expressed stem-like properties nor exhibited tumor-initiating properties in xenograft transplantation experiments., LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 and CD44 all play an important role in lymphangiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, growth defects in mesenchymal stromal cells in myelodysplastic syndromes were significantly correlated with decreases in CD44 adhesion molecules and CD49e., CD44+/CD24(-or low) phenotypic radiation resistance of breast cancer cells is mediated through the enhanced activation of ATM signaling, Evidence was provided that chronic drug exposure generated drug-tolerant cells via epigenetic mechanisms involving molecules such as CD44 and KDM5A., results indicate that the down-regulation of CD44 enhanced radiosensitivity in PC-3, PC-3M-luc, and LNCaP CaP cells, the sensitizing enhancement ratio for these cell lines was 2.3, 1.3, and 1.5, respectively, We demonstrate that individual CD44 isoforms can be associated to different breast cancer subtypes and clinical markers, CD44 activation upregulates the anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein and is associated with acute monoblastic leukemia., study demonstrated that invasive micropapillary carcinoma represents a distinct entity of breast carcinoma with reduction of CD44 isoforms v5 and v9, compared to invasive ductal carcinomas, Studies indicate that PSGL-1, CD44, and ESL-1 on mature leukocytes are physiologic glycoprotein ligands for endothelial P-selectin and E-selectin., CD44 was indicated to be strongly related to cancer progression via an increase of cellular proliferative potential., Among CD44s and its variant isoforms,v5, v6, in this study, variant isoform v6 may serve as a marker in detecting high-risk leukoplakias., ycoengineering of HCELL, the human bone marrow homing receptor, CD44 upregulation is associated with invasion in esophageal cancers., CD44 retains hyaluronan in the keratinocyte pericellular matrix, a fact that has not been shown unambiguously before, and that hyaluronan abundance in the absence of CD44 can result in hyaluronan trapping in abnormal locations possibly interfering there with normal differentiation and epidermal barrier function, Our results show that CD133 and CD44 are universally expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and may represent a lineage rather than a cancer stem cell marker, CD44 has limited utility in identifying oral cancer stem cells, while CD117 and CD133 expression appears to be limited more in identifying mesenchymal stem cells., CD24 and CD44 expression can individually yield prognostic data in breast cancer, but importantly, when both markers are considered; the CD44(+)/CD24(-) phenotype had the best prognosis, while the CD44(-)/CD24(+) phenotype had the worst prognosis., In gastric carcinoma, The increasing of CD44 protein indicated that it may play an important role in the occurrence, development and metabasis of gastric cancer., Increased expression of CD44, CD166 and CD133 from normal mucosa samples to adenoma and carcinoma was linked to tumor progression in tumors of the ampulla of Vater., nestin and CD44 are significantly expressed in a subset of gastric adenocarcinoma, Knockdown of CD44 is an effective strategy for attacking the stemness of breast cancer stem cells., These results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the TLR3 and CD44 genes are associated with the persistence of the immune response to serogroup C meningococcal vaccines 1 to 6 years after vaccination., High CD44 is associated with tongue cancer., data suggest that vimentin provides a specific binding site for soluble CD44 on endothelial cells, Hyaluronic acid cannot affect the CD44 mRNA expression in osteoarthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes., Regarding the correlation of CD44/CD24 status with tumor characteristics, the tumors of group A were significantly associated with axillary lymph node metastasis compared with those of group B (p = 0.033)., Bioinformatic processing of large numbers of global gene expression analyses demonstrated elevated CD44 expression in head and neck cancer., It was found that elevated expression of fatty acid synthase is associated with advanced stages of colorectal cancer and liver metastasis. Targeted knockdown of fatty acid synthase abolished CD44 expression., The SCLC cell lines showed the lowest CD44 expression on the cell surface and lowest number of adhesive events., Together, these findings reveal a CD44-CREB signaling pathway that is needed to sustain cancer cell proliferation, potentially offering new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention in thyroid carcinoma., Data indicate that CD44R1 is an excellent molecular target for mAb therapy of cancer., Report disturbed interplay between hyaluronan and its binding protein CD44, and an obvious increase and displacement of MMP3/9 in skin of psoriatic arthritis patients., It was found that CD44 (a cell surface marker for cancer stem cells) interacts with pyruvate kinase M2 and thereby enhances the glycolytic phenotype of cancer cells that are either deficient in p53 or exposed to hypoxia., Demonstrate that the use of CD44v6 targeting antibody fragments improves radioimmunotargeting and possibly the management of head and neck malignancies., The results indicated that heparin/HS/CD44-v3-mediated signaling, in the absence of growth factor networks, enhances the direct repair of the damaged trophoblast layer through the migration of trophoblast cells., The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) correlated with CD24+CD44+ and CD133+ cells in pancreatic cancer., Analysis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissue microarrays showed that CD24 was significantly associated with late-stage pancreatic adenocarcinomas, and RPN2 was exclusively coexpressed with CD24 in a small population of CD24-positive cells., This investigation has enhanced understanding of cell invasion and confirmed CD44 to play a more significant role in this biological process than CD155., These data indicate important role of CD44 molecule in breast cancer (BC) pathology; TNF-a differentially modulates the expression of CD44 in BC cells, affecting their in vitro migration, P-cadherin is coexpressed with CD44 and CD49f and mediates stem cell properties in basal-like breast cancer., Data suggest that pulmonary metastasis is corrected with levels of Geminin, cleaved caspase-3, CD44, E-cadherin, epidermal growth factor receptor, and CD204 in cancer cells within permeated lymphatic vessels., Identification of function for CD44 intracytoplasmic domain (CD44-ICD), CD44 and activated T cell infiltration play an important role in the development of plexiform lesions particularly in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension., stretch-induced CD44v7 over joints, in concert with dysregulated osteopontin levels in the skin of dermatomyositis patients, increases local inflammatory cell recruitment and contributes to the pathogenesis and resistance of Gottron's papules., Suppression of HAS 2 expression resulted in CD44-dependent decreased tumor cell migration, decreased tumor cell growth, and increased cisplatin sensitivity, The enhancement of IP-10 production upon stimulation with TLR2 ligands in cells replicating hepatitis C virus induced CD44 expression., Gene expression signature of the transcription factor SNAI2 and the putative stem cell marker CD44 are strongly correlated and highly expressed in glioblastomas versus lower grade gliomas., CD44 is expressed in inflammatory cells in obese adipose tissue, and serum CD44 levels are positively correlated with insulin resistance and glycemic control, Non-sphere-forming Epcam+CD44- cells induced significantly more prostate tubular structures than Epcam+CD44+ sphere-forming cells., CD44v6 over-expression presents a positive correlation with hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic potential., findings suggest that CD44s plays a critical role in the TGF-beta-mediated mesenchymal phenotype and therefore represents a potential therapeutic target for HCC, CD44 downregulated E-cadherin expression, upregulated N-cadherin, alpha-actin, vimentin, fibronectin and MT1-MMP, and inhibited the formation of the membrane-associated E-cadherin-beta-catenin complex, which resulted in cell invasion and migration., The authors report statistically significant correlation between CD44s and CD44v6 expression and increasing grade and stage of transitional cell bladder carcinoma., amplification of ERBB4, C-MET and CD44 was significantly associated with certain clinicopathological characteristics, particularly tumor differentiation and cancer-related death and poor survival., the CD44+/CD24- phenotype in ovarian cancer cells demonstrate cancer stem cell-like properties of enhanced differentiation, invasion, and resistance to chemotherapy., Hyaluronan-induced CD44 signaling increases a diverse spectrum of protease activity to facilitate the invasion associated with Basal-like breast cancers cells, providing new insights into the molecular basis of CD44-promoted invasion., The 3' UTR of CD44 induces metastasis by regulating extracellular matrix functions., bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) physiologically lack expression of CD44, highlighting the natural phenotype of MSCs, In HCC patients, the expression of THAP11 mRNA significantly correlated with PCBP1 mRNA expression. Our results suggest a novel role of THAP11 in CD44 alternative splicing and hepatoma invasion, Alternative splicing of CD44 mRNA by ESRP1 enhances lung colonization of metastatic cancer cell., The CD44 gene expressions in the non-tumor tissues may predict hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence., LRP-1--CD44 is a new cell surface complex regulating tumor cell adhesion, CD44 expression levels correlated with the histopathological grade of gliomas, and monoclonal anti-CD44 antibody inhibited the migration of glioblastoma cells., Results show that the cellular receptors, FAK, CD44v6, c-Met and EGFR, are biomarkers of survival and tumour progression in colorectal cancer. Increased staining for each receptor was also followed by expression elevation of at least one other marker., Combination of CD29 and CD44 can be used as markers to enrich cancer stem cells in human squamous cell carcinoma with epithelial-mesenchymal transition., The data demonstrated that metastatic properties of cell populations from blood and liver metastasis, differently from primitive tumors, seem to be strictly related to the phenotype CD133 positive and CD44 positive., expression of hyaluronan (HA) and CD44 in 278 breast cancer cases, half of which were HER2-positive was studied; CD44 positivity in carcinoma cells was related to poor differentiation, postmenopausal status and triple negative breast carcinoma, CD44 mediated signaling may be implicated in Epstein-Barr virus infection associated with the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma., CD44v6 was not a predictive factor in endometrioid cancer, These findings suggest that CD44 rs13347C>T polymorphism may affect breast cancer development and prognosis by increasing CD44 expression., Cytoplasmic CD44 and absence of nuclear Oct3/4 suggest that the cells of cardiac sarcomas may represent 'daughter' stem cells that no longer have the capacity for tumour initiation, but have subsequently developed new lines of partial differentiation., OPN plays a significant role in the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma through interaction with the cell surface receptor CD44, High expression of CD44 is associated with colon cancer., Neither individual expression of CD24 or CD44, nor combined expression of CD44/CD24 was associated with recurrence of gastric carcinoma., Studies indicate that CD44 and CD133 as cancer stem cell markers in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas., Loss of CD44s immunolabelling in colorectal carcinoma is an independent favourable predictor of regional lymph node metastasis. On the other hand, CD44s loss has no significant association with disease recurrence or survival., Hyaluronan-CD44v3 interaction with Oct4-Sox2-Nanog promotes miR-302 expression leading to self-renewal, clonal formation, and cisplatin resistance in cancer stem cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma., +/CD24- breast cancer stem cells have substantial pro-angiogenic potential and activi, the interaction of hyaluronan in vitreous and CD44 modulates transgene expression by initiating CD44 proteolysis and release of the cytoplasmic domain, resulting in increased transgene transcription., Both CD44 and CD147 enhance metastatic capacity and chemoresistance of CaP cells, potentially mediated by activation of the PI3K and MAPK pathways., A3D8 induces apoptosis in leukemia cells through caspase-8 activation by binding to CD44s protein., samples represent a tumor-initiating cells (TICs) subset which may be either M- or S-type, and which is separate from the CD44(high)/Oct-4A(high) subset observed only in M-type samples., study identified a new function of hyaluronan (HA)in induction of MT1-MMP expression in breast cancer cell lines and CD44 cleavage to increase cell migration during invasion process; HA oligosaccharide-induced MT1-MMP expression in breast cancer cells may be a critical step in the formation of metastatic colonies, LGR5 and CD44 expression may be coordinately associated with tumor relapse in locally advanced rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT)., it is likely that active MMP-9 and ADAM10 help regulate the cellular levels of CD44v6 through cleavage of CD44v6 ectodomain during tunicamycin-induced apoptosis of Caki-2 cells., The increased expression of CD44v6 and Livin in gastric cancer tissue may be closely related with development and progression of gastric cancer., biophysical parameters and molecular constituents of CD44 binding to hyaluronan and fibrin(ogen), CD44 signaling regulates phosphorylation of RUNX2. Localization of RUNX2 in the nucleus requires phosphorylation of Smad-5 by integrin alphavbeta3 signaling., Ezrin, E-cadherin and CD44V6 play an important role in the regulation of growth and meastasis of lung cancer., The lack of membranous CD44v6 in the rectal cancer invasive front could be used as a method to identify patients at increased risk for recurrent disease., CD44 levels and patterns of expression can be considered as markers for penile squamous cell carcinoma aggressiveness., Data suggest that the transition from CD44(-/low) to CD44(high) state helps to maintain a CD44(high) fraction and the tumorigenic diversity in colon cancer., our results support the strong clinical relevance of the CD44+/CD24- subclass of breast cancer cells., Lipid rafts regulate interactions between CD44 and its binding partner ezrin in migrating breast cancer cells., Data suggest that CD44 may present an important determinant of breast cancer progression in the setting of endocrine resistance., A CD44high/EGFRlow subpopulation within head and neck cancer cell lines shows an epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype and resistance to treatment., Data indicate that PDGF enhances the adhesion of CD44v-coated beads to immobilized fibrin(ogen)., Data indicate that resistance to UVB induced apoptosis in the alpha6 integrin(high+)/CD44(+) cells involved increased expression of TAp63 and was overcome by PI-3 kinase inhibition., Neither CD44H nor CD44v6 scores correlated with the osteopontin expression score or Ki-67 index. Osteopontin immunoexpression was highest in PCNSL, suggesting its probable role in its pathogenesis., High CD44v6/v7 expression is associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia., Medullary and metaplastic carcinomas are the two types highly associated with high-grade breast carcinomas, basal-like and claudin-low molecular subtypes, and to the breast cancer stem cell phenotype CD44(+)/CD24(-/low)/ALDH1(+)., The effects of high and low molecular weight hyaluronan on CD44 clustering, were investigated., Studies indicate that dual CD44+CD117+ cells were markedly more tumorigenic than their negative counterparts., CD44 is expressed in intraoral salivary ductal papillomas and oral papillary squamous cell carcinoma., Particular CD44 variant isoforms seem to act as "metastasis genes" via tumour microenvironment-driven shifts in v3 and v6 expressions., Apoptotic microparticles bound to and inhibited dendritic cells through the hyaluronate receptor CD44., increased CD44 expression was associated with even worse survival in patients with chemoresistance and with lung metastases., PAR2-AP or FVIIa elicited time-dependent downregulation of caspase-3, and up-regulation of MMP-9 and CD44 in SW620 cells., High frequency of ovarian cancer stem cells (CD44+ and CK19+) in epithelial ovarian tumors correlates with short progression-free intervals., Report immunohistochemical CD44 expression in hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the prostate gland., Moesin is a glioma progression marker that induces proliferation and Wnt/beta-catenin pathway activation via interaction with CD44., Trans-acting factor binding sites and nuclear factors AP-1 and NFkappaB that are involved in the regulation of cell-specific CD44 expression, are reported., High CD44 expression is asscoiated with agressive recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma., These results suggest that the OPN-CD44 interaction is important for colorectal cancer progression and could serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of colorectal cancer., levels of CD133, CD44, and ALDH1 had independent prognostic value to predict the recurrence of lung adenocarcinoma, The expression of CD27 together with CD44 showed a relationship with several established risk factors as well as response to therapy, indicating the biological significance of these molecules in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, CD44 therapy in HNSCC may target the CSC population and alter EGFR signaling, CD44 in articular cartilage is associated with progressive knee osteoarthritis joint damage., Through the inhibition of CD44 expression levels, miR-34a plays a significant role in the migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells., The present study identifies STAT3 as an important signaling molecule interacting with CD44 and demonstrates the essential role of CD44-STAT3 signaling in breast cancer invasion., Cancer stem cells, in which defense against reactive oxygen species is enhanced by CD44v, are thought to drive tumor growth, chemoresistance and metastasis. [Review], a possible role of CD44 in tumour progression, Expression of OPN, CD44v6 and MMP-9 are positively related and involved in the invasion and metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma., The knockdown of CD44v6 decreased vimentin expression, cell invasion and HGF-induced cell migration, but conferred only a slight effect on E-cadherin expression in colon cancer cells, Analysis of CD44/CD24 immunoexpression could give prognostic information associated to clinicopathologic features in salivary glands malignant neoplasms., No compensation in CD44 stem cell marker occurs following BCL-2 suppression by antisense oligonucleotides., SPHK1 contributes toward the regulation of CD44 protein expression through the ERK signaling pathway in human colon cancer cells., Simultaneous overexpression of CD44 and c-erb-B2 may be used as a marker of poor prognosis in gastric carcinoma., Data indicate that low mRNA expression levels of CD44 and orthopedia homeobox (OTP) and high levels of RET, were strongly associated with a low 20-year survival of carcinoid patients., Report prognostic value of CD44 overexpression in neuroblastic tumors., Our results indicate that signaling triggered by HA-CD44 interaction significantly contributes to HA-induced chondrogenesis and may be applied to adipose-derived stem cell-based cartilage regeneration., FKBPL and and its peptide derivative, AD-01 regulate expression of CD44., Case Report, MMP9 knockdown increases expression of CD44v6 in PC3 cells., CD44 expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is mediated by the tumor microenvironment. As a coreceptor, CD44 promotes leukemogenesis by regulating stimuli of MCL1 expression., CD44v6 may be a biomarker of arsenic-induced neoplastic transformation in human skin cells, This study demonstrates that the cluster of differentiation genes CD24 and CD44 are differentially expressed across LGR5 positive "active" stem cells as well as HOPX positive "facultative" stem cells., 94 of 100 in, HAS2-dependent production of HA facilitates TGF-beta1-dependent fibroblast differentiation through promoting CD44 interaction with EGFR held within membrane-bound lipid rafts., an in vivo signaling pathway, ERK --> CD44 --> STAT3, that regulates normal and atrophy-induced gastric stem/progenitor-cell proliferation., Real-time RT-PCR assays detected increased expression of CD44, but not CD24, in saliv-ary gland pleomorphic adenoma specimens in comparison with normal salivary gland controls., Report CD44/macrophage mannose receptor as a ligand/receptor pair involved in the process of lymphocyte transit via the lymphatic vasculature., Found that high expression of CD44 and CD133 were closely associated with malignant phenotypic features and/or poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients., Involvement of CD44-expressing cancer stem cells in the development of bone metastases through interaction with hyaluronan., High CD44 expression is associated with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma., CD10 might be involved in the development of endometriosis due to its influence on CD44-dependent cell adhesion., CD44 standard form expression is correlated with high-grade and advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma but not prognosis., Hepatic stellate cell-induced development of CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) myeloid-derived suppressor cells was not mediated by soluble factors, but required physical interaction and was abrogated by blocking CD44, RBM3 greatly attenuates the stem cell-like properties of prostate cancer cells by inhibiting alternative splicing of exon v8-v10 of CD44., CD44(+) /CD24(+) /EpCAM(+) expression was not correlated with patient outcome., CD44/cellular prion protein interaction is associated with multidrug resistance in breast cancer., Up-regulation of both MMP-2 and CD44v6 is significantly correlated with the development of lateral cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma., DNA from 4 HPV positive and 4 HPV negative fresh frozen primary HNSCC were subject to comprehensive genome-wide methylation profiling.Pathway analysis of 1168 methylated genes showed 8 signal transduction pathways (Cd44)of which 62% are hypermethylated., Data suggest that detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) based on marker expression during breast conserving surgery should be possible with a panel of molecular imaging tracers targeting CD44v6, GLUT1, HER2, IGF1-R, and EGFR., TFAP2C repressed CD44 expression in basal-derived breast cancer., findings suggest that CD44+SSEA-4+ cells exhibit the characteristics of CSCs in oral squamous cell carcinoma and provide a target for the development of more effective therapie, CD44 variant 9 expression represents a potential predictive marker for recurrence in endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastric cancer., CD44 is a valid undifferentiated malignant squamous cell marker., CD44 variant exon 9 plays an important role in colon cancer stem cells., results indicate that CD44 plays a role in the EMT phenotype of CSCs in NPC, and suggest its involvement in EMT-associated ROS production., CD44/CD24 as potential prognostic markers in node-positive invasive ductal breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy., In hypopharyngeal carcinoma, CD44+ cells have higher tumorigenic potential than CD44- cells., Development of CD44v9+ gastric cancer in humans was significantly associated with the presence of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia in the region adjacent to the tumor., CD44 increases phorbol ester-induced expression of p21WAF1 by stabilizing its mRNA and extending protein half-life, CD44 rs13347C>T polymorphism may affect nasopharyngeal carcinoma development by improving CD44 expression., release of the CD44 intracellular domain into the cytoplasm of cells such as chondrocytes exerts a competitive or dominant-negative effect on the function of full-length CD44., malignant breast cancer cells are heterogeneous in their expression of surface-associated CD147 and that high levels of membrane CD147 correlate with cell surface EGFR and CD44 levels, activated EGFR and ERK1, and activated invadopodia., Moesin expression and CD44 expression might be useful markers of poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma., Ezrin and CD44 co-expression was highly expressed in neoplastic stem cells and may be a potential biomarker for initiation, progression and differentiation of breast cancer tumors., The CD44 rs353639 genetic variants may have significant effect in breast cancer prognosis., The suppression of Notch-1 led to increased expression of Oct4 and Sox2, but in decreased gene expression of cMET, Setmar and CD44., CD44v6 and integrin-beta1 mRNA and protein expression in blood may serve as biomarkers for the development and metastasis of pancreatic cancer., Data indicate that TSG-6-mediated cross-linking of hyaluronan (HA) films is impaired in the presence of inter-alpha-inhibitor (IalphaI) and that this effect suppresses the TSG-6-mediated enhancement of HA binding to CD44-positive cells., CD44 expression in intestinal epithelium and colorectal cancer is independent of p53 status., CD44 receptor unfolding enhances binding by freeing basic amino acids to contact carbohydrate ligand, observed that the expression of COX-2, CD44v6, and CD147 were significantly associated with T classification, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage, colony forming efficiency of CD44(hi) cells, characteristic property of CSC, can be inhibited by mir-34a replacement in these samples, Findings suggest that rs13347C>T in 3'UTR of CD44 may be a genetic modifier for developing acute myeloid leukemia., a novel signaling axis, i.e., ROCK-JNK-ETS-1-CD44 pathway, which plays an essential role in the S1P3-regulated chemotactic response., Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction promotes growth of decidual stromal cells in human first-trimester pregnancy., Poor prognosis for serous ovarian cancer patients with CD44(+)/E-cadherin(-) and CD44(+)/budding(+) tumor cells phenotype, has been revealed, CXCL12-induced CXCR4 signaling depends on the binding of high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid to CD44., HAS1-dependent coat is induced by inflammatory agents and glycemic stress, mediated by altered presentation of either CD44 or hyaluronan, and can offer a rapid cellular response to injury and inflammation, the expression of CD44 and its variants was assessed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, We identified HAb18G/CD147 as a novel upstream activator of STAT3, which interacts with CD44s and plays a critical role in the development of pancreatic cancer., patients with HPV(DNA+) and absent/weak CD44 intensity OSCC presented the best survival and this marker combination could possibly be used for selecting patients for tailored deintensified treatment in prospective clinical trials., These results indicate that parasite-invaded leukocytes gain higher ability to adhere to hyaluronan than non-invaded leukocytes, via upregulation of CD44 expression and/or selective invasion to CD44 highly expressing cells., TNBC was significantly associated with PTEN loss, high Ki67 and the CD44+/CD24- phenotype. The loss of PTEN impacts DFS significantly in African Americans., the V6 exon and flanking introns of CD44 pre-mRNA contain SC35 response elements that regulate V6 splicing., This study reports an important role of CD44 haplotypes with reduced risk of gallbladder cancer, Soluble CD44 increases outflow resistance in vivo and in vitro., CD44 expression appears to be a significant prognostic marker in early stage patients and may be useful in determine long-term outcomes., CD44s symbolises the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype regulating anchorage-independent capacity., macrophages in the tumor microenvironment may cause increased CD44 expression through miR-328 suppression, resulting in tumor progression by enhancing ROS defense., c-Met and CD44v6 receptors have roles in autocrine TGF-beta1 signaling in interstitial lung disease, Rb suppresses collective invasion, circulation and metastasis of breast cancer cells in CD44-dependent manner., We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines., CD44 and CD24 cannot be considered potential markers for isolating lung CSCs in cell line A549, but further investigation using in vivo assays is required., A CD44 positive/CD24 negative/low profile correlates with more aggressive clinical-pathological features of breast cancer., CD44s is up-regulated in human pancreatic tumors and associated with patient survival time. CD44s is required for initiation, growth, metastasis, and postradiation recurrence of xenograft tumors in mice., ADAM17-mediated CD44 cleavage promotes orasphere formation or stemness and tumorigenesis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma., All hMSCs expressed high levels of HAS1-3, secrete large amounts of HA, and surround themselves with a thick HA coat bound to CD44., Meta-analysis/Review, CD44 expression is associated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis in pharyngolaryngeal cancer patients [review and meta-analysis], Report CD44 expression in renal cell carcinoma subtypes., CD44 regulates the metastasis of breast cancer cells through regulating NHE1 expression, which could be used as a novel strategy for breast cancer therapy., study found that ALDH1, CD44, OCT4 and SOX2 are overexpressed in tongue squamous cell carcinoma, we demonstrated via antibody blocking experiments that aV b5 and a6 significantly promoted hESC attachment in 2%oxygen only, whereas blockage of CD44 inhibited cell attachment in 21% O2 alone, CD44v6 expression, serum prostate-specific antigen level, and surgical margin status appeared to be independently associated with biochemical recurrence of prostate neoplasms on multivariate analysis, High expression of CD44 is associated with vascular invasion in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma., High CD44s and low CD44v6 expression may be an independent predictor of improved survival in malignant fibrous sarcomas patients, CD44v6 or ABCG2 positivity in NAC-treated patients was significantly associated with tumor local recurrence., The results support a novel mechanism whereby CD44 palmitoylation and consequent lipid raft affiliation inversely regulate breast cancer cell migration, and may act as a new therapeutic target in breast cancer metastasis., regulatory factor 1 directly regulates CD44 expression in glioblastoma, Data show that VCAM-1 (CD106) physically associates with CD44 antigen., CD44 dysregulated the activation of the Fra1 gene. The interaction of Fra-1 and CD44 may therefore be important in cervical carcinoma., HA/CD44-induced c-Jun signaling plays a pivotal role in miR-21 production leading to Bcl-2 upregulation and chemoresistance in triple negative breast cancer cells, The metastatic process in colorectal cancer is initiated by cancer stem cells through the expression of CD44v6, which is both a functional biomarker and therapeutic target., The CD44 ligand osteopontin shared a perivascular expression pattern with CD44 and promoted glioma stem cell-like phenotypes., Knock-down of CD44 resulted in an upregulation of mRNA expression of the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL12, as well as their receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4., CD44v8-10 marks human gastric cancer stem cells and contributes to tumor initiation., The study shows that autocrine fibroblast growth factor 18 signaling mediates Wnt-dependent stimulation of CD44-positive human colorectal adenoma cells., CD24/CD44/CD47 are differentially expressed in cells of urothelial BCa in patients undergoing RC and influence cancer-specific survival of patients, HIF-1alpha/PTEN/CD44v6/Survivin, as measured by immunohistochemistry, can be used to predict the prognosis and potential for invasion and metastasis in Asian patients with gastric cancer., High CD44 expression is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma., we find that CD44, which is involved in mesothelioma cells migration, was modulated by exemestane via cAMP and pCREB, Results indicate that among investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only CD44 rs13347 has an impact on the efficacy of HSCs mobilization in patients with hematologic malignancies., CD44 rs187115 polymorphism has potential predictive significance in oral carcinogenesis and also may be applied as factors to predict the clinical stage in OSCC patients, CD44v6+, CD44v9+ and CD44s- were associated with pancreatic carcinoma metastasis and progression and that CD44v6+/CD44s- was an independent risk factor affecting survival in pancreatic carcinoma., Interactions between CD44 expressing breast cancer cells and soluble factors present in the lung microenvironment may play an important role in determining organotropic metastatic behavior., In the present study, we verified that MCF-7 cells subjected to drug pressure develop multidrug resistance to doxorubicin, and the expression levels of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), CD44st and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) mRNA, CD44 v6 and E-cad expressions had a significant correlation in the NSCLC tissue with lymphatic metastasis., A high level of CD44 expression was found., Our results suggest that CD44v6 total RNA levels in urine can serve as a potential noninvasive biomarker of bladder cancer., This study suggests the possibility that EpCAM, together with CD44v6 and claudin-7 as well as ALDH1, may be involved in the development of the aggressive phenotype of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma., P6 is a novel sequence in PEX9 involved in cell-PEX9/(pro)MMP-9 binding by interacting with CD44., Results suggest that rituximab has significantly decreased the prognostic value of CD44H., Activation of c-Met and upregulation of CD44 expression are associated with the metastatic phenotype in the colorectal cancer liver metastasis model., During cancer progression there is a loss of expression of all CD44 variants, and higher expression of CD44v2 correlates with a better recurrence-free survival rate., High CD44/CD133 expression is an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma., the hyaluronan receptor CD44 interacts with both PDGFRbeta and TbetaRI., The goal of this study was to semiquantitatively detect presence of cancer stem cells markers CD44 and CD133 in immunohistochemically stained paired samples of colorectal cancer (CRC) and colorectal liver metastases., The combined use of CD44 and ALDH widens the window for identification and targeting of a drug-resistant population which may improve the current treatment modalities in mesothelioma., CD44 cytoplasmic tail cleaved by RIP could release DCAF1 from merlin by competing for binding to the merlin FERM domain, which results in the inhibition of merlin-mediated suppression of tumorigenesis., RHAMM may be implicated in severe ocular surface inflammation affecting the upper tarsal conjunctiva., Results suggest that overexpression of CD133, CD44v6 and TF is associated with pancreatic carcinoma metastasis., Results show that camptothecin resistance status of colorectal cancer cells depend on the phosphorylation of TOP1 and the presence of CD44., The In(a) frequency in this selected donor population was 1.3%., CD44 transduces hyaluronic acid-based stiffness cues, temporally precedes integrin-based adhesion maturation, and facilitates invasion., CD44 rs187115 might be involved in CD44 isoform expression of p53 stress response in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and provide a marker for predicting worst-case prognosis of HCC., These findings indicated that expression of CD44 drives iota toxin resistance through inhibition of endocytosis in breast cancer cells, a role not previously defined for CD44, High expression of CD44v3 is associated with the lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix., the polymorphisms rs4754, rs9138 and rs1126772 of OPN gene and rs353639 of CD44 gene were significantly associated with gastric cancer., Our data indicate that expression of both CD44s and pSTAT3 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with advanced tumor stage and patient survival, A mesenchymal profile and expression of CD44, linked to activation of the TGFB pathway, may predict lack of response to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma patients., study reports osteopontin-CD44 functional interaction as a hallmark of early stages of calcific aortic valve disease; osteopontin-CD44 interaction mediates calcium deposition via phospho-Akt in valve interstitial cells from patients with noncalcified aortic valve sclerosis, Studied the levels of soluble CD44 in cervical cancer patients by determining whether it consistently discriminates the carcinoma of the cervix from early or premalignant stage of the cervical cancer., Increased expression of CD44v3 may play a significant role in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric adenocarcinoma. High CD44v3 expression may be a predictor of poor prognosis., review of the roles of HAS2 and CD44 in breast tumorigenesis [review], CD44 integrates extracellular matrix cues with growth factor and cytokine signals [review], analysis of the role of the Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction which oncogenic signaling, microRNA functions, chemoresistance, and radiation resistance in cancer stem cells [review], CD166 affected-CD44 expression is dependent of transcription via blocking NF-kappaB pathway. On the contrary, CD44 promoted up-regulation of CD166 mRNA and protein., data are presented showing that CD44 could act through RhoA signaling to regulate YAP expression, Terminal sialic acids on CD44 N-glycans can block hyaluronan binding by forming competing intramolecular contacts with arginine sidechains., Our meta-analysis showed that CD44-V6 is an efficient prognostic factor for non-small cell lung cancer, Expression of TNF-alpha and CD44 is implicated in poor prognosis, cancer cell invasion, metastasis and resistance to the sunitinib treatment in clear cell renal cell carcinomas., The blockage of CD44 expression by siRNA resulted in the attenuation of IL-6 and chemokines expression in low molecular weight hyaluronan treated normal human dermal fibroblasts., An increased expression of CD44 in endometrial cancer suggests its possible role in pathogenesis of this disease, however, it doesn't seem to be crucial., the relative expression of hyalurosome (CD44, HAS3, HB-EGF) genes was found to be reduced in patients prior to topical treatment and to be notably increased following treatment., CD44/selectin binding signals increased intercellular adhesion molecule 1 up-regulation on the endothelial cells (ECs)surface through a PKCalpha-p38-SP-1 pathway, which further enhances melanoma cell adhesion to ECs during metastasis, immunoreactivity cytokeratin 5 and CD44 commonly immunostained Nested/microcystic urothelial carcinoma (US) and some invasive high grade UC, CD133, CD44, and CD90 could be used as prognostic and predictive markers in hepatoblastoma., CD44v6 is a potential melanoma brain metastasis-specific factor with theranostic utility for stratifying patients., CD44v6 high expression as a poor prognostic factor for non-small cell lung cancer, and CD44v6 expression is associated with lymph node metastasis and histopathologic type., These findings provide not only new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying CD44 regulation but also potential therapeutic targets that may help eliminate chemo- and radiation-resistant cancer cells., Gastric cancer patients with positive CD44 expression had a worse prognosis than ones with negative CD44 expression., findings suggest that CD44 rs13347C>T and rs115214213T>C polymorphisms may affect naso-pharyngeal carcinoma development by improving CD44 expression, ZER suppressed EGF-induced CD44 expression through inhibition of the STAT3 pathway. Therefore, we suggested that ZER may act as a promising therapeutic drug for the treatment of breast cancer., Manipulating GAPLINC expression altered CD44 mRNA abundance., upregulated in choriodecidua following labor, CD44 physically associates with LRP6 upon Wnt treatment and modulates LRP6 membrane localization., transcriptional regulation of the HAS and HAS2-antisense RNA 1 genes, was analyzed., CD44 could be a valuable tool for the study of lung CSCs and provide a novel therapeutic target for treatment of the patients with lung cancer in combination with conventional therapy., Expression of CD44 as a functional E-selectin ligand may be important in breast cancer metastasis., There is no change in soluble leucocyte selectin concentrations in whole blood after 48 hours of storage at 4 degrees C., Case Report, Increased expression of endogenous mature miR-199a might prevent the growth and migration of human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma via decreasing the expression of CD44 and regulating the interaction between CD44 and Ezrin., Blocking PI3K/Akt pathway maybe necessary for anti-CD44 treatment on AML., CD44 variant isoform (CD44v) but not CD44s regulates endothelial junction loss, promoting melanoma extravasation, define a role for TG2 activity at the surface of human macrophages in multiple stages of AC clearance and we propose that TG2, in association with heparan sulphates, may exert its effect on AC clearance via a mechanism involving the crosslinking of CD44, Studied effects of CD44 silencing on alterations in energy metabolism and sulfur-containing metabolites in vitro and in vivo using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry and quantitative imaging mass spectrometry (Q-IMS), respectively., The role of SMURF1 and inhibition of BMP signaling in maintaining a CSC-like population was confirmed by the loss of a CD44(high) expressing., miR-328 downregulation and de novo expression of CD44v9 occurred in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa adjacent to gastric cancer compared with gastric mucosa not infected with H. pylori adjacent to gastric cancer, Upregulated expression of CD44v9 might contribute to the intractable nature of pancreatic cancer., Data indicate that CD44 antigen CD44+ stem-like cells are responsible for mesenchymal transition and metastasis., CD44 targeted HA-PEI/HA-PEG nanoparticle platform may be a clinicaly relevant gene delivery system for systemic MDR1 siRNA based anticancer therapies., CD44 expression in circulating colorectal cancer stem cells correlates with survival., study defines a major metastasis and angiogenesis suppressive role for mir-34a, a microRNA functions as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer by directly targeting CD44, which would be helpful as a therapeutic approach to block bladder cancer metastasis, This study sets the stage for CD44 and MT1-MMP as therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer, for which small molecule or biologic inhibitors are available., CD44s and CD44v6 appear to play opposing roles in the development of breast cancer., High CD44-SLC1A2 fusion transcripts are associated with primary colorectal cancer., Increased expression of CD44 is associated with myelodysplastic erythropoiesis., Reversibly crosslinked hyaluronic acid nanoparticles with excellent biocompatibility, CD44-targetability, and effective reversal of drug resistance have a great potential in breast cancer therapy., CD44 functions as an upstream regulator sensing the extracellular environment to modulate ERK, AKT and Hippo-YAP pathways which cooperatively control downstream gene expression to modulate breast cancer cell contact inhibition of proliferation., Our results reveal that hnRNP L is a new regulator for CD44 V10 exon splicing, Results show that CD44 and CD133 mRNA were highly co-expressed in colorectal cancer with hepatic metastases and that CD44 expression was an independent factor associated with patient survival., TM4SF5 bound CD44, and the interaction regulated levels or activities of c-Src/STAT3/Twist1/Bmi1 to control the self-renewal properties of hepatocellular carcinomas., Down-regulation of CD44 that was overexpressed in resistant Lovo-1 cells with CD44 siRNA effectively decreased the viability of cells in combination with Y15., fails to confirm the value of CD44 in differential diagnosis between prostatic SmCC and acinar adenocarcinoma, Expression of CD44, CD47 and c-met was upregulated in OCCC and pairwise correlation. CD44, CD47 and c-met may have synergistic effects on the development of OCCC and are prognostic factors for ovarian cancer., SOD2-mediated antioxidant activity may restrict conversion of low CD44 expressing cells to high CD44 expressing cells at the early stages of epithelial-mesenchymal transition., Ceramide limits CD44-dependent cancer cell migration, suggesting that ceramide nanoliposomes could be used to prevent and treat solid tumor metastasis., CD44-VCAM1 interaction mediates the adhesion between prostate cancer cells and HUVECs., FOXP3 directly binds to the promoter of CD44., higher level of CD44 expression in cancer cells correlated with lower Gleason score, PRG4 is a novel putative ligand for CD44 and may control synoviocyte overgrowth in inflammatory arthropathies via a CD44-mediated mechanism., Prognostic Significance of CD44v6, CD133, CD166, and ALDH1 Expression in Small Intestinal Adenocarcinoma., a high expression of sCD44 is correlated with advanced stages of endometriosis. It is also concluded that the detection of serum and/or peritoneal fluid sCD44 may be useful in classifying endometriosis., review focuses on CD44 prevalence in cancer cell. It considers tumorigenic behavior of cells that highly express CD44 as an early marker for neoplastic stem cell proliferation, We provide new insights into the close interplay between CD44 and HA and a potential biomarker to enrich patient responses to RG7356 in the clinic., TM4SF5-positive tumors exhibited locally-increased CD44 expression, suggesting tumor cell differentiation, Increased Expression of CD44 mRNA is associated with Recurrence After Curative Resection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma., Survival of patients with basal breast cancer was reliably higher at lack in tumors of cells with cancer stem cells markers CD44+/CD24- and, correspondingly, lower at presence of such cells (small er, Cyrillic < 0.05)., Interleukin-1beta has a role in reduction of CD44 Ser-325 phosphorylation in human epidermal keratinocytes that promotes CD44 homomeric complexes, binding to ezrin, and extended, monocyte-adhesive hyaluronan coats, findings support the value of CD44v6 as a possible indicator of poor outcome in patients with squamous lung carcinomas., Two identified candidate O-glycoprotein biomarkers (CD44 and GalNAc-T5) circulating with the STn glycoform were further validated as being expressed in gastric cancer tissue, Developing strategies to target CD44 may prevent metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance in ovarian cancer., E-cadherin and CD44 may have a role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of bladder urothelial carcinomas, NGF-induced tyrosine kinase independent TrkA signaling through CD44 is sufficient to maintain tumor aggressiveness in breast cancer, CD44v6 was able to differentiate epithelial from mesenchymal prostate cancer cells., CD44 knock-down in bovine and human chondrocytes results in release of bound HYAL2., CD44s is modulated by c-Met and is involved in induction of tumor initiation in hepatocellular carcinoma., Elevated tumor CD44 expression within the systemic circulation increases the efficiency of post-intravasation events and distant metastasis in vivo, consistent with increased distant recurrence and reduced disease-free survival in patients., The cleaved intracellular domain of CD44 activates stemness factors such as Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4. CD44 promotes tumorigenesis through the interaction and nuclear-translocation of its intracellular domain and these stemness factors., Ezrin, CD44, and VEGF are over-expressed in GCTB tissue and its adjacent noncancerous tissue samples and may play an important role in the occurrence, invasion, metastasis, and recurrence of GCTB., CD44S-hyaluronan interactions protect cells resulting from EMT against anoikis., Suggest that CD44 and CXCL9 may serve as predictive biomarkers to identify liver allograft recipients at risk for clinically significant acute graft rejection., CD44 mediates trastuzumab resistance in HER2-positive breast cancer cells independently of its role as a CSC marker and that this role of CD44 is partly regulated by miRNA., CD44 mediates trastuzumab resistance in HER2-positive breast cancer cells independently of its role as a CSC marker and that this role of CD44 is partly regulated by miRNA., these results indicate that biological changes induced by CD44 silencing are mediated by cumulative down-regulation of c-Jun, Sp1, and c-Src in human breast cancer cells., variant genotypes (CT and TT) of rs13347 of CD44 increased an individual's susceptibility to colorectal cancer, compared with rs13347CC homozygous genotypes., CD44 has important functions on the ability of Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells to expand human hematopoietic stem cells in the cell-extrinsic control., DLX4 induces CD44 by stimulating IL-1beta-mediated NF-kappaB activity, thereby promoting peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer, Employs CD44s to activate ZEB1 expression., Findings indicate that breast cancer cells with a hyperactive AF1q/TCF7/CD44 regulatory axis in the primary sites may represent "metastatic founder cells" which have invasive properties., the CD44-miR-199a-3p axis plays an important role in the development of metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance of osteosarcoma., we also demonstrated frequent co-overexpression and positive correlation of DARPP-32, SRp20 and CD44E expression levels in human gastric primary tumors., E-selectin interactions with glycoprotein ligands (CD44/hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand and PSGL-1) mediate the initial capturing of cells out of flow., SFN inhibited invasion by activating ERK1/2 to upregulate E-cadherin and downregulate CD44v6, thereby reducing MMP-2 expression and activity. E-cadherin is an invasion inhibitor, while CD44v6 and MMP-2 are invasion promoters, Our results indicate that the knockdown of hnRNP A1 has a specific function on the splicing of CD44 in breast cancer cells., Direct binding of CD44v6 to HGF and VEGF was demonstrated in pull-down assays, CD44 increases aggressiveness in tumors through the process of vasculogenic mimicry., This study demonstrated that neuron density and chondroitin sulfate immunopositive area in the CA1 subfield are crucial for the hippocampal volume, and is important for the maintenance of a normal hippocampal volume in some cases with severe neuron loss., the peritoneal disseminated metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer is initiated by the CD44v6-positive subpopulation, and CD44v6 expression is a biomarker for the clinical outcome of advanced ovarian cancer patients., This meta-analysis demonstrates that CD44v6 is associated with the metastasis of esophageal cancer and a poor prognosis, but is not associated with the histological types and tumor stages., CD44 expression was related to the distant metastasis and aggressive malignant behavior of pancreatic cancers., High CD44 expression correlates with high Fuhrman grade, recurrence, microvascular invasion and poor prognosis., ERM proteins contribute toward accelerated CD44 shedding by MT1-MMP through ERM protein-mediated interactions between their cytoplasmic tails., Basal like tumors are enriched for cancer stem cells (CSC) with CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) phenotype. CD133 can detect a different population of CSC in breast carcinoma, Ser291-phosphorylated form of the multifunctional protein and stem cell marker, CD44, inhibits FBXO21-directed degradation of P-gp., CD44 gene rs187115 polymorphism is a potential predictive marker of survival in NSCLC patients, and is significantly correlated with bone metastasis and tumor stage., The expression of KAI1/CD82, CD44, MMP7 and beta-catenin is related to tumor metastasis and prognosis in colorectal carcinoma., The CD44 rs187116 genotype is associated with recurrence in gastric cancer, and the single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with CD44 isoform switching., NDRG1 inhibits stemness of colorectal cancer via down-regulation of nuclear beta-catenin and CD44, CD44 expression pattern was significantly correlated with grade of dysplasia in ulcerative colitis, CV-1 sensitively and specifically bound to CD44v on cancer cells and tissues., High CD44 expression is associated with lenalidomide resistance in myeloma., salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain a small population of cancer stem cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and that are characterized by high ALDH activity and CD44 expression, CD44v9 positive cells also have a low mitotic activity and resist apoptosis, The combinatory expression of HOXA10 and CD44 was correlated with poor gastric cancer prognosis., The adhesion molecules CD62P and CD44 play an important role in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis., Peptide inhibitors of CD44v6 isoforms block tumor growth and metastasis in several independent models of pancreatic cancer., CD44(+)/CD24(-) phenotype may be an important factor for malignant relapse following surgical resection and chemotherapy in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma., CD44 polymorphisms are associated with chronic HBV infection as the risk factors, Suggest that CD44 is involved in the progression of precancerous gastric lesions in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori., we present evidence that CD44v3 immunoexpression and CD44v3+/CD24- immunophenotypes could give prognostic information associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes., the prevalence of ALDH1A3(+)/CD44(+) tumor cells in breast cancer is significantly associated with worse prognostic factors and favors a poor prognosis, CD44 promotes chemoresistance in T-ALL by increased drug efflux., High CD44 expression contributes to the development of carboplatin resistance in advanced serous epithelial ovarian cancer., lncRNA-uc002kmd.1 regulates CD44 as a molecular decoy for miR211-3p.,
OFFICIAL_GENE_SYMBOL CD44,
OMIM_DISEASE Blood group, Indian system,
SP_COMMENT alternative products:Additional isoforms seem to exist. Additional isoforms are produced by alternative splicing of 10 out of 19 exons within the extracellular domain. Additional diversity is generated through the utilization of internal splice donor and acceptor sites within 2 of the exons. A variation in the cytoplasmic domain was shown to result from the alternative splicing of 2 exons. Isoform CD44 is expected to be expressed in normal cells. Splice variants have been found in many tumor cell lines. Exons 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14 and 19 are alternatively spliced. Experimental confirmation may be lacking for some isoforms, function:Receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA). Mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions through its affinity for HA, and possibly also through its affinity for other ligands such as osteopontin, collagens, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Adhesion with HA plays an important role in cell migration, tumor growth and progression. Also involved in lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, and in hematopoiesis. Altered expression or dysfunction causes numerous pathogenic phenotypes. Great protein heterogeneity due to numerous alternative splicing and post-translational modification events., online information:Blood group antigen gene mutation database, online information:CD44 entry, polymorphism:CD44 is responsible for the Indian blood group system. The molecular basis of the In(A)=In1/In(B)=In2 blood group antigens is a single variation in position 46; In(B), the most frequent allele, has Arg-46., PTM:N-glycosylated., PTM:O-glycosylated; contains more-or-less-sulfated chondroitin sulfate glycans, whose number may affect the accessibility of specific proteinases to their cleavage site(s)., PTM:Phosphorylated; activation of PKC results in the dephosphorylation of Ser-706 (constitutive phosphorylation site), and the phosphorylation of Ser-672., PTM:Proteolytically cleaved in the extracellular matrix by specific proteinases (possibly MMPs) in several cell lines and tumors., similarity:Contains 1 Link domain., subunit:Interacts with HA, as well as other glycosaminoglycans, collagen, laminin, and fibronectin via its N-terminal segment. Interacts with ANK, the ERM proteins (VIL2, RDX and MSN), and NF2 via its C-terminal segment., tissue specificity:An epithelial isoform (CD44E) is expressed by cells of epithelium and highly expressed by carcinomas. An hematopoietic isoform (CD44H) is expressed by cells of mesodermal origin. Expression is repressed in neuroblastoma cells.,
fibronectin 1(FN1) fibronectin 1(FN1) Related Genes Homo sapiens
CHROMOSOME 2,
CYTOBAND 2q34,
ENSEMBL_GENE_ID ENSG00000115414,
GENERIF_SUMMARY Binding of fibronectin by Trichomonas vaginalis is influenced by iron and calcium, We show a novel alternative pathway of apoptosis that is regulated by the alternatively spliced V region and high-affinity heparin-binding domain of fibronectin, Potential mechanism of fibronectin deposits in acute renal failure induced by mercuric chloride, Alternative splicing of the IIICS domain in fibronectin governs the role of the heparin II domain in fibrillogenesis and cell spreading., Increased plasma fibronectin levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated with left ventricular thrombus; multivariate analysis showed that plasma fibronectin levels were not an independent predictor of LV thrombus formation., Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) functions as a catabolic receptor for Fn, Laminin-10/11 and fibronectin differentially prevent apoptosis induced by serum removal via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt- and MEK1/ERK-dependent pathways (Laminin 10; separate entry for Laminin 11)., differential role of u-PA and t-PA as inducers of fibronectin mRNA, investigation of the role of direct contact with stroma and the ECM protein fibronectin in the preservation of normal but not chronic myelogenous leukemia primitive hematopoietic progenitors, Adhesion of hairy cells to fibronectin inhibits interferon-alpha-induced apoptosis., fragment from fibronectin's III1 module localizes to lipid rafts and stimulates cell growth and contractility, Human fibronectin and MMP-2 collagen binding domains compete for collagen binding sites and modify cellular activation of MMP-2., proximal tubular cell fibronectin production induced by oleate-complexed recombinant human serum albumin was mediated via protein kinase C activation, These data indicate that fibronectin polymerization is a critical regulator of extracellular matrix organization and stability., familial combined hyperlipidemia plasma stimulated secretion of several distinct hepatic proteins, among which fibronectin was identified, FN may be partly involved in the increase in SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) glycoprotein expression by TGF-beta 1 in human periodontal ligament (HPL) cells., REVIEW, Streptococcus pyogenes isolates were able to recruit collagen type IV via surface-bound fibronectin; fibronectin-mediated collagen recruitment represents a novel aggregation, colonization and immune evasion mechanism of S. pyogenes, FN may have a role in the pathogenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma, all six modules of the gelatin-binding domain contribute to the interaction with gelatin either directly by contacting the ligand or indirectly through module-module interactions, differences in fibronectin gene expression between the SWS port-wine-derived fibroblasts and the Sturge-Weber syndrome (sws) normal skin-derived fibroblasts are consistent with the presence of a hypothesized somatic mutation underlying SWS., Fibronectin secretion by renal fibroblasts was increased upon exposure to high glucose, but with delayed kinetics compared to TGF-beta1-induced fibronectin., Pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, attach to human fibronectin through a tandem beta-zipper, AngRem104 is a novel human gene potentially involved in regulation of fibronectin induced by AngII in human mesangial cells., An increased concentration of wild-type GFAT in mesangial cells is enhanced both TGF-beta1 and fibronectin., Results suggest that tissue or plasma fibronectin may modulate the intestinal epithelial response to repetitive deformation through inhibted activation of p38 and jun kinases., an additional marker of malignant potential of thyroid nodular lesions (oncofetal fibronectin), levels of fibronectin in the extracellular matrix are regulated by uPAR and integrin receptors, FN and IGFBP-5 bind to each other, and this binding negatively regulates the ligand-dependent action of IGFBP-5 by triggering IGFBP-5 proteolysis., Fibronectin plus TNF-alpha stabilizes granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mRNA, increases GM-CSF secretion, and prolongs in vitro eosinophil survival., Abundant expression of fibronectin is a major feature of leukemic dendritic cells differentiated from patients with acute myeloid leukemia, the aggrecanase activity of ADAMTS4 is inhibited by fibronectin through interaction with their C-terminal domains, crystal structure of the 2F1(3)F1 module pair, human fibronectin binding to streptococcus requires specific recognition of sequential F1 modules, Adding 110-120 kDa fibronectin fragments to normal blood replicated changes in monocyte CD49e, CD62L, CD11b, & CD86 seen in vivo in HIV-1 patients. FNf caused monocytes to release proteinase-3. Monocyte behavior in HIV-1 patients may be affected by FNf., Data show that squamous cell carcinoma cells escape suspension-induced, p53-mediated anoikis by forming multicellular aggregates that use fibronectin survival signals mediated by integrin alpha(v) and focal adhesion kinase., fibronectin concentration significantly elevated in ovarian cancer patients with recurrent disease compared with ovarian cancer patients without recurrence, demonstrate that integrins alpha(5)beta(1) and alpha(v)beta(3) support fibronectin-dependent platelet adhesion and the generation of filopodia but that, in contrast to the integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3), are unable to promote formation of lamellipodia, Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids coordinating Ca2+ drastically decreased the binding of C-reactive protein to fibronectin (Fn), indicating that the Ca2+ -binding site indeed formed the Fn-binding site., Fibronectin and type IV collagen activate ERalpha AF-1 by the c-Src pathway in breast cancer, integrin-dependent function of the ninth and tenth FIII domains of human fibronectin depends on interdomain tilt angle, adhesion of uveal melanoma cells to the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, type IV collagen and laminin might confer resistance to the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, The heparin II domain of fibronectin mediated the incorporation of paxillin into focal adhesions., Fibronectin enhances IL-1 beta-dependent airway smooth muscle cell secretory responses through a beta 1 integrin-dependent mechanism., SGK1 activation has a role in oncofetal fibronectin expression, Fibronectin and ezrin were upregulated in primary laryngeal carcinoma., Fibronectin 1 and RAB10 show elevated expression in uninvolved psoriatic epidermis., FN modulates thyroid cancer cell adhesiveness and, at least in part, mediates vitamin D actions on neoplastic cell growth., The relative amounts of the 60, 90 and 100 kDa FN fragments were 2-3 times higher in seminal plasmas with abnormal semen characteristics than in the normozoospermic group, suggesting that seminal plasma FN fragments may contribute to fertilization., FN has a role in controlling translation through beta1 integrin and eukaryotic initiation factors 4 and 2 coordinated pathways, Chemical shift differences between the fibronectin glycoforms have revealed an intimate interaction between one N-linked sugar and the polypeptide that is critical for gelatin binding., Over-expression of oncofetal fibronectin is associated with thyroid carcinoma, binding with C terminus of apolipoprotein [a], These results provide evidence for an additional level of control of fibronectin deposition through cell interactions with the local microenvironment., the role of the extra domain A (EDA) and type III connecting segment (IIICS) of fibronectin in fiber assembly, topographical distribution and proteolytic cleavage, Results show fibronectin plays a role in the regulation of hematopoiesis by binding to FLRG and follistatin., platelet fibronectin may have a role in progression of coronary artery disease, The expression of FN protein was higher in cortex cataract than in nuclear cataract., Elevated glucose concentrations increased TSP-1 synthesis, which was associated with reduced cell proliferation, increased TGF-beta1 bioactivity, and stimulation of FN synthesis, Results indicate that the adhesion mechanism by embryonal fibronectin may be involved in human blastocyst implantation., constitutive FN degradation, as well as UV-induced degradation, is ubiquitination dependent and controlled by beta-TrCP, review goes over roles of fibronectin in platelet functions with a focus on fibronectin assembly within developing platelet thrombi., Flow induced alpha2beta1 activation in cells on collagen, but not on fibronectin or fibrinogen. Conversely, alpha5beta1 and alphavbeta3 are activated on fibronectin and fibrinogen, but not collagen., IL-1, FN, and FN-derivatives have interrelated roles in determining biomaterial-modulated macrophage function [review], The role of the matricryptic site of the fibronectin terminal repeat III1 in cell proliferation and growth is reported., Review highlights the role of fibronectin as a key orchestrator for the assembly of multiple extracellular matrix proteins., Data suggest that natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A) interacts with fibronectin to enhance brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) activation of cyclic GMP and that a small NPR-A-specific RGD peptide augments this action of BNP., the FN1 alpha-helix is involved in an Ig5-FN1 interaction that is critical for the correct positioning of Ig5 N-glycans for polysialylation, analysis of L-isoaspartate formation and gain of function in fibronectin, These findings suggest that interaction with fibronectin through integrin alpha5 plays an important role in human extravillous trophoblast invasion., Downregulated expression of migration-inducing FN-isoforms in contrast to unchanged FN receptor expression may contribute to the observed alterations of Crohn's disease colonic lamina propria fibroblasts migration., Our results indicate that Src maintains fibronectin matrix at the cell surface through its effect on integrin activity and paxillin phosphorylation., fibronectin does not have an obvious role in development or progression of coronary artery disease, epithelial fibronectin suppression is not only involved with malignancy, but can also occur with benign processes that involve leukocyte migration, local presence of endogenous Tlr4 ligand Fibronectin EDA is not associated with in an unstable plaque phenotype in humans, Interaction of fibronectin carboxy-terminal regions with the fibrin alpha C chain occurs through two types of binding sites, one with high affinity and another one with much lower affinity, both of which play a role during hemostasis and wound healing., Smad 7 transfection reduces the expression of COL1A2 mRNA and the synthesis of type I collagen, but has no effect on fibronectin mRNA expression., ED-B fibronectin expression is closely associated with inflammation in atherosclerosis., The IIICS region of FN is a novel zinc-binding module., Twist regulates cell motility and invasion in gastric cancer cell lines, probably through the N-cadherin and fibronectin production, MspI and HaeIIIb FN gene polymorphisms may be clinically relevant to define the risk of lymphoma development in MCsn., TNF-alpha suppresses TGF-beta1-induced myofibroblast (fibroproliferative) phenotypic genes, for example, alpha-SMA, collagen type 1A, and fibronectin at the mRNA level., Fibrinogen has a role in controlling human platelet fibronectin internalization and cell-surface retention, study concludes that increased platelet fibronectin may partially contribute to platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease, Expression of onfFN mRNA characterizes not only papillary thyroid carcinoma but also ATC. onfFN mRNA or protein may be a useful marker to identify anaplastic carcinoma cells and may be considered as an optimistic target in molecular-based therapy of ATC., These findings provide evidence that mutations in fibronectin, induce anoikis in human squamous cell carcinoma cells by modulating integrin alpha v-mediated phosphorylation of FAK and ERK., high molecular weight hyaluronan suppresses HBFN-f-activated NF-kappaB in rheumatoid arthritis chondrocytes, Results show that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL or lipocalin-2)is co-expressed with migration stimulating factor (MSF or FN1) by keratinocytes and acts as a functional inhibitor of MSF., expression of the alternatively spliced extra-domain A (EDA) of fibronectin in the neovasculature of metastases and primary tumors of human cancer patients was shown, TSG-6 is a high affinity ligand that can mediate fibronectin interactions with other matrix components and modulate some interactions of fibronectin with cells, These data provide the first evidence that IL-18 and FN stimulate each other's expression., These results suggest that fibrinogen and fibronectin facilitate the adherence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia to A549 cells probably through the interaction with adhesin-type molecules or a sialic acid based recognition system., dominant mutations in FN1 accounted for 40% of cases of Glomerulopathy with fibronectin (FN) deposits in our study group, These results are consistent with the hypothesis that ScpB binds to a motif created by the juxtaposition of multiple Fn molecules., The TP0136 protein was exposed on the surface of the bacterial outer membrane and bound to the host extracellular matrix glycoproteins fibronectin and laminin., Filtering bleb scarring is associated with an abundant expression of TGF-beta receptors in activated fibroblasts and the deposition of the fibrogenic ED-A fibronectin splice-variant., MMP-2 enhanced peritoneal adhesion of ovarian cancer cells through cleavage of ECM proteins fibronectin (FN) and vitronectin (Vn) into small fragments, KLK7 is able to cleave fibronectin in a time-dependent manner, but not laminin., Increased production of a fibronectin isoform containing the oncofetal domain and its release in the circulation in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis is at least partially responsible for the decrease in bone formation., Results advance a new model wherein Fn polymerization serves as a structural scaffolding that displays adhesive ligands on a mechanically ideal substratum for promoting neovessel development., A link between fibronectin expression and epithelial cell growth during development and oncogenesis in the mammary gland., Meningiomas increase in size through increased production of extracellular matrix; furthermore, the proliferation of cells typically associated with neoplasia requires considerable interaction with the extracellular matrix., TG-FN binding to syndecan-4 activates PKCalpha leading to its association with beta(1) integrin, reinforcement of actin-stress fiber organization, and MAPK pathway activation, Caveolin-1-dependent beta1 integrin and fibronectin endocytosis plays a critical role in fibronectin matrix turnover., Inflammation-induced modulation of FN-isoform production is involved in the alterations of migratory potential of CLPF isolated from CD mucosa., elevated plasma fibronectin levels are associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) especially in males, and extend the potential association between biomarkers and risk factors for arterial atherothrombosis and VTE, four crystal structures that together comprise the structures of two complete high-affinity binding repeats for Fn from FnBPA and FnBPB, each in complex with four of the N-terminal modules of Fn, Plasma fibronectin level is increased in patients with severe coronary artery disease, namely, those who have at least one critically stenosed coronary vessel, compared to patients with normal coronary arteries., analysis of fibronectin expression in benign hyperplasia and cancer of the prostate, These data suggest that SOCS-1 inhibits high glucose-induced overexpression of TGF-beta1 and synthesis of fibronectin in human mesangial cells, which may be via JAK/STAT pathway., Genotyping for HaeIIIb fibronectin gene polymorphisms may be clinically relevant to define the predisposition to the major clinical manifestations in mixed cryoglobulinemic syndrome., a new mechanism of fibroblast activation, which is initiated by interaction of fibronectin with its integrin receptors., MAGE A3 is a functional integrator of diverse signals, including FGFR2 and FN, to modulate cancer progression., Caveolin-1 plays a dual role in the fibronectin assembly regulated by uPAR signaling., The simultaneous positivity for thyroid specific factor TTF-1 and onfFN suggest they might represent putative thyroid cancer stem-like cells., analysis of the unfolding of the tenth type-III repeat of human fibronectin, Dynamic mechanical forces could regulate the expression of collagen type I and fibronectin mRNA in periodontal ligament fibroblasts., Mapping studies revealed that the major binding interaction between fibrillins and fibronectin involves the collagen/gelatin-binding region between domains FNI(6) and FNI(9)., enhanced capacity of fibronectin-adherent HL60 cells to differentiate into macrophages in response to PMA., The 320-kDa and 280-kDa FN forms as well as FN fragments appeared in the pleural effusion and plasma of patients suffering from lung inflammation or cancer in significantly higher relative amounts in both lung cancer groups than in the inflammation., relative amount of EDA-FN in synovial fluid, but not in plasma samples, was significantly lower in the early RA group than in established and late RA. In contrast, its level did not correlate with the CRP concentration, The risk of pneumoconiosis increases in workers with the FN (MspICC or HaeIIIb AA) genotype after exposure to dust. Workers both carrying FN (HaeIIIb AA) and (MspICC) genotypes are more susceptible to pneumoconiosis., role for fibronectin in collagen proteolysis and tissue remodeling, Regulation of estrogen-mediated fibronectin matrix assembly and epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation by GPR30., These results established a novel in vitro dynamic BBB model. We also demonstrated the dependence of leukocyte-endothelial interactions in this model on alpha4 integrins and FN-CS1., Human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed dose-dependent upregulation of fibronectin mRNA exposed to various D-glucose levels., Borrelia burgdorferi virulence factor BBK32 induces the formation of Fn aggregates that are indistinguishable from those formed by anastellin., isoforms of a group B streptococcus-secreted component named Fib displayed differential binding capacities for fibronectin, fibrinogen, and C4BP, Erythroid differentiation stimulated by hemin was greatly enhanced when K562 cells were induced to adhere to Fibronectin by activating VLA-5 with TNIIIA2, a peptide derived from tenascin-C., fibronectin might be a critical molecule produced by T(H)1 cells involved in pathogen eradication., the angioinhibitory action of NK4 involves impaired extracellular assembly of fibronectin mediated by perlecan-NK4 association, Results describe the measurement of the force-dependent lifetimes of single bonds between a fibronectin fragment and an integrin alpha(5)beta(1)-Fc fusion protein or membrane alpha(5)beta(1)., LigB was shown to bind to the N-terminal domain of fibronectin., HindIII polymorphism of the FN1 gene is highly associated with calcium oxalate stone disease, FN binds BMP1-like proteinases in vivo and that FN is an important determinant of the in vivo activity levels of BMP1-like proteinases., Serum fibronectin concentration in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) was increased with disease phases and severity, suggesting the value of detection of fibronectin levels for evaluating HFRS disease progression and severity., higher expression in the fetal skin than in adult skin, AR could mediate the TGF-beta1-induced FN production, which may associate with AP-1 activation., Exposure to high glucose and overexpression AR increase the expression of fibronectin., AR is a potent regulator of TGF-beta1 induced expression of FN in human mesangial cells., the third FN type III repeat (FnIII3) and several fragments containing the repeat promote cell spreading and migration of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), whereas the fourth repeat (FnIII4) did not., -beta1 shRNAs could obviously inhibit the expression levels of TGF-beta1, CTGF, FN and cellular proliferation stimulated by HSA in HK2 cells., Data show that the expression of collagen types I, III and fibronectin was significantly higher in pancreatic cancer, and the expression of collagen type IV, laminin and vitronectin was significantly lower in pancreatic cancer., vaginal fetal fibronectin not changed by vaginal ultrasound, Upregulation of fibronectin-1 protects Dicer knockdown HEK293T cells against apoptosis., findings consistently indicate that PPAR-beta may facilitate differentiation and inhibit the cell-fibronectin adhesion of colon cancer., Data show that potentiated and sustained adhesion to fibronectin via VLA-4 causally induces apoptosis also in various types of hematopoietic tumor cells., Increase in urinary fibronectin is associated with bladder tumor., The identification of a fibronectin-binding domain in ameloblastin might permit interesting applications for dental implantology., these data suggest that hypoxia promotes oral squamous cell carcinoma cell invasion that is elicited by HIF-1alpha-dependent alpha5 integrin and fibronectin induction., iso-DGR sequences spontaneously converted from NGR are cryptic and do not mediate the interaction of the 70K region of FN with the cell surface during FN assembly, Mda-9/syntenin acts as a molecular adaptor linking PKCalpha and FAK activation in a pathway of FN adhesion by human cancer cells., Data demonstrated that the inclusion of the alternatively spliced angiogenesis-associated ED-B leads to the unmasking of the FNIII 8 B-C loop that is cryptic in FN molecules lacking ED-B., Exposure to ethanol drastically enhances the adhesion of cultured breast cancer cells to fibronectin and increases the expression of focal adhesions., Fibronectin promotes paxillin (tyr118) phosphorylation and invasiveness of AGS cells., An increased expression of fibronectin and tenascin-C mRNA in association to histological damage and in valvular heart disease compared to coronary artery disease could be shown., Fibronectin may modulate the directional migration of corneal epithelial cells, The expression of Col I, Col IV and Fn was closely related to tumor invasion, the regional lymph node metastasis and other pathological features in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma., our findings suggest that both fibronectin and ASGPR mediate HBsAg binding to the cell surface, which provides further evidence for the potential roles of these two proteins in mediating HBV binding to liver cells., Steric hindrance determines the motogenic activity of MSF and Fn, and that both molecules contain cryptic bioactive fragments., in the presence of laminin and fibronectin, DC maintain a 'more immature' phenotype and express higher levels of key endocytic receptors, and become better endocytic cells, but possess superior ability to induce antigen-specific T cell differentiation., Oncofetal fibronectin transcripts are highly abundant in the peripheral blood of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma., Elevated urinary fibronectin was identified as an independent factor predicting kidney function deterioration., Data show that metastatic outgrowth is associated with activation of the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway and concerted up-regulation of POSTN, FN1, COL-I, and VCAN genes., plays role in bronchial smooth muscle cells migration in the process of airway remodeling, Both IFN-gamma and mGBP-2 also inhibit cell spreading initiated by platelet-derived growth factor treatment, which is also accompanied by inhibition of Rac activation by mGBP-2., Data show that occupancy of EPCR by protein C switches signaling specificity so that activation of PAR-1 by thrombin inhibits TNF-alpha-mediated synthesis of IL-6 and IL-8 and down-regulates TGF-beta-mediated expression of collagen type 4 and fibronectin., MSF is a novel marker associated with the M2 stage of macrophage polarization expressed by tumor-conditioned macrophages; MSF may contribute to macrophage-mediated promotion of cancer cell invasion and metastasis., high molecular weight of HA suppressed the FN-f-activated p38 via ICAM-1 and the CD44 in RA chondrocytes, Migration Stimulating Factor, a truncated form of fibronectin that promotes the migration of many cell types, inhibits AKT activity in human fibroblasts, data indicate that higher levels of EDB isoform and FN-f are associated with intervertebral disc degeneration; this shift in alternative splicing may reflect an attempt of tissue repair and remodeling, FN induces MMP-9 in HEp-2 cells mainly by involving integrin receptor alpha5beta1 and involves activation of multiple signaling pathways which independently or in "cross-talk" to each other finally leads to the transactivation of the MMP-9 gene., in migrating cells, a fraction of the endocytosed fibronectin receptor, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin, is sorted into multivesicular endosomes together with fibronectin and degraded in lysosomes, Fetal fibronectin as a predictor of spontaneous preterm birth., Data show that FN III12-14 is a highly promiscuous ligand for GFs and also holds great potential in clinical healing applications., FN upregulates osteoclast activity despite inhibiting osteoclast formation and that these effects involve NO and IL-1beta signaling., The interplay between alpha5-integrin and sFn contributes significantly to tissue cohesion and, depending on their level of expression, can mediate a shift from liquid to elastic behavior., Tenascin-C contains cryptic sites which can control tissue levels of fibrillar fibronectin either by preventing de novo fibril assembly or reducing levels of deposited fibronectin., In the plasma group, the mean N-terminal FN domain immunoreactivity was about one fourth that of the cell-binding and C-terminal domains, whereas in cerebrospinal fluid they were nearly equal., The findings that fibroblast survival is dependent on FN-growth factor binding domains underscore the critical importance of pericellular matrix for cell survival, CTGF cooperates with FN in enhancing the attachment and migration of corneal epithelial cells., Glioma cells may induce vascular epithelial cells to express fibronectin, and in turn fibronectin could promote glioma cell invasion., IGFBP-3 can either inhibit or enhance EGF-mediated growth of breast epithelial cells dependent upon the presence of fibronectin, High FN1 mRNA expression is associated with renal cell cancer., rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 inhibit adhesion and invasion of liver cancer cells, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 regulate the compensatory effect of TG-FN on osteoblast cell adhesion and actin cytoskeletal formation in the presence of RGD peptides, study suggests that FN and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) facilitate the metastatic activity of A431 tumor cells, and this may be partly attributed to TG2 enhancement of the association of FN and beta integrin, These results highlight a crucial role for caveolin-1 in negative regulation of membrane microdomain mobility, thereby affecting endocytosis of bacteria-engaged integrins., Megakaryocyte adhesion to type I collagen promotes inhibits pro-platelet formation through the release of cFN to the plasma membrane. This regulatory mechanism is dependent on the engagement of FN receptors and on transglutaminase FXIII-A activity., autocrine soluble fibronectin of osteosarcoma MG-63 cells may be involved in cell shape maintaining, Impaired splicing of fibronectin is associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm formation in patients with bicuspid aortic valve., FN upregulation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG-I) protein content is due to increased mRNA expression via augmented transcriptional activity of the PKG-I promoter region., Cav1.2 calcium channel association with alpha5beta1-integrin depends on adhesion to fibronectin; interactions between alpha5beta1-integrin and fibronectin modulate L-type calcium channel entry., Fetal fibronectin may be used as a primary screening tool for prediction of preterm birth in asymptomatic high-risk women., Data show that a molecular complex of fibronectin and aggrecan predicts response to lumbar ESI for radiculopathic back pain with HNP., Danshensu can protect from oxidative stress through inhibiting the expression of FN and Col-I induced by high glucose., Kindlin-2 regulates podocyte adhesion and fibronectin deposition through interactions with phosphoinositides and integrin b1 and b3., Data show that ITP-79 modulated binding of TG2 to fibronectin., LigB could facilitate leptospirosis transmission by binding fibronectin and fibrinogen, Mesenchymal stem cell migration is regulated by fibronectin through alpha5beta1-integrin-mediated activation of PDGFR-beta and potentiation of PDGF-BB signals., GALNT6-fibronectin pathway should be a critical component for breast cancer development and progression., Increase expression of sialic fibronectin correlates with lymph node metastasis of thyroid malignant neoplasmas., This work provides a broad overview of matrix remodeling at the cell-material interface, establishing correlations between surface chemistry, fibronectin adsorption, cell adhesion and signaling, matrix reorganization and degradation., We conclude that TGF-beta1 may both switch on and switch off migration stimulating factor (MSF) expression in a manner critically determined by the nature of the matrix substratum, Metastasis suppressor KAI1/CD82 attenuates the matrix adhesion of human prostate cancer cells by suppressing fibronectin expression and beta1 integrin activation., Type IX collagen interacts with fibronectin providing an important molecular bridge in articular cartilage, Data show that the urinary messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), fibronectin, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were significantly higher in the diabetic nephropathy (DN) group, and mRNA levels increased with DN progression., Structural and functional analysis of the tandem beta-zipper interaction of a Streptococcal protein with human fibronectin, Results show that higher body temperature within the first 24 h from stroke onset is associated with HT in acute ischaemic stroke untreated with rtPA, independently of biomarkers of BBB disruption, such as MMP-9 and cFn., The adhesive properties and thickness of the UspA1 layer at the cell surface varies on addition of either fibronectin or CEACAM1., miRNA-1 targets fibronectin1 and suppresses the migration and invasion of the HEp2 laryngeal squamous carcinoma cell line., the extent of molecular unfolding that contributes to Fn fiber extension, 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone promoted AGS cell migration was due to the up-regulation of fibronectin., Fibronectin matrix assembly suppresses dispersal of glioblastoma cells, Fibronectin type III-like domains of neurofascin-186 protein mediate gliomedin binding and its clustering at the developing nodes of Ranvier, Leukocytospermia was associated with the alterations of terminal monosaccharide expression in human seminal fibronectin and alpha{1}-acid glycoprotein, first step in such infections is a bond that forms between fibronectin-binding protein (FnBP) on Staphylococcus aureus and host proteins, such as fibronectin (Fn), that coat the surface of implants in vivo., Data indicate that anti-citrullinated fibronectin peptide antibodies are associated with HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles., Allosteric loss of constraining interactions among (1-5)FNI, (10)FNIII, and (12-14)FNIII likely enables assembly of FN into extracellular fibrils., our data demonstrate that the transmembrane receptor Trop-2 is a regulator of PrCa cell adhesion to fibronectin through activation of the beta(1) integrin-RACK1-FAK-Src signaling axis, these findings provide evidence that extra domain A of fibronectin could play a role in tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis via upregulating autocrine secretion of VEGF-C in colorectal cancer, which is associated with the PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway., Study demonstrated that fibronectin inhibition and neutralization by specific antibody prevented significantly the adhesion of A. baumannii to human lung epithelial cells (A549 cells)., study concludes that increased serotonylation of fibronectin occurs in pulmonary hypertension, Increased expression of SDC4 and FN may be underlying molecular alteration of osteo-sarcoma which accounts for more aggressive clinical behaviour., Induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition with O-glycosylated oncofetal fibronectin, High expression of fibronectin is associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma., Data suggest that fibronectin 1 (FN1) is a promising biomarker candidate for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC)., Genistein attenuates advanced glycation end product-induced expression of fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor, Collagens regulate the EDA(+)-FN-ECM organisation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level and activate the alpha5beta1-FAK complexes., Gene expression profiles showed that FN1 was up-regulated in epidermolysis bullosa subtypes., Reduced expression of two specific integrin subunits, alpha 5 andalpha V, resulted in the inability of MG63 cells to deposit fibronectin into their extracellular matrix, influenza A Virus entry with a alpha2,6-linked sialic acid binding preference requires host fibronectin, MMP-2 cleaves fibronectin into small fragments to enhance the adhesion and migration of human melanoma cells mediated by alphavbeta3 integrin., FN1 assembly and the lung colonization of suspended CL1-5 cells were inhibited when endogenous A1AT protein was knocked down using siRNA., MSF functions in the metabolic remodeling of the tumor microenvironment., Studies indicate that progenitor endothelial cells (ECs), endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), deposit collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin., our results suggest that plasma PTPalpha and fibronectin may be associated with opisthorchiasis., Data indicate that fibronectin mRNA and protein levels were significantly down-regulated following the upregulation of serine protease HTRA1., Serum oncofetal fibronectin mRNA in differentiated thyroid carcinoma cannot identify those with metastatic disease., FN1 and ITGA4 are potential oral squamous cell carcinoma biomarkers for tongue/mouth floor and edentulous ridge., Data indicate that rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts have impaired adhesion and spreading on citrullinated fibronectin, but focal matrix degradation is unaffected by citrullinated fibronectin., We confirm WNT4, CDKN2BAS and FN1 as the first identified common loci for endometriosis., An algorithm based on fetal FN for management of preterm labor (PTL) does not reduce evaluation times for triage, hospital admissions or preterm deliveries., Versican V2 isoform enhances angiogenesis by regulating endothelial cell activities and fibronectin expression in the U87 glioblastoma cell line, Authors hypothesize that MMP-2 and MMP-9 cleave fibronectin and may contribute to the astroglia reaction and leukocyte migration to the sites of Toxoplasma gondii replication during toxoplasmic encephalitis., Lactobacillus iners AB-1 displays a mechanism of vaginal persistence to human fibronectin, with implications for human reproductive health., Authors report that group A Streptococcus biofilm formation is mediated by the Scl1 interaction with extra domain A-containing cellular form of fibronectin., Data indicate that citrullinated fibronectin (cFn) plays a potential pathophysiologic role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by inhibiting apoptosis and increasing proinflammatory cytokine secretion of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs)., Data indicate that four different Anticalins all show low nanomolar affinities for fibronectin (Fn) extra-domain B (ED-B)., MOMCs were obtained on the fibronectin., Differences in stromal cell ability to induce angiogenesis are a result of differences in the secretion of fibronectin., genome-wide association study of population in Northern Belgium, Data indicate that endopeptidase O (PepO) is a ubiquitously expressed plasminogen- and fibronectin-binding protein, which plays role in pneumococcal invasion of host cells and aids in immune evasion., The interaction of TNC with immobilized FN was attenuated, the scratch wound closure by keratinocytes was delayed and the inhibition of cell spreading on FN by TNC was recovered in the presence of SSL8., Treated neutrophils aggregate on fibronectin (Fn)-coated wells and exhibit an exaggerated cell aggregation phenotype on wells coated with Fn plus beta-glucan., The metabolism of glucose through hexosamine biosynthetic pathway promotes O-glycosylation of the oncofetal form of FN during epithelial-mesenchymal transition modulating tumorogenesis., fibronectin is a key factor in human serum to recruit mesenchymal progenitor cells and might be involved in subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cell migration into cartilage defects after microfracture., Extra domain A-containing fibronectin is necessary for the development of nasal tissue fibrotic remodeling process in both murine and human allergic rhinitis., High glucose and AGEs can up-regulate the expressions of ROS and fibronectin in human mesangial cells by activating transcriptional co-activator p300., Data indicate that metastatic breast cancer (BC) cells that failed to activate STAT3 downstream of EGFR did display robust STAT3 activity upon adhesion to fibronectin (FN)., Collagen association stabilizes a distinct monomeric fibronectin gelatin-binding domain conformation in solution., Fibronectin expression in carcinoma cells correlates with tumor aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome in patients with invasive breast cancer., The predicted 23-residue cryptic peptide 1 (CP1) initiates FN multimerization, which is mediated by interactions with the tenth FN type III domain., We identified 31 interactors from plasma, of which only seven were previously known to interact with fibronectin, Data indicate tht mRNA expression of elastin, procollagen I type I, fibronectin, Col1alpha1, and TIMP-1 had a significant increase after bicyclic[1,2,3]triazoles plus UVA treatment, while the MMP-1 decreased, compared with the UVA irradiated group., We conclude that an OSMR/TGM2/integrin-alpha5beta1/fibronectin pathway is of biological significance in cervical squamous cell carcinoma, MSF expression was upregulated in NSCLC tumors and promoted migration and invasion in A549 cells., study highlights that ascites-derived fibronectin and vitronectin exhibit different properties depending on the ascites, Four members from clusters of the miR-200 family (miR-200a/-200b/-429 and miR-200c/-141), epithelial-mesenchymal transition could potentially play a role in the pathogenesis of pterygium., Low extra domain A fibronectin expression is associated with bacterial meningitis., The SOX2-FN1 axis is a key pathway in mediating the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, The presence of VN on the material surfaces enhanced cell-mediated FN reorganization and secretion., Data suggest that determination of the fibronectin content can serve as a prognostic biomarker for breast and prostate cancers and possibly other cancers., Together these results show that FN produced by the tumor cells has a role in glioblastoma multiforme pathophysiology and they provide insights into the implications that targeting FN interactions may have for combating this dreaded disease., profile of fibronectin fragmentation and alterations of fibronectin domain immunoreactivities in seminal plasma may influence their engagement in the fertilisation process, First-trimester glycosylated fibronectin is a potential pregnancy-specific biomarker for early identification of women at risk for gestational diabetes., We demonstrate that the high FN content of the endometrium matrix, and not specifically the EDA domain, supports trophoblast invasion by showing that forced incorporation of plasma FN (EDA-) promotes efficient trophoblast invasion, Serum levels of MMP-9, TIMP-1 and B(+) Tn-C and tissue levels of B(+) Tn-C and ED-A(+) Fn are promising markers for risk assessment in dilated cardiomyopathy., Perturbing the mesenchymal regulators, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors or fibronectin, reverts mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) toward mesodermal progenitors with endothelial potential., cFN isoform expression in the TM ECM may be a novel pathologic mechanism involved in the TM changes associated with glaucoma., expression of miR-206 and its target gene, fn 1, may contribute to the progression of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, Fibrillins require the complete gelatin-binding region of fibronectin for interactions., Fibronectin is upregulated in a subset of nasopharyngeal carcinomas , and its increased immunoexpression significantly correlated with advanced features, justifying the potentiality of fibronectin as a theragnostic biomaker of nasopharyngeal carcinomas ., Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is required for PSGL-1-induced beta1 integrin clustering which ultimately regulates beta1 integrin-mediated Jurkat cell adhesion to fibronectin., the dual antibody approach utilizes commercially available antibodies and simple immunohistochemistry, thus making it accessible to a wide range of scientists interested in fibronectin mechanobiology, Oncofetal fibronectin levels are potentially useful as a biomarker for urothelial inflammation and repair., Eppin and Fn bind to each other in human semen and on human ejaculated spermatozoa., Denaturation of the chimeric collagen increased its affinity for fibronectin, as seen for mammalian collagens., Identify FN1(high)MITF(low) cell type in melanoma associated with ischemic necrosis, and propose these cells reside at the crossroad of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stem-like cell induction, plausibly triggered by the hypoxic environment., This study suggests that serum fibronectin levels may constitute a promising biomarker to monitor disease progression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients., Serum C4b, FN, and PEPD are associated with the pathological changes of pulmonary tuberculosis., Gal-1 decreased the expression of collagen genes COL3A1 and COL5A1 but increased the expression of fibronectin and laminin 5., Data indicate that ibrinogen binding to Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) is sterically regulated by fibronectin binding., Most of these motifs are located on the F1 and F3 faces of the Hap passenger domain structure, suggesting that the F1 and F3 faces may be responsible for the Hap passenger domain-fibronectin interaction., Endothelial cell-derived fibronectin extra domain A promotes colorectal cancer metastasis via inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition, We proved that the CD157-fibronectin interaction occurs with living cells, where it elicits CD157-mediated cell responses., MMF could inhibit MCP-1 expression and the secretion of FN, indicating that it may delay the progression of glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy to ultimately achieve protective effects on the kidney., Data indicate the expression of fetal ED-A(+) fibronectin and B (+) tenascin-C splicing variants in cardiac tissue from heart transplant recipients., The mean level of cellular fibronectin expression in cases with liver fibrosis was significantly higher than the corresponding level in cases with liver cirrhosis., rFN/CDHs may induce hMSCs differentiation into osteoblasts and PLGA/collagen nanofibers loaded with rFN/CDHs have potential in bone tissue engineering., The AT heterozygote in FN-1 (rs940739A/T) was found to be significantly associated with knee osteoarthritis in 2 case-control studies. FN-1 rs6725958C/A was significant only if both studies were combined., Results found that the majority of colorectal cancer cases with depressed tumors had a higher frequency of elevated FN1 expression., High fibronectin expression is associated with thyroid papillary carcinoma follicular variant., the possible regulatory effect of fibronectin peptides in liver fibrosis was further supported by the ability of these peptides to induce metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) expression in human monocytes., homophilic fibronectin binding peptides might have novel applications in the field of tissue regeneration as tools to regulate neovascularization via VEGF signaling, serum levels of both fibronectin and vitronectin may be the diagnostic markers in melanoma patients, but not markers of prognosis, Data indicate that fibronectin fragments (FN-fs) are present in adult ntervertebral disc (IVD) from adult subjects, and ADAM-8, known to cleave FN, is present at the pericellular matrix of disc cells., Study tested the role of the histone acetyltransferase p300 in alternative splicing and showed that knockdown of p300 promotes inclusion of the fibronectin (FN1) alternative EDB exon; these data suggest that histone acetylation could be one of the mechanisms how promoter and promoter binding proteins influence alternative splicing., Data indicate that the IL-33/ST2 protein pathway may promote airway remodeling in asthma through activating HLF-1 fibroblast to over-express fibronectin 1 (FN1) and type 1 collagen (Col1)., fibronectin secretion has a role in mesothelial cells promotion of early ovarian cancer metastasis, These results have indicated that the cysteine proteinase of Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic forms, through its fibronectin-degrading activity, is implicated in host cell invasion., PEDF inhibited breast cancer cell migration and invasion by down-regulating fibronectin, Report FN1-FGFR1 genetic fusion as a frequent event in phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour., Data indicate that the interaction between the alpha4beta1 integrin and the EDA domain of fibronectin helps to drive tissue fibrosis by promoting a contractile phenotype and an increase in fibronectin synthesis and deposition., The expression of terminal sugars on milk FN is different from that of plasma FN of the lactating mother and is associated with milk maturation., Mechanical stretch upregulated fibronectin and TGF-beta1 expression and activated STAT3 in proximal renal tubular epithelial cells., Fibronectin gene expression has a potential role in the pathogenesis of keloid., Genetic induction of fibronectin by HER2 triggers cell adhesion and invasion capacities., Our results indicate that invasion of cervical cancer is accomplished by the remodeling of the interstitial stroma, which process includes decrease and partial replacement of fibronectin and collagens by a laminin-rich matrix, we describe a new type of hybrid molecules including 10th type III human fibronectin domain (10Fn3) - one of the alternative scaffold proteins which can be used for the construction of antibody mimics with various binding specificity, Serum fibronectin was increased in T2DM patients compared to controls, and in patients with diabetic nephropathy, compared to diabetic patients without nephropathy. Fibronectin increased with nephropathy severity., Fn Msp iv polymorphism appeared to be associated with diabetic nephropathy susceptibility., Serum- and CSF-FN levels constitute a potential clinical diagnostic biomarker for epilepsy and could also be used for differential diagnosis., These results suggest that MUC5B production can be regulated by ECM components and that MUC5B is upregulated by fibronectin and laminin via the integrin, ERK, and NF-kappaB dependent pathway., Data show that the amount of the the extra domain-B (EDB) splice variant of fibronectin (FN) produced by endothelial cells increases with matrix stiffness., The results indicated that MMP-9-degraded Fibronectin can adjust constituents of the avb6 heterodimers at the early phase and significantly elevate amounts of b6 integrin subunits at a later period, studies suggest that the presence and spacing of the RGD and synergy sites modulate integrin alpha3beta1 binding to Fn, An observed increase in PLD activity was mediated through boosting the binding of PLD with dynamin which in turn facilitated fibronectin-induced cell spreading., Asthmatic human bronchial epithelial cells are intrinsically primed to produce more fibronectin, which when deposited into the extracellular matrix, is capable of driving remodeling and inflammation., The pathogenic H5N1 and H7N9 influenza virus variants cause more severe deregulation of NRF2 and fibronectin in host epithelial cells than the less pathogenic H1N1 variant., Study determined the structure of third type III domain, 3FN3 using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and investigated its stability, folding, and unfolding., polymorphisms in rs6725958, rs10202709, and rs35343655 of the Fn gene had no obvious effect on the susceptibility to the development of calcium oxalate stones in the Uighur population, residing in the Xinjiang region of China., Fibronectin binding to heparan sulfate mediates exosome-cell interactions in Myeloma., the correlation between placental DNAm of INHBA/FN1 and maternal serum INHA/FN1 levels indicate that DNAm may be a useful tool to identify novel biomarkers for adverse pregnancy outcomes in some cases., that strong FN1 promoter activity drives inappropriate expression of the biologically active portion of EGF, These results suggest novel functions of endogenous FN involved in immune evasion and maintenance of hepatitis b virus replication.,
OFFICIAL_GENE_SYMBOL FN1,
OMIM_DISEASE Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits 2, Plasma fibronectin deficiency,
SP_COMMENT alternative products:Additional isoforms seem to exist, developmental stage:Ugl-Y1, Ugl-Y2 and Ugl-Y3 are present in the urine from 0 to 17 years of age., disease:Defects in FN1 are the cause of glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits type 2 (GFND2) [MIM:601894]; also known as familial glomerular nephritis with fibronectin deposits or fibronectin glomerulopathy. GFND is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder characterized clinically by proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and hypertension that leads to end-stage renal failure in the second to fifth decade of life., function:Fibronectins bind cell surfaces and various compounds including collagen, fibrin, heparin, DNA, and actin. Fibronectins are involved in cell adhesion, cell motility, opsonization, wound healing, and maintenance of cell shape. Interaction with TNR mediates inhibition of cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth., online information:Fibronectin entry, PTM:Forms covalent cross-links mediated by a transglutaminase, such as F13A or TGM2, between a glutamine and the epsilon-amino group of a lysine residue, forming homopolymers and heteropolymers (e.g. fibrinogen-fibronectin, collagen-fibronectin heteropolymers)., PTM:It is not known whether both or only one of Thr-2064 and Thr-2065 are/is glycosylated., PTM:Sulfated., similarity:Contains 12 fibronectin type-I domains., similarity:Contains 16 fibronectin type-III domains., similarity:Contains 2 fibronectin type-II domains., subunit:Mostly heterodimers or multimers of alternatively spliced variants, connected by 2 disulfide bonds near the carboxyl ends; to a lesser extent homodimers. Interacts with FBLN1, AMBP, TNR, LGALS3BP and COL13A1. Interacts with FBLN7., tissue specificity:Plasma FN (soluble dimeric form) is secreted by hepatocytes. Cellular FN (dimeric or cross-linked multimeric forms), made by fibroblasts, epithelial and other cell types, is deposited as fibrils in the extracellular matrix. Ugl-Y1, Ugl-Y2 and Ugl-Y3 are found in urine.,