Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 2.1
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
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toll like receptor 4(TLR4) toll like receptor 4(TLR4) Related Genes Homo sapiens
CHROMOSOME 9,
CYTOBAND 9q32-q33,
ENSEMBL_GENE_ID ENSG00000136869,
GENERIF_SUMMARY Intestinal epithelial cells express very low levels of Toll-like receptor-4 by a mechanism which protects them against dysregulated proinflammatory signaling in response to Gram-negative commensal bacteria and their products., A TLR4 agonist specifically promoted the production of the Th1-inducing cytokine interleukin (IL) 12 p70 and the chemokine interferon-gamma inducible protein (IP)-10., downregulation on gingival fibroblasts by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide, LPS may activate a mammalian serine protease, which generates a product required for TLR4 signalling, identification of role in novel signal transduction pathway utilized by exracellular HSP70, regulation of TLR4 surface expression in human peripheral blood monocytes and B cells by interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4, stimulation of signal pathway by HSP70, signaling events by TLR2 and TLR4 agonists are similar but there are distinct differences in the responses elicited by two bacterial products, sequence polymorphism in the gene causes an endotoxin-hyporesponsive phenotype in humans, expression regulated by immune-mediated signals in intestinal epithelial cells, The extracellular, but not cytoplasmic domain of TLR1 inhibits Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in endothelial cells. TLR1 might restrain the dangerous innate response to LPS by binding to TLR4 and preventing the formation of active signaling complexes., Though TLR4 binds bacterial lipopolysaccharides, it had no role in binding non-lipopolysaccharide components from C. pneumoniae., interferon-gamma augmented mRNA and surface expression of TLR4 in monocytes and macrophages, involvement in cell activation by mannuronic acid polymers, bacterium-induced CXCL10 secretion by osteoblast can be mediated in part through toll-like receptor 4, The Asp299Gly TLR4 polymorphism is associated with a decreased risk of atherosclerosis., Hypoxia decreases TLR4 expression in endothelial cells and this change is mediated by mitochondrial ROS leading to attenuation of AP-1 transcriptional activity., Data show that the TLR4-mediated LPS response in bladder epithelial cells also uses the co-receptor CD14 for efficient LPS signalling., According to the present results an allelic variation in the TLR4 receptor was associated with increased risk of premature birth., Susceptibility of human dendritic cells (DCs) to measles virus (MV) depends on their activation stages in conjunction with the level of CDw150, Lipopolysaccharide rapidly traffics to and from the Golgi apparatus with the toll-like receptor 4-MD-2-CD14 complex, Although expression levels of TLR4 mRNA and protein are normal in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-tolerant monocytes, association of TLR4 with MyD88 is inhibited by LPS restimulation., We conclude that the CARD15 mutation and hyporesponsive TLR4 allele do not contribute to ethnic variation in the incidence of PPROM., role of polymorphism in susceptibility to Candida albicans infection, Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 4 are not associated with asthma or atopy-related phenotypes., lipopolysaccharide may induce proliferation of periodontal epithelial cells by upregulating keratinocyte growth factor 1 expression via the CD14 and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 gene expression use a signaling pathway requiring protein tyrosine kinase and that such regulation may occur through tyrosine phosphorylation of TLR4., TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA were significantly up-regulated by IL-10 in monocyte cells that were adherent compared to those nonadherent., participates in the innate immune response to stimulation by bacterial products in periodontal tissues, Expressed in immortalized human liver cell lines, These data indicate that Toll-like receptor 4 modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) surface chemokine receptor expression is a critical determinant of PMN migration., innate immune recognition of LTA via LBP, CD14, and TLR-2 represents an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of systemic complications in the course of infectious diseases brought about by Gram-positive pathogens. while TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved., findings indicate that, although the gastric epithelium is important in directing the immune response against H. pylori infections, the response is independent of TLR4, Mutations in the gene for toll-like receptor 4 and multiple sclerosis, Review. TLR4 signaling is intimately involved in anti-cancer immunity induced by immunopotentiators. Our clinical examination in oral cancer patients also suggests the requirement of both TLR4 and MD-2 in the OK-432-induced anti-cancer host response., human activated hepatic stellate cells utilize components of TLR4 signal transduction cascade to stimulate NF-kappaB and JNK and up-regulate chemokines and adhesion molecules., TLR4 activation of NFkappaB requires Bruton's tyrosine kinase, Assay of locus-specific genetic load implicates mutations in this receptor in meningococcal susceptibility., First comparative investigation in highly purified, monocyte-depleted neutrophil populations shows a distinct and separate role for TLR4, compared with TLR2, in neutrophil responses and neutrophil survival., TLR4 is able to undergo multiple glycosylations without MD-2 but that the specific glycosylation essential for cell surface expression requires the presence of MD-2., Among symptomatic men with documented coronary artery disease, the TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism was associated with the risk of cardiovascular events; carriers of the allele had significantly more benefit from pravastatin, Polymorphism is associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome., TLR4 polymorphism contributes to the development acute rejection after lung transplantation., TLR4 has a role in inducing IL8 transcription in a pathway involving oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine, TLR4 has a role in upregulating IL-8 through neutrophil elastase, Data show that monocytes from individuals heterozygous for both mutations in the toll-like receptor 4 gene exhibit no deficit in recognition of lipopolysaccharides from different species of bacteria., Data show that Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4 were expressed on dendritic cells, whereas only TLR2 was weakly detected on Langerhans cells., there may be a resistive exercise training-induced reduction in TLR4/CD14 expression in older women., TLR-4 polymorphism does not appear to influence susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis., a functional Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was expressed on human mast cells when it was up-regulated by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)., saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids reciprocally modulate the activation of TLR4 and its downstream signaling pathways involving MyD88/IRAK/TRAF6 and PI3K/AKT., signaling pathways involved in NF-kappa B activation by TLR4 signaling in microvascular endothelial cells, The TLR4 gene G299/I399 polymorphisms were associated with a modified response to endotoxin in asthma, Down-regulation of TLR-4 by TNF-alpha is associated with LPS hyporeactivity for NF-kappaB formation, whereas upregulation of TLR-4 via IL-6 can increase the responsiveness of mononuclear phagocytes, Results show that the surface receptors TLR2/4 and CD14 are essential for in vitro cellular activation induced by Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide-containing outer membrane vesicles and purified lipopolysaccharides., The findings of this study do not support the hypothesis that the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) Asp299Gly polymorphism influences predisposition to and progression of coronary artery disease., Toll-like receptor-4 aggregation and signal transduction are affected by lipopolysaccharide binding to MD-2, data demonstrate that the heterozygous Asp299Gly polymorphism does not exhibit a functional defect in cytokine release after the stimulation of blood monocytes, LPS-TLR4 signaling to IRF-3/7 and NF-kappaB involves the toll adapters TRAM and TRIF., lipopolysaccharide-TLR4-mediated activation of IFN-beta requires the adapter complex of TICAM-2 and TICAM-1, TLR4-mediated activation of the interferon-sensitive response element has an absolute requirement for NFKBp65, whereas the TLR3-induced ISRE response is NFKB-independent, The Asp299Gly polymorphism provides evidence of an association of the TLR4 receptor and acute coronary syndromes., TLR4 has a role in an LPS-induced inflammatory response as demonstrated by increased mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity, IL-8 production, and tumor necrosis factor alpha production, The endotoxin receptor TLR4 polymorphism is not associated with diabetes or components of the metabolic syndrome, When the effect of lipopolysaccharide contamination is abrogated, Hsp65 is unable to activate TLR4 in the presence of CD14 and MD2., TLR4 is a key element in the response of pulmonary epithelial cells to Gram-negative bacteria. The intracellular localization of TLR4 in lung epithelia plays an important role in the prevention of the development of chronic inflammatory disease., The single-nucleotide polymorphisms at position +896 or +1196 in the TLR-4 gene is associated with systemic inflammatory hyporesponsiveness to inhaled lipopolysaccharide., P. gingivalis LPS-dependent antagonism of E. coli LPS in human endothelial cells likely involves the ability of P. gingivalis LPS to directly compete with E. coli LPS at the TLR4 signaling complex., Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile genotypes of the TLR4 gene are associated with reduced prevalence of diabetic neuropathy in type 2, but not in type 1, diabetes., TLR4 intracellular domains have an important role in receptor dimerization, downregulated by Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in monocytes, expression of CCL21, and TLRs 2 and 4 is predominantly induced in the peripheral lymphatic endothelium of the small intestinal microcirculation, TLR4 has a role in hyaluronan-stimulated endothelial recognition of injury, in this model of natural LPS release, the variation between individuals in TNF-alpha release can only modestly be determined by genetic background (tumor necrosis factor -alpha promoter, Nod2 and TLR4) of the individual, Association between rheumatoid arthritis disease susceptibility and functional TLR-4 variant. TLR-4 polymorphism also associated with disease activity at baseline but not with disease severity or outcome., Reactive oxygen species regulate immune signaling through TLR4 via their effects on NF-kappa B activation, Expression of toll-like receptor 4 and immune response in innate immunity may be altered after surgical insults., primary ATII cells express mRNA and protein for both TLR-2 and TLR-4, which can be modulated by incubation with lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor, Involvement of CD14/TLR4, CR3, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in the degradation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase in response to LPS., Comparison of the genotypes of 242 patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and 210 healthy subjects shows that polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 do not confer susceptibility to GBS and are not associated with Campylobacter jejuni infection., TLR4 is not only located intracellularly but also functions intracellularly in human coronary artery & umbilical vein endothelial cells, thus internalization of LPS is required for its activation., TLR4 mediates antitumor immunity induced by the plant-derived (Aeginetia indica L) protein AILb-A., upregulation of TLR expression during differentiation in keratinocytes could be a part of the differentiation process of keratinocytes and could have biological significance in protecting skin against microbes., detected in epithelial cells lining the entire urinary tract and in the renal tubular epithelium in response to Escherichia coli infections, Toll-like receptor 4 is activated by MD-2 and lipopolysaccharide in inflammation, activation of Rac1 leads to HIV-LTR trans-activation, mediated through TIRAP. Rac1 and TIRAP are important in TLR4 activation of HIV replication, Hepatocytes utilize components of TLR4 signal transduction pathways in response to lipopolysaccharide., inhibition of TLR4-mediated activation of NF-kappa B by MalE190A, The Asp299Gly TLR4-allele might have a protective role in carotid atherosclerosis, but not in cerebral ischemia., TLR4 of retinal pigment epithelial cells participates in transmembrane signaling events that contribute to the recognition and clearance of effete photoreceptor outer segments, a process central to the maintenance of normal vision., Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was expressed in the human adrenocortical cell line NCI-H295. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human adrenal glands revealed TLR4 expression in the adrenal cortex, but not in the adrenal medulla., The presence of multiple lipid A species in Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide contributes to cell activation through both TLR2 and TLR4., Results show that the N-terminal region of toll-like receptor 4 is essential for association with MD-2, which is required for the cell surface expression and hence the responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide., pancreatic elastase-induced proinflammatory effects are mediated by TLR4 and NF-kappaB in human myeloid cells, Direct interaction of TLR4 with NADPH oxidase 4/NOX4 is involved in lipopolysaccharide-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species and NF-kappa B activation in HEK293T cells., The TLR4 (Asp299Gly) polymorphism was associated with a 4-fold higher prevalence of asthma in school-aged children (adjusted odds ratio 4.5, 95% CI 1.1-17.4)and decreased LPS-induced IL-12(p70) and IL-10 responses., The TLR4 896 A > G polymorphism contributes to inter-individual differences in the vaginal immune defense against G. vaginalis and anaerobic Gram-negative rods., TLRs are differentially expressed in distinct compartments of the female reproductive tract, Coxsackievirus B4 triggers cytokine production through a TLR4-dependent pathway in pancreatic cells., The mutants of TLR4 did not inhibit H. pylori-induced COX-2 promoter activity. in gastric mucosa., the endotoxin tolerance seen in patients with sepsis does not depend solely on TLR-2 or TLR-4 expression, interleukin-1beta has roles in direct and toll-like receptor 4-mediated neutrophil activation and survival, TLR4 antibody blockage in human macrophages demonstrates that TLR4 is a putative receptor of extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides and mediates the consequent immunomodulating events associated with IL-1 gene expression., Prevalence of the TLR4 genotype may have an association with acute myocardial infarction and with longevity., The extracellular TLR4-MD-2 complex, but not TLR4 alone, can bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Extracellular TLR4 domain (residues Glu24-Lys631) enables MD-2 binding and LPS recognition to TLR4., The Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly gene polymorphism was not associated with risk of incident myocardial infarction or stroke in a large prospective study of US men., blockage of TLR-4 activation by EGCG resulted in inactivation of extracellular signal response kinase 1/2 and of nuclear factor-kappaB, the downstream molecules of TLR-4 signaling induced by H. pylori, Neutrophil elastase, MIP-2, and TLR-4 have roles in progression of human sepsis and murine peritonitis, TGF-beta1 can specifically interfere with TLR2, -4, or -5 ligand-induced responses involving the adaptor molecule MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88) but not the TRAM/TRIF signaling pathway, The TLR4 299Gly allele was associated with reduced CRP levels and, in parallel, a decreased risk of angiographic CAD and clinical diabetes, Pattern recognition of bacterial superantigens by MHC class II receptors may exacerbate the proinflammatory response of monocytes to Gram-negative infection or endotoxin by up-regulation of TLR4., co-existence of a mutation in either the TLR4 or CD14 gene, and in NOD2/CARD15 is associated with an increased susceptibility to developing Crohn disease compared to ulcerative colitis, evidence that HPV-VLP signal dendritic cells through a pathway involving proteoglycan receptors, TLR4 and NF-kappaB, the function of CaMK II is essential for PAF-induced macrophage priming, while CaMK IV is not specific for priming by PAF and appears to have a direct link in TLR4-mediated events, CXCR4 could exert local control of TLR4 and suggest the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to suppression of TLR4 function, These results clearly demonstrate that the amino-terminal TLR4 region of Glu(24)-Pro(34) is critical for MD-2 binding and LPS signaling., TLR4 may play an important role in modulation of immunological tolerance in the lower parts of the female reproductive tract, and in host defence against ascending infection., Sampling analysis in Han population of Chongqing showed that the two highly distributed SNPs of TLR4 were common in Chinese population and could be used for genetic marker of TLR4 gene., TLR4 SNPs are associated with resistance to Legionnaires' disease., Engagement of TLR4 mediates deactivation of human monocytes in the presence of tumor cells, an effect apparently involved in IL-1 receptor associated kinase-M (IRAK-M) up-regulation., We further confirmed that the No. 9 peptide could bind to TLR4 extracellular domain, but the No. 24 peptide could not, suggesting that two peptides were identified as antagonists of TLR4, which inhibited the effects of endotoxin in vitro., lipopolysaccharides from some Helicobacter pylori strains are able to antagonize TLR4, BCG induced transcription and secretion of the chemokine CXCL8, by signalling through Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4, in conjunction with myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)in neutrophils, Although the frequency of TLR4 D299G polymorphism was not different from controls, NOD2/TLR4 mutation carriers tended to present at earlier age., Mastoparan, a G protein agonist peptide,preferentially targets the TLR4 pathway over the TLR2 pathway, confirming the importance of heterotrimeric G proteins in TLR4-mediated responses, The TLR4 expression was analyzed after the stimulation of JAR cells with different TLR ligands., Data suggest that, during Gram-negative bacteria-induced infections or inflammatory processes, LPS could affect pituitary tumour pathophysiology and progression in the subset of Tlr4-expressing pituitary adenomas., HSP65 and HSP70 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis signal via TLR4 in human cells, examination of a variant as candidate gene for age related macular degeneration susceptibility, TLR4 signaling effects the induction of cell death by secreted Helicobacter pylori antigen HP0175 in human gastric epithelial cell line AGS., activation of TLR4-MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling pathways by endotoxins determined by structure of the endotoxin, RP105 regulated TLR4 signaling in dendritic cells, TLR4 signaling promotes a proinflammatory phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells, variation in the TLR4 gene contributes to inter-individual variability in susceptibility to coronary ischaemic events, and TLR4 genotype and statin treatment may have a synergistic effect, expression down-regulated in Helicobacter pylori infected monocytes by clarithromycin, SIGIRR inhibits IL-1R and TLR4-mediated signaling through different mechanisms, minimized expression of TLR4 contributes to the susceptibility of very low birth weight infants to infections with Gram-negative bacteria due to the lack of cytokines to boost initial immune response, unstable angina and myocardial infarction are associated with enhanced expression and signaling events downstream of hTLR4 in circulating monocytes, TLR4 is associated with both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis; Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile variants do not show an association with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, or inflammatory bowel disease and are likely not the causal polymorphisms, results indicate that Entamoeba histolytica lipopeptidophosphoglycan initiates an innate immune response by interacting with TLR2 and TLR4, Data possibly implicate TLR4 as an important genetic factor for stroke in ethnic Chinese populations despite the rarity of the Asp299Gly polymorphism, phenomenon as shown by experiments using different toll-like receptor-agonists in interleukin 10(-/-) macrophages, first study to demonstrate that even homozygosity for the Asp299Gly mutation does not confer hyporesponsiveness to stimulation with TLR4 stimuli, An Asp299Gly polymorphism in the TLR-4 receptor has no clinical relevance in multiple sclerosis patients with different TLR-4 genotypes., TLR3 and TLR4 signal primarily through NF-kappaB to enhance transcription of pIgR mRNA., TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism seems to be a minor risk factor for CD in the population studied. TLR4 and CARD15/NOD2 mutations may contribute to the development of distinct CD phenotypes., Diminished expression and function of TLR4 is a likely consequence of chronic filarial antigen stimulation and could serve as a novel mechanism underlying the dysfunctional immune response in lymphatic filariasis, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is expressed in bile duct epithelial cells and periportal hepatocytes in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) livers, suggesting the possible involvement of bacterial pathogens and TLR4 in the inflammatory processes of PBC., a functional Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphism may have a role in susceptibility to gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, first study describing TLR expression on tumor cells of gastric carcinoma and its precursor lesions, signaling pathways activated by LPS and its receptor TLR4 and TNFalpha have roles in septic shock [review], Finds that TLR-4 polymorphisms influence regulators of the inflammation induced by endotoxin in organic dusts, The up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis supports the idea of a role for Toll-like receptors in allergic airway inflammation., TLR-4 protein expression is increased in interstitial trophoblasts of paitents with preeclampsia., Our data further support a role for innate immunity in neurodegeneration and give the first evidence that the TLR4 Asp299Gly variant may be protective toward the development of LOAD., Our results suggest that overexpression of TLR2 and TLR4 in CHO cells sensitizes the cells to serum deprivation-induced apoptosis and that the mechanisms are involved in the death receptor-mediated signaling pathway., In females the TLR4 and IL4 genes show an epistatic effect on the risk of asthma., This data defines an additional role for TLR4 in the host defense in the lung., the synergistic effect of LPS and PepG on cytokine release is preceded by a reciprocal upregulation of TLR2 and TLR4 by both Staphylococcus aureus cell wall components, Polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene may be associated with milder forms of disease in atopic asthmatics in the Turkish children studied., TLR4/NF-kappaB plays an important role in monocyte-endothelium adhesion partly through upregulation of LOX-1, ICAM-1 and E-selection expression., first direct evidence that HMGB1 can interact with both TLR2 and TLR4 and also supply an explanation for the ability of HMGB1 to induce cellular activation and generate inflammatory responses that are similar to those initiated by LPS, TLR2 and TLR4 agonists have a significant role in diseases such as atherosclerosis and DIC, but our research suggests that this is through a mechanism other than direct platelet activation or by modification of platelet responses to other agonists., Maternal allergy status may affect allergic risk in offspring through a decreased expression of fetal TLR4., A PRotein Associated with Tlr4 (PRAT4B), regulates cell surface expression of TLR4. PRAT4B has a signal peptide followed by a mature peptide. PRAT4B is associated with the hypoglycosylated, immature form of TLR4 but not with MD-2 or TLR2., the subcellular localization of TLR-4 in term placenta is preferentially in the maternal facing plasma membrane compared to basal membrane ., A study evaluating the role of polymorphic alleles of TLR4 gene in susceptibility to brucellosis is presented., Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 4 is associated with prostate cancer, TLR4-mediated responses to malaria in vivo and TLR-4 polymorphisms are associated with disease manifestation., Reduced TXA(2) biosynthesis may contribute to the protective cardiovascular phenotype of TLR4 polymorphisms., TLR-4 gene mutations increased risk for severe acute GVHD, Mal phosphorylation has an effect on tyrosine during signaling by TLR2 and TLR4 and Btk is the kinase involved, High-dose simvastatin pretreatment blunted TLR4 expression on monocytes in a human endotoxemia model on a posttranscriptional level., Upregulation of human TLR-4 gene expression during the differentiation of macrophages into foam cells could increase TLR-4 protein synthesis dramatically., the TLR4 gene promoter region point mutations do not appear to play a role in myocardial infarction, Both hypoxia and heat shock prevented the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in adult CD11b although it was unaltered in neonates., data provide evidence for a common requirement for Bruton's tyrosine kinase in TLR2- and TLR4-mediated induction of two important proinflammatory cytokines, TNF and IL-1beta, concludes that Toll-like receptor 4 is not expressed in epithelial layer, but rather on smooth muscle and myenteric plexus cells and that expression is functional, Ciprofloaxin suppressed the expression of toll-like receptor-4 induced by lipopolysaccharides in monocytes., Activation of innate immunity through TLR4 in the donor kidney contributes to the development of acute rejection after renal transplantation., These data support the novel concept that TLR4 activation in ASM elicits changes in ASM function that are regulated by opposing effects of MAPK signaling., role for lung epithelial TLR4 as a modulator of cellular apoptosis in response to oxidant stress, The myristoylation of TRAM targets it to the plasma membrane, where it is essential for LPS responses through the TLR4 signal transduction pathway., TLR4 Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile polymorphisms are associated with an increased susceptibility to Candida bloodstream infections, and an increased production of IL-10 is probably involved in this effect., In human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells, at least TLR2 and 4 are capable of mediating innate immune system function in vitro, suggesting the involvement of TLRs in the development of chronic inflammatory cholangiopathies., Taken together, these results suggest that TLR4 may provide an explanation for the pathological ability of gangliosides to cause inflammatory conditions in the brain., findings indicated that the polymorphism of CD14 but not TLR4 Asp299Gly mutation was associated with Chinese patients with colorectal cancer, Elevated circulating levels of HSP70 may be involved in TLR4 signal-mediated immune response and the progression of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction, Cyanobacterial product is a potent competitive inhibitor of lipopolysaccharides in vitro and in vivo and reveal the requirement of sustained TLR4 stimulation for induction of cytokine genes in human dendritic cells., we here demonstrate that S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and N. meningitidis each activate several TLRs in species-specific patterns and show that infection with live pathogens may lead to activation of PRR not targeted by inactivated bacteria., The capacity of monocytes to synthesize proinflammatory cytokines was significantly reduced in infection prone chronic renal insufficiency patients, and this may possibly be due to the reduced monocyte expression of TLR4, Pathogen recognition receptor TLR4 is involved in activation of immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells by the envelope protein surface unit (ENV-SU) of multiple sclerosis-associated retroviral element (MSRV) of human endogenous retrovirus., SP-A bound to sTLR4 and MD-2 in a Ca2+-dependent manner, and involved the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) in the binding. SP-A avidly bound to the deglycosylated forms of sTLR4 and MD-2, suggesting a protein/protein interaction., TLR2 and TLR4 ligand interaction with the N-terminal domain of Gp96 amplifies innate and adaptive immune response, This study demonstrates that TLR4 assembly and activation following LPS exposure require the production of ceramide by PC-PLC, which appears to be CD14-dependent., TLR4 and TLR9 polymorphisms increased the risk of low birth weight in infants; polymorphisms of TLR4 increased the risk of maternal anemia., Data show the expressions of TLRs 4, MD-2 and Myd88 were up-regulated during acute phase in Kawasaki disease, suggesting that aberrant activation of TLRs 4 might be one of the initiating factors of immune aberrance in KD., A structural ectodomain model of TLR4 that accounts for the diminished responsiveness of mutant TLR4 polymorphisms to structurally unrelated TLR4 agonists is proposed., TLR4 has a heterozygous Thr 135 Ala polymorphism at its leucine-rich repeat (LRR)in patients with poorly-differentiated gastric adenocarcinomas., Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are increased in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage lesions. TLR-2 and TLR-4 ligands strongly induce catabolic responses in chondrocytes., TLR4 mediates chlamydial heat shock protein 60-induced apoptosis in primary human trophoblasts and placental fibroblasts, providing a novel mechanism of pathogenesis for poor fertility and pregnancy outcome in women with persistent chlamydia infection., The moderate systemic inflammatory response produced by intravenous LPS administration in human subjects is not modulated by the presence of heterozygous mutations in the hTLR4 gene., no effect on clinical phenotype was seen for TLR4 genotype in cystic fibrosis in the 100 subjects studied, This study revealed a significant increase in the expression of CD14 and TLR4 in inflamed human dental pulp tissue., HSP60 uses TLR2 as well as TLR4 to cause its mitogenic effect on venous smooth muscle cells, data suggest that there is a differential usage of TLR2 and TLR4 in HMGB1 signaling in primary cells and in established cell lines., we report an association of microsatelite GT polymorphisms of TLR2 gene and Asp299Gly polymorphism of the TLR4 gene with sporadic colorectal cancer among Croatians., Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide decreases lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF-alpha-induced expression of TLR4 and its correlation with the production of CCL2 and CXCL8 chemokines in human synovial fibroblasts, A mutation in TLR4 is associated with sarcoidosis., Activation of TLR4 mediates chemokine release in airway smooth muscle cells isolated from human lung., increased monocyte expression of TLR2, but not of TLR4, correlates significantly with both increased circulating TNF-alpha levels and hepatic necroinflammatory activity in this disorder, 11350C variant suggested that the TLR4 3'-UTR is a potent regulator of gene expression and downregulation may involve a high risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma., VIP decreased monocyte differentiation to macrophages induced by LPS from either species and also reduced overall TLR2 and TLR4 expression in these cells., findings demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 were expressed at relatively high levels on the surface of human adipose cells, Activation of NADPH oxidase and MAPK-signaling pathway contribute to HuR-mediated stabilization of TLR4 mRNA induced by LPS in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Stimulation of HASMCs with LPS increased the cytosolic HuR level in vitro., Findings suggest NADPH oxidase activation, mRNA stabilization, and MAPK signaling pathways play critical roles in LPS-enhanced TLR4 expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells, which contributes to vascular inflammation and cardiovascular disorders., RANTES down-regulates TLR4 ligation-induced IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion by enhancing IL-10 production in PB monocytes., TLR2 activation was observed with a high bacterial inoculum, and in epithelial cells expressing TLR2 but not TLR4. Enterobacteria-activated leukocytes and endothelial cells in a TLR4/MD-2-dependent, Chronic inflammation and LPS stimulation increases the level of TLR4 mRNA in primary cultured human bronchial epithelial cells obtained from patients with COPD., Translocation to the basal membrane may decrease lipopolysaccharide signaling in an infection, but allow the amniotic epithelium to remain competent to invasive or intracellular bacteria., TLR4 region Glu(24)-Lys(47) is a site for MD-2 binding and that Cys(29) and Cys(40) within this region are critical residues for MD-2 binding and LPS signaling, Human retinal pigment epithelial TLR4 participates in photoreceptor outer segment membrane recognition, oxidant production, LPS recognition, and cytokine production. Potential involvement in retinal degeneratiion and inflammation., Upon LPS stimulation, expression of TLR-4 mRNA is increased in cord blood lymphocytes., no association of CD14 or TLR4 polymorphisms with H. pylori-related gastric malignancy., In the TLR4 gene, Asp 299Gly polymorphism did not reach to a statistically significant value in rheumatic heart disease patients, The role of TLR2 and TLR4 in bacterial infections and their potential role as therapeutic targets are reviewed., The role of TLR4 in the inflammatory processes associated with endotoxin-induced vascular damage and cardiovascular disease is reviewed., LPS can activate the NF-kappaB p50 of human nasal mucosal cells through TLR4., The binding of endotoxin.MD-2 to the TLR4 ectodomain (TLR4ECD) and transfer of endotoxin from CD14 to MD-2/TLR4ECD were demonstrated, There is no association of TLR4 polymorphism with diabetes mellitus, type 1 in the Basque population., a modest association between 2 functional variants of TLR4 and ankylosing spondylitis in the Newfoundland population was observed, Review. Toll Like Receptor-4, responsible for the recognition of bacterial motif as lipopolysaccharide, is implicated in PPARgamma regulation and its anti-inflammatory properties., Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells expressed intracellular form of TLR4, but not the cell surface form; unresponsiveness of these cells to lipopolysaccharide might be due to intracellular localization of TLR4, The intersubject variability of F3 mRNA production in monocytes and its relation with TLR4 was studied., These data suggest that Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression correlates with the extent and severity of coronary artery disease., Plays a role in mediating the effects of E. coli maltose-binding protein in dendritic cells., study shows tyrosine kinase Syk constitutively associates with TLR4 in THP-1 cells; findings implicate Syk as a novel modulator of LPS-mediated TLR4 response in monocytic cells & shed insight on the kinetics of early complex formation upon LPS engagement, Development of skin lesions in mycosis fungoides appears associated with an increase of TLR4 expression by keratinocytes in cutaneous lesions., In a genotypic analysis of Koreans with systemic autoimmune diseases, we found Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor 4., REVIEW, Haplotypes analysis of the two TLR4 polymorphisms by three independent programs revealed association of haplotypes with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection., expression levels of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4 & TLR9 in endometrium varied in a similar pattern during the menstrual cycle; levels were high in perimenstrual period & low in periovulatory period, Expression of maturation markers was diminished with increasing zoledronic acid levels upon lipopolysaccharide activation., Interferon-gamma and bacterial lipopolysaccharide act synergistically on human neutrophils enhancing interleukin-8, interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-12 p70 secretion and phagocytosis via upregulation of toll-like receptor 4, The Asp299Gly TLR4 gene polymorphism is associated with a decreased risk of aggressive periodontitis but not chronic periodontitis., Constitutive cytokine secretion leads to activation of STATs in Niemann-Pick disease type C fibroblasts, and this secretion is partly caused by endosomal accumulation of TLR4., relationship between the carrier status of HSPA1B (1267)G and TLR4 (896)G alleles and the development of recurrent UTI in childhood independently of other renal abnormalities, TLR4 expressed on human lung cancer cells is functionally active, and may play important roles in promoting immune escape of human lung cancer cells by inducing immunosuppressive cytokines and apoptosis resistance, no evidence for genetic variation in TLR4 being risk factors for increased carotid artery intima-media thickness either directly or through interaction with proinflammatory risk factors, LPS can up-regulate TLR4 mRNA and protein expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells in dose- and time-dependent manner., The incidence of polymorphism in kidney donors or recipients were not associated with different renal graft outcomes., Assembly and activation of the TLR4 receptor following LPS binding to CD14 requires the production of ceramide by acid sphingomyelinase., Platelet TLR4 activates neutrophil extracellular traps to ensnare bacteria in septic blood., There is a selective perturbation in the expression and function of TLR4, which could be consistent with a state of endotoxin tolerance, in patients with active acute anterior uveitis, By acting on TLR4 pathways by means of lipo-viro-particles, hepatitis C virus may exert a natural protective mechanism of the liver and intestines to control inflammation., TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression on monocytes was investigated by flow cytometry in the following groups of subjects, Intestinal enteroendocrine cells express TLRs which may be involved in innate immune responses., Butyrate produced by C. butyricum TO-A downregulates TLR4 mRNA level in human colonic epithelial cells., Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly polymorphism is associated with the infection of pancreatic necrosis in acute pancreatitis., Although bacterial components increased TLR4 mRNA, only lipopolysaccharide (LPS) augmented the TLR4 protein expression, The Asp299Gly TLR4 polymorphism does not alter receptor function and does not influence the risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection., In neonates the mRNA expression of TLR4 increased in the Gram negative bacterial infection groups., in addition to the classical NF-kappaB-associated pathway, TLR4 triggers a distinct and more rapid signaling response in bladder cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide, These results rule out a noteworthy influence of the TLR4 polymorphism upon human longevity or MI in German men., Downstream of TLR4 in human neutrophils there exists an unbalanced activation of the "MyD88-dependent" and the "MyD88-independent" pathways, whose mechanisms governing lipopolysaccharide responsiveness are regulated in a cell-specific manner., TLR2 and TLR4 may have a role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B and chronic severe hepatitis B., results suggest that the TLR4/11367 polymorphism may be a functional single nucleotide polymorphism, which could attenuate the LPS-induced transmembrane signaling through alteration of post-transcriptional regulation of 3'UTR & target gene expression, in vitro data indicate an anti-anabolic effect of TLR-4 in articular chondrocytes that may hamper cartilage repair in various joint diseases, analysis offers additional evidence that the TLR4 pathway - in this case, TLR4 and its signaling molecule TIRAP - plays a role in susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases, Reduced expression of TLR4 is associated with the metastatic status of colorectal cancer., TLR4 gene polymoprhisms are not associated with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in Turkish patients., Years 2 to 3 of life were a critical period, TLR4 gene polymorphisms are not significantly associated with the susceptibility to, or severity of, chronic periodontitis in a Czech population., Polymorphisms of innate immunity receptors, especially TLR4 mutation, were associated with higher risk of cytomegalovirus infection., Lipopolysaccharide can induce human T cells to adhere to fibronectin via TLR4 signaling., Evidence is presented that 299glycine and 399isoleucine alleles of TLR4 result in weak innate immune responses in both transfected bronchial epithelial cells and monocytes from children with these alleles, following exposure to bacterial or viral stimuli., Finds that Asp299Gly TLR-4 receptor polymorphism is not associated to a significant degree with aortic arteriosclerosis, Syncytiotrophoblastss expressed TLR-2 & TLR-4, but myofibroblasts expressed only TLR-4; results indicate that there exist cell type-specific patterns of TLR function in placenta which likely regulate innate immune response at the maternal-fetal interface, The PRBC group had a significantly different expression profile included up-regulation of the toll-like receptor 4. PRBCs activate inflammatory genes in circulating leukocytes., Altered TLR4 and adaptor protein expression might impair TLR4 signaling and explain the weak mucosal response to urinary tract infection in patients who develop asymmetric bacteriuria rather than symptomatic disease., Potential role for activation through TLR-4 in the inflammation and joint destruction of rheumaatoid arthritis., In unstable angina patients oxidized LDL may contribute to upregulating TLR-4 expression in monocytes., Transcription factor PU.1 controls transcription start site positioning and alternative TLR4 promoter usage., Fibrinogen alone and fibrinogen plus C5a are potent inducers of IL-8 production in monocytes, and signaling by fibrinogen is mediated through the TLR-4 pathway., E. coli modulates S100A15 and IL-8 expression of keratinocytes by recognition through TLR4., Expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in chronic rhinosinusitis tissues was significantly increased compared with that in nasal polyps and control tissues., TLR2, TLR4, and NOD2 are involved in the recognition of M. paratuberculosis by the innate immune system., The decreased let-7 expression is associated with C. parvum-induced up-regulation of TLR4 in infected cells., P. gingivalis, therefore, selectively up-regulated CCR5 by two independent signaling pathways, Rgp acting on PAR-1 and PAR-2, and LPS on TLR2 and TLR4., Suppression of TLR4 signaling pathway may be an effective treatment for atherosclerosis., First study to show a role for Toll-like receptor 4 in the antibody response to whole-cell pertussis vaccination in 1-year-old children., NF-kappaB recruits E2F1 to fully activate the transcription of NF-kappaB target genes., Study found that among pleural fluid lymphocytes, natural killer cells are a major source of early IFN-gamma upon M. tuberculosis stimulation and Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 agonists activate NK cells but do not induce IFN-gamma like M. tuberculosis does., Two TLR4 polymorphisms heterozygosity is highly associated with symptomatic RSV disease in high-risk infants and supports a dual role for TLR4 SNPs in prematurity and increased susceptibility to RSV not revealed by analysis of either alone., TLR4 polymorphisms were not associated with primary outcome of liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis C virus., TLR4 (896A>G) mutations are associated with the infection of pancreatic necrosis in the patients with AP., examined the suppression mechanism of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced, namely Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated, activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 in measles virus-infected monocytic cells, Ciprofloxacin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced toll-like receptor-4 and 8 expression on human monocytes derived from adult and cord blood., Mrp8 specifically interacts with the TLR4-MD2 complex, thus representing an endogenous ligand of TLR4., Based on structural analysis and mutagenesis experiments on MD-2 and TLR4, we propose a model of TLR4-MD-2 dimerization induced by LPS., TLR4 is hyperexpressed in the intestinal mast cells of Crohn disease patients., TLR-4 gene polymorphisms are associated with lower levels of P-selectin and von Willebrand factor among hypercholesterolemic patients., TLR4 Asp299Gly is associated with inflammatory bowel diseases in whites., Patients with severe and mild malaria showed increased surface expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on CD14(+)monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells and decreased intracellular expression of TLR9 on plasmacytoid dendritic cells compared to healthy controls., Induced TLR2 cooperated with TLR4 to amplify iNOS induction in gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori which contain lipopolysaccharide as a pathogen., No correlation was demonstrated between TLR4 polymorphisms and susceptibility to Q fever., Expressions of both TLR2 and TLR4 at the vessel wall synergistically accelerated atherosclerosis. The present study revealed the role of TLRs expressed locally at the vessel wall in the early stage of atherosclerosis, demonstrate a critical role for TLR4 in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis through effects on enterocyte injury and repair, identify a novel TLR4-focal adhesion kinase association in regulating enterocyte migration, In human neutrophils, Helicobacter pylori induces an early inflammatory response, partially mediated via TLR2 and TLR4 activation., We hypothesized that polymorphisms in inflammatory response genes contribute to the increased susceptibility to acute otitis media in otitis-prone children.In the patient group, the TLR4 299 A/A genotype was associated with an otitis-prone condition, a novel link between TLR4 and a calcium-dependent signaling cascade comprising CaMKIV-CREB-Bcl-2 that is essential for DC survival., TLR4 variants were not major risk factors for Crohn's disease in New Zealand population, but may associations with disease worldwide., Host-derived factors (IFN-gamma and TLR4 ligand) and viral factors (TLR2 ligand) act in tandem to induce and maintain monocyte/macrophage activation, thus favoring persistent inflammation in patients with cHCV infection., Fcgamma receptor IIA is involved in the neutralization of lipopolysaccharide signaling via a potent novel anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibody 15C1, Two polymorphisms of TLR4, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, have unique distributions in populations from Africa, Asia, and Europe., Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene polymorphisms in celiac disease were studied., M-Ficolin expression is silenced in macrophages but can be re-activated after prolonged activation via TLR2 and TLR4, Transfer of endotoxin from MD-2 to extracellular soluble CD14 reduces activation of cells expressing TLR4 without MD-2., Suggest that TLR2/4 may play role in aortic valve inflammation and stenosis., Nerve growth factor facilitates TLR4 signaling-induced maturation of human dendritic cells through LPS-up-regulated p75(NTR) via activation of p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways, frequency of the C/C genotype at base-pair position +3725 was significantly higher in both the moderate and the severe periodontitis patient group than in the control group, TLR4/MD-2 complex is responsible for recognition of Rhodococcus spheroides lipopolysaccharide as an agonist in human cells., TLR4 expression on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may provide an effective mechanism to block the immunosuppressive activity of MSCs and therefore to restore an efficient T-cell response in the course of dangerous infections, TLR4 does not play a major role in the predisposition to suffer from multiple sclerosis in Spain population., These findings strongly suggest that the structural properties of (endotoxin) E.MD-2, not E alone, determine agonist or antagonist effects on TLR4., These observations provide the first evidence for a role of the key innate immune receptor, TLR4, in neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease., TLR4 directly protected the oral mucosa from fungal infection via a process mediated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)., Toll-like receptor 4 gene expression was increased after stimulation with native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) and oxidized LDL., The G allele of the TLR-4 gene Asp299Gly polymorphism is associated with increased carotid artery compliance in young adults, No significan correlation between TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphism and thrombosis risk in myeoloproliferative disorders., HIV-2 gp105 activates TLR4 signaling and induces TNF-alpha production by monocytes., Mechanisms regulating IL-6 production led to the discovery that the Tec kinase bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene in chromosome X (Bmx) regulates Toll-like receptor 4-induced IL-6 production., TLR4 expression and signaling are increased in type 1 diabetes mellitus and contribute to the proinflammatory state., results suggest that hyaluronan fragments in melanoma might promote tumor invasiveness by inducing MMP- and cytokine-expression, in part in a TLR4-dependent manner, providing new insights into the relationship between cancer and innate immunity, TLR4 expression in respiratory epithelium is altered in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Expression is modulated by drugs used to treat airways inflammation and by cigarette smoke., Dysregulation of TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 expression in different parts of the intestinal mucosa may be crucial in IBD pathogenesis., Exclusive TLR4 expression may enable gastric extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of MALT type to interact with H. pylori and autoantigens., These findings suggest that the vascular smooth muscle cells of atherosclerotic coronary arteries may be activated to express TLR4, CF airway PMNs expressed enhanced level of TLR4., Role of TLR4 polymorphisms in inflammatory responses, The present study failed to find any significant association between polymorphisms and generalized aggressive periodontitis, M. bovis BCG, acting through both TLR2 and TLR4, induces the activation of the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, which in turn plays a major role in CXCL8 secretion., tyrosine phosphorylation of Mal is required for adapter signaling, regulates Mal interactions with TLR4 and receptor signaling, and is inhibited in endotoxin tolerance, TLR-4 Thr399Ileu substitution may be a risk factor for gastritis and precancerous lesions., IRF-1 silencing through RNA interference, leads to an overexpression of TLR-4 in THP-1 cells., Estimation of TLR2 expression on antigen presenting cells may be predictive of in acute rejection after liver transplantation., Benign prostate epithelial cells express both TLR 4 (LPS-specific) and TLR 9 (CpG-specific) when exposured to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CpG DNA., No evidence was found of an association between TLR4, CCR2, and CCL2 and AMD (age-related macular degeneration), inflammatory bowel disease not associated with the TLR4 c.896A>G (p.D299G) variant, Combination of lipid A hypoacylation and TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms would exhibit a compounded effect on TLR4 signaling., The Mal S180L and TLR4 G299D polymorphisms do not contribute to RA susceptibility or severity either individually or in combination., Murine beta-defensin 2 (mDF2beta) can act as an endogenous ligand for TLR-4-activating maturation of dendritic cells., The functional association between TLR4 and the S1P1 receptor demonstrates a novel mechanism in the regulation of IFN-beta and CXCL-10 in human primary gingival epithelial cells., present study investigated cellular factors involved in TLR-4-mediated IL-6 in VSMC in terms of MAPK and transcription elements, TLR 4 A299G appears to be a significant risk factor for CD, in particular colonic, nonstricturing disease., Upregulated TLR4 is associated with HO-1 reduction in peripheral blood monocytes from patients with Behcet's disease, leading to augmented inflammatory responses., Suggest that syntenin is a physiological suppressor of TRAF6 and plays an inhibitory role in IL-1R- and TLR4- mediated NF-kappaB activation pathways., TLR4 expression in human antral and corpus gastric mucosa is significantly increased during H. pylori infection, Toll-like receptor 4 mediates induction of the Bcl10-NFkappaB-interleukin-8 inflammatory pathway by carrageenan, TLR4 signaling is not deficient in hyper-IgE patients., A significant association was observed between allele G on Asp299Gly (Toll Like Receptor4) and chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis, Results show that the distributions of the 119C>A genotype of the TLR4 gene were similar in patients with mild or severe acute pancreatitis., TLR1, 2, and 4 protein colocalized with adiponectin in human adipocytes., TLR4 expression is differentially modulated on the different subsets of T cells depending on their activation status and cytokine expression., TLR4 coordinates the activation of two distinct signaling pathways (TIRAP-MyD88 and TRAM-TRIF adaptor proteins) from an intracellular location in a process organized around endocytosis of the TLR4 complex., Minor alleles of several TLR4 variants, although not directly associated with type 2 diabetes might increase the risk for type 2 diabetes in subjects with high TC/HDL-C, TAK-242 is a selective inhibitor of signaling from the intracellular domain of TLR4 and represents a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of TLR4-mediated diseases., Review provides tremendous insights the lipopolysaccharide/TLR4 signaling pathway, which induces the release of critical proinflammatory cytokines that are necessary to activate potent immune responses., racial difference can be found in the frequency of the TLR4 polymorphism, Prior knockdown of TLR4 blocked both lipopolysaccharide-induced SRC family PTK activation and barrier disruption, Results indicate that lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of Toll-like receptor 4 in chorioamnionitis triggers increased production of beta-defensin 3., the low frequency of TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms observed here and in other populations corroborates and suggests that these do not play an important role in Chagas' disease., TLR4 variant clearly reduces its potency to mediate signaling., TLR4 and NOD2 gene variants are associated with a pro-inflammatory phenotype with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome, TLR variants are unlikely to have a major impact on overall AMD risk, and the common variants studied were not associated with AMD., TLR4 and G protein-coupled receptors can interact to enhance cytokine production in epithelial cells, Specific inhibition of LPCAT down-regulated inflammatory cytokine production in monocytes and epithelial cells by preventing translocation of TLR4 into membrane lipid raft domains., one SNP in TLR4 is associated with Behcet's disease, and six SNPs have an effect on clinical features of Behcet's disease, cells that express TLR4 without MD-2 and whose response to LPS depends on ectopically produced MD-2 were most affected by expression of the G56R variant of MD-2., Vasoactive intestinal peptide acts as a negative modulator of the TLR4-signaling by overturning the production of several checkpoints molecules of the cascade and thus, widening its potential therapeutic effects., scaffold protein MyD88 as the link coupling TLR2,4 to PKCepsilon recruitment, phosphorylation, and downstream signaling., HIF-1alpha protein is selectively required for down-regulation of ASK1 activated during lipopolysaccharide-induced TLR4 downstream signalling., Pam3CSK4 and LPS induced TLR2 and TLR4 expression at mRNA and protein levels are inhibited by candesartan both in vitro and in vivo, monocyte activation in hepatitis C patients leads to deficient TLR4 signaling in these cells, The study reports an association between TLR4 polymorphisms (299 and/or 399) and atopic hypersensitivity-related phenotypes in a nonsmoking population., the monomeric form of sMD-2 is the active species both for reaction with endotoxin.CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), as needed for potent endotoxin-induced TLR4 activation, TLR-4 signaling in small intestinal epithelium promotes B-cell recruitment and IgA production in lamina propria., TLR4 may participate in cerebral ischemic injury through an MyD88-independent signal pathway., microfilariae interfere with monocyte-derived DC function by altering TLR3 and TLR4 expression and interfering with both MyD88-dependent signaling and a pathway that ultimately diminishes NF-kappaB activity, TLR4 may play a key role in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. It was the thymic tissues adjacent to thymomas but not thymomas themselves participated in the onset of MG., Interaction between TLR4 expression and the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B., Median mRNA expression of TLR2 and TLR4 of mononuclear cells was not altered, and there was no obvious trend over time., dectin-1 synergizes with both TLR2 and TLR4 pathways for the production of TNF-alpha in human primary PBMCs and in monocyte-derived macrophages., The minor allele of the TLR4 SNP, rs1927911, was associated with a lower risk of MI (odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.99)., Oxidized phospholipid inhibition of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is restricted to TLR2 and TLR4, expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 transcripts was significantly lower in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic hepatitis B virus-infected patients, Multiple SNPs in the TLR4 gene are associated with the risk of NTG (normal tension glaucoma)., People with the Asp299Gly mutation in coding region show a blunted response to inhaled LPS and increased risk of infection and various diseases, Human heat-shock protein 70 is involved in TLR4-mediated growth of endometrial cells derived from women with endometriosis., Activation of TLR4 signaling in bladder cancer cells up-regulated B7-H1 expression. This regulation was significantly attenuated by ERK or JNK inhibitor., [prevalence of] Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms seemed to be rather low in the Chinese population, which did not permit any conclusion regarding its effects on periodontitis, Analysis of proteinase-activated receptor 2 and TLR4 signal transduction, Data support a link between TLR4 expression and long-term graft outcome. Absence of TLR signaling may be a feature of tolerance and increased TLR4 signaling may be implicated in chronic rejection., TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4) polymorphisms showed an association with Ankylosing Spondylitis in the Finns only, not patients from the United Kingdom, defensin beta 2 production is mediated by TLR2 and TLR4 activation and involves a c-Fos-mediated, protein kinase C-dependent signaling pathway, TLR4 expressed on human PC3 cells is functionally active, and may play important roles in promoting prostate cancer immune escape, survival, progression, and metastasis by inducing immunosuppressive and proangiogenic cytokines., The species-specific difference between human and murine MD-2 activation of TLR4 by PTX can be explained by alterations of surface charge distribution (i.e. electrostatic potential), binding pocket size, and the locus of PTX binding within the MD-2 pocket, Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 response declines rapidly after arterial trauma in patients undergoing vascular surgery, These findings indicated that the polymorphisms of CD14, but not TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile mutations, may be an important genetic factor for HBV-related cirrhotic injury in the Chinese Han population., In inflammatory bowel disease patients selected from Southern Italy, the NOD2/CARD15, but not TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms, are associated with increased risk of Crohn's disease., TLR2 and TLR4 was significantly upregulated by Burkholderia cenocepacia infection in lung epithelial cells., HaCaT cells, NHEK, and epidermis all expressed TLR 1-10 mRNA with different intensity. TLR 4 protein was detected on the surfaces of HaCaT cells and NHEK, while the expression of TLR 2 protein was few., fibrinogen activates TLR4, explaining how fibrinogen promotes inflammatory protein expression, TLR4 variations and statins have an additive inhibitory effect on TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, No association between TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile gene polymorphisms and preeclampsia is indicated., We found no evidence that the gene polymorphism of TLR4 (p = 1.000) and overall gene polymorphism in any of the genes (p = 0.752) correlate with periodontitis., caspase-8 has a role in the production of biologically active IL-1beta in response to TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation, no difference was found in the genotype and allele frequencies of TLR4 between patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), celiac disease (CD), both T1DM and CD and controls, Estradiol regulates MICA expression in human endometrial cells., both mRNA and protein levels of TLR4 and TLR9 were strongly expressed in lung cancer tissue; the expression level of TLR4 correlated with malignancy of lung cancer, H pyloriSS1-lipopolysaccharides induces IL-8 production through activating TLR4 signaling in SGC-7901 cells, Toll-like receptor signaling 4 may induce placental corticotropin-releasing hormone expression through myeloid differentiation primary response gene (MyD88)., sarcoidosis patients are characterized by higher expression of TLR2 and TLR4., Our data suggest an involvement of TLR3 and TLR4 in endometrial diseases as demonstrated by altered expression levels in endometriosis and endometrial cancer., pneumolysin selectively induced expression of MKP1 via a TLR4-dependent MyD88-TRAF6-ERK pathway, which inhibited the PAK4-JNK signaling pathway,leading to up-regulation of MUC5AC mucin production, Respiratory syncytial virus induced epithelial TLR4 up-regulation., HP0175 transactivates epidermal growth factor receptor through TLR4 in gastric epithelial cells, Activation of TLR4 signaling in bladder cancer cells induces tumor-associated IL-6 expression via activation of p38 and ERK, whereas activation of PI3K/Akt exerts an opposing action., PI3K activation (by HIV proteins such as Nef) may contribute to reduced TLR4-mediated TNF-alpha release in HIV+ human macrophages and impair host cell response to infectious challenge., stearoyl-arachidonoyl form of phosphatidylserine disrupted the association of both TLR4 and TLR2 with their respective membrane partners that are required for signaling, Workers with TLR4 variants that reduce responsiveness to endotoxin have higher risks for laboratory animal and other allergen sensitization but spend longer hours in tasks with high endotoxin and animal allergen exposures., These results support a model in which sMD2 binds to TLR4 and increases TLR4 levels at the cell surface by preventing TLR4 turnover through the endocytic pathway., TLR2 (toll-like receptor 2) and TLR4 (toll-like receptor 2) mRNA expression were significantly elevated in children with protracted bacterial bronchitis when compared to the control group, FLN29, in addition to playing a negative regulatory role in the TLR4 signaling pathway, negatively regulates the RIG-I-like helicase signaling pathway at the level of IPS-1/TRAF6 and IPS-1/TRAF3 complexes, bacterial induction of HBD-3 via TLR-2 and -4 in bone, TLR4(Asp299Gly) gene polymorphism and the bacterial origin of LPS should be considered when environmental LPS exposure is evaluated in disease risk or protection., Data demonstrate a significant relationship between maternal and fetal TLR4 genotype and chorionic plate inflammation. This maternal and fetal genotypic effect are independent of each other as well as other environmental covariates., Data show that TLR4 expression on total monocytes is decreased after acute exercise in humans., Chemokine induction in dendritic cells by CbpA and Ply may be important for their potential use in future pneumococcal vaccines., This study suggests an association between the donor TLR4 haplotype S4 and the risk of invasive aspergillosis among recipients of hematopoietic-cell transplants from unrelated donors., Lipopolysaccharide induces IL-6 production in respiratory syncytial virus-infected airway epithelial cells through the toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway., study provides evidence that IL-10 release requires stronger triggering of TLR4 than TNF release; lower number of responsive TLR4 receptors on monocytes of heterozygous carriers of Asp(299)Gly polymorphism may explain why only IL-10 release is affected, PAB and GAB antibodies were not associated with NOD2/CARD15 or TLR4, response to medical therapy, or need for surgery. No associations were found in UC., results reject the hypothesis that functionally relevant mutations have a major effect on aggressive periodontitis susceptibility, Significant & strong 2- & 3-locus interactions between SNPs in TOLLIP (rs4963060), TLR4 (rs6478317) & IRAK1 (rs1059703)were associated with the response to whole-cell vaccine pertussis vaccination in 490 1-yr-old children., HIV-1-infected individuals carrying a mutant TLR4 allele appear more likely to have multicentric Castleman's disease, a lymphoproliferation associated with enhanced KSHV replication., Toll-like receptors 4 highly expressed on human melanoma cells., Our results demonstrate that the +896A/G TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with Alzheimer disease, This study explored whether Klebsiella pneumoniae upregulates the expression of TLRs in human airway epithelial cells., SOCS1-regulation of the IFN beta-dependent component of the LPS-induced TLR4 signaling pathway may contribute to the down-regulation of inflammatory cytokine production, Toll-like receptor 2, 4, and 9 overexpression is associated with neutrophil dysfunction in alcoholic hepatitis., Autoantibodies that bind to the surface of fibroblasts may contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis by up-regulating the fibroblast production of profibrotic and proangiogenic chemokines, in a proteasome- and TLR-4-dependent manner, high expression of TLRs 3 and 4, at an early stage of rheumatoid arthritis and the reactivity of synovial fibroblasts in vitro suggest that TLR signaling pathways resulting in inflammation and joint destruction are activated early in the disease process, There was no intraction between TLR4 allele carrier status and H.pylori antibodies on serum total IgE ., there is no evidence that CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms investigated are independent risk factors for chronic or aggressive periodontitis in German periodontitis patients., Genetic polymorphisms in TLR4, genes are not associated with malaria resistance in patients from Baixo Amazonas region, Brazil, Characteristic patterns in the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on monocytes and granulocytes were found in venous blood of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass., the leucine at position 815 is required for the normal maturation of TLR4 and for formation of the TLR4.MD-2 complex., lower expression in asthmatic patients, The heterozygous TLR4 Asp299Gly genotype is associated with an increased mortality in children with invasive meningococcal disease., TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with protection from hepatic fibrosis reduce TLR4-mediated inflammatory and fibrogenic signaling and lower the apoptotic threshold of activated hepatic stellate cells., TLR4 expression was up-regulated in non-cancerous tissues or down-regulated in cancerous tissues in patients with colorectal cancer, Protective tlr4 gene polymorphisms are more frequent in asymptomatic anti-phospholipid antibody carriers., TLR4 is functional and expressed in the developing intestinal mucosa; TLR4 signaling in enterocytes plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis., Multi-hit inhibition of circulating and cell-associated components of the toll-like receptor 4 pathway by oxidized phospholipids., possibility that TLR4 engagement modulates B cell activation in periodontal disease patients, important for internalization of Escherichia coli into phagosomes and its posterior translocation across the intestinal barrier, TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide is able to induce robust interferon (IFN)-alpha production by human monocytes that have been pretreated with type I IFN., TLR4 htSNPs are associated with risk of developing complicated sepsis., Our results demonstrate that TLR2, TLR4 and Dectin-1 actively sense, internalize and respond in an innate way to Mycobacterium ulcerans in human epidermal keratinocytes., an association between the Asp299Gly polymorphism of the TLR4 gene and early onset of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients, TLR4 polymorphisms were associated with the presence of coronary stenosis., TLR4 gene expression was not altered by addition of IL-1beta or TNFalpha. Catabolic processes in Achilles tendinopathy cannot be attributed to regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 by tenocytes., Toll-like receptors 4 and 5 induce distinct types of vasculitis., Data show that there were non-association and non-additional effects of TLR4/CD40 gene polymorphisms and haplotypes upon asthma risk., TLR3, TLR4, and TLR8 ligands induce synergistic multiple signaling pathways leading to cytokine mRNA expression and protein production in human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells, Toll-like receptor 4 has a role in protection from lethal gram-negative bacterial sepsis, No polymorphisms in the NOD2 and TLR4 genes were found to be associated with the development of gastric MALT lymphoma., TLR4+3725 G/C polymorphism was a risk factor of gastric atrophy in H. pylori seropositive Japanese., Greater expression of TLR2 and TLR4 and greater pro-inflammatory and pro-osteogenic responses to TLR4 agonists in AVICs than PVICs are associated with osteogenic phenotypic changes, lactate boosts TLR4 activation and NF-kappaB-dependent inflammatory gene expression via monocarboxylate transporters and MD-2 up-regulation., Soy phosphatidylcholine fatty acids act in the inflammatory response via TLR4-NF-kappaB-MCP-1 signaling in vascular cells, donor TLR4 contributes to graft inflammation and sterile injury following cold preservation and transplantation in humans, TLR4-mediated activation of HIV-LTR is largely governed by the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway., The TLR4-MD-2-LPS structure illustrates the remarkable versatility of the ligand recognition mechanisms employed by the TLR family, which is essential for defence against diverse microbial infection, Synergy between TLR4 and TLR7/8 controls the sequential production of regulatory and proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and IL-17A by naive CD4-positive T cells., findings suggest that HIV-1 Tat inhibits cholangiocyte TLR4 protein expression through translational inhibition, Genetic variants of TLR4 may protect against typhoid fever in Vietnamese patients. 10 SNPS (7 new) were in the upstream & exonic regions. T4025A & C4215G were more frequent in typhoid cases. 4 missense mutations & A-271G were only seen in cases., TLR4-activated NF-kappaB rapidly increases the expression of miR-9 that operates a feedback control of the NF-kappaB-dependent responses by fine tuning the expression of a key member of the NF-kappaB family, Up-regulation of TLR-2 by HSP60 may play a critical role in promoting bone loss in the estrogen-deficient state., Similar frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL genetic polymorphisms in populations with different histories of malaria exposure suggest that these innate immune pathways have not been under strong selective pressure by malaria., TLR4 was expressed in all tumors, HNSCC cell lines, and normal mucosa. The TLR4 expression intensity correlated with tumor grade., Hydrophobic residues at positions 82, 85, and 87 of MD-2 are essential both for transfer of endotoxin from CD14 to monomeric MD-2 and for TLR4 activation., Results show that the domain interface on the extracellular side of the transmembrane segment has a significantly different role than on the cytosolic side, which may explain its significance for the mechanism of TLR4 activation., The association between TLR4 variants and reduced airway responsiveness to inhaled particulate was observed at high endotoxin concentrations, creating the possibility of certain threshold phenomena for the apparent protective effect of TLR4 variants., Functioning TLR4 on pulmonary parenchymal cells plays a key role in very early and profound pulmonary edema in murine lung ischemia-reperfusion injury., In conclusion, inherited differences in the TLR4 gene influence the risk of prostate cancer in Korean men., Results reveal the contribution of TLR4 and CD14 in neonatal cytokine and chemokine release and could aid in design of antagonists to prevent harmful inflammation., Genetic variations in the NOS2 gene promoter and TLR4 coding sequence may lead to deleterious and protective effects, respectively, arising from altered function of the innate immune system in patients with T2DM., The positive TLR4 polymorphism in phenomenons with tympanosclerosis was significant in accordance with statistics., Human but not murine CD8-positive T cells are able to directly sense LPS due to the differential expression of TLR4 and CD14, suggesting a functional difference for LPS between the two species., Transforming growth factor-beta1 inhibited TLR4 expression and attenuated odontoblast responses, suggesting the balance between TLR-mediated inflammation and TGF-beta1 anti-inflammatory activity plays an important role in pulpal inflammation., TAG overexpression specifically inhibits TLR4 signaling., Toll-like receptors-2 and -4 are induced in synovial membranes in septic arthritis., TLR4 299Gly allele (TLR4+896 A>G) appeared to be a genetic risk factor for susceptibility to chronic periodontitis; TLR4 399Ile polymorphism (TLR4+1196 C>T) showed a protective effect against aggressive periodontitis, These data suggest that TLR4 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to leprosy and that this effect may be mediated at the cellular level by the modulation of TLR4 signalling by Mycobacterium leprae., LPS promotes tumour cell ECM adhesion and invasion through activation of the u-PA system in a TLR-4- and NF-kappaB-dependent manner., A new pathway of tumor-derived antigen presentation by HMGB1 (from dying tumor cells after chemo/radiotherapy) & TLR4 on dendritic cells suggests that TLR4 recognizes tumor-derived antigens, inducing T cell activation & an antitumor immune response., Familial Mediterranean fever patients display lower frequency of the TLR4-D299G mutated allele, In type 1 diabetes, monocytes secrete and synthetize increased amounts of IP-10 via the TLR2 andf TLR4 pathway by activation of NF-kappaB., TLR4 is significantly elevated in type 1 diabetes, and this, in concert with hyperglycaemia, accounts for the increase of TLR4 activity, underscoring the proinflammatory state of type 1 diabetes., Detection of the TL4R 1196C T polymorphism by mismatched-polymerase chain reaction using plasmid DNA as internal control in restriction fragment length polymorphism is reported., Rebamipide inhibits the expression of TLR4 and TNF-alpha in A549 cells., The expression level of TLR2/4 in mononuclear cells increases significantly in the peri-operative period of OLT, and it may be a high risk factor for occurrence of postoperative orthotopic liver transplantion., IFN priming combined with TLR activation may increase immune responses induced by Ag-presenting mesenchymal stromal cell, Lipopolysaccharide stimulates platelet secretion and potentiates platelet aggregation through a TLR4/MyD88- and cGMP/PKG-dependent pathway, TLR4 in prostate cells could synergize with innate immune cells contributing to an eventual inflammatory process, which in genetically prone individuals could promote carcinogenesis, no association with either susceptibility or relapse of autoimmune pancreatitis in a Japanese population, In CF the loss of CFTR function appears to decrease innate immune responses, possibly by altering the expression of TLR-4 on airway epithelial cells., A TIR domain variant of MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)/TIRAP results in loss of MyD88 binding and reduced TLR2/TLR4 signaling., TLR4 plays an important role in the immunological mechanism of apoptosis and secretion of TNF-alpha of human term trophoblast cells stimulated by LPS., TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphisms showed no effect on chlamydial growth, B. fragilis preparations showed a significant signalling specificity for TLR2 but not for TLR4., Aggregation and microparticle production through TLR4 activation in platelets from recently menopausal women are reported., There is an association of TLR4-(+896 A/G) gene polymorphism with susceptibility to biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis., For fungi, a significant association was observed between the presence of the cosegregating Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile polymorphisms (TLR4) and fungal colonization (p=0.003; OR, Study highlighted the involvement of TLR 2 (-196 to -174 del) and TLR 4 (Thr399Ile) gene polymorphisms in cervical cancer susceptibility., Results suggest that NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production links palmitate-stimulated TLR4 activation to NF-kappaB signaling in endothelial cells., polymorphisms in TLRs 1, 4, and 5 are associated with altered risks of urinary tract infections in adult women, TLR4 gene polymorphism may be a protective factor in pediatric renal transplantation patients in relation to chronic allograft nephropathy., Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toll-like receptor 4 ligand, up-regulated the expression of membrane RANKL in human blood neutrophils and murine air pouch-derived neutrophils., The inhibition of NF-kappaB was also observed in a cell line cotransfected with MyD88 and TLR4 suggesting that the attenuation of NF-kappaB by atorvastatin occurred in a MyD88 dependent fashion., TLR4 is an important mediator of pro-inflammatory cervical immune responses, particularly in European-American women and especially in those with microbial disorders such as bacterial vaginosis., MD-2 possesses potential ability to play a critical role in cell surface expression of TLR4., TLR4 signaling could be more associated with plaque destabilization than with plaque progression, tenascin-C as a novel endogenous activator of TLR4-mediated immunity that mediates persistent synovial inflammation and tissue destruction in arthritic joint disease., Toll-like receptors 2and 4 and myeloid cells-1 are expressed in human myometrium and may play a role in the mechanism of labor at term, TLR4 signaling and higher 11beta-HSD1 and GR levels in VAT may contribute predominantly to inflammatory factor production and subsequent metabolic sequelae in obese human., Polymorphisms in TLR-4 (toll-like receptor 4 ) may be associated with a decreased risk of Cystic Fibrosis, the selective tolerance induced by muramyl dipeptide in healthy donors was related to the modulation of a convergent nub of NOD2 and TLR4 signaling pathway, Single nucleotide polymorphisms may contribute to pulmonary tuberculosis susceptibility, especially in African Americans., high affinity interactions between the palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol and the Toll-like receptor 4-interacting proteins CD14 and MD-2., Multiple variants in TLR4 and STXBP5L genes modulate risk of liver fibrosis. These findings are of relevance for understanding the pathogenesis of HCV-induced liver disease in Caucasians and may be extended to other ethnicities as well., the novel role for Mal in facilitating the direct recruitment of TRAF6 to the plasma membrane, which is necessary for TLR2- and TLR4-induced transactivation of NF-kappaB and regulation of the subsequent pro-inflammatory response., results identify TLR4 expression in human colorectal cancer cells and activation of PI3K with LPS treatment, TLR4 polymorphisms are not increased in Henoch Schonlein purpura patients with and without renal involvement., Expression of costimulatory molecules CD80/CD86 increases with TLR2 or TLR4 activation sequences. Our results reveal that TLR2/TLR4 activation may determine disease pathogenesis and prognosis, Results did not confirm the reported associations of TLR3 rs3775291 and TLR4 rs4986790 with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the three independent samples, individually or combined., TLR4 gene expression was indeed decreased in both the lymphocytic leukemic subset and myeloid leukemic subset, These studies revealed evidence of a multifaceted signaling network operating downstream of TLR4-mediated tumor cell invasion, proliferation, and survival, Our data suggest that the TLR4 gene polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to, and clinical expression of, giant cell arteritis in Italian patients., Triggering TLR3 or TLR4 by poly I, dysregulation of TLR4-triggered MyD88- and TRIF-dependent signaling pathways and increased expression of negative regulators of TLR signaling in endotoxin-tolerant human monocytes., association of 2 TLR4 polymorphisms (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile) in the donor or the recipient with Gram-negative bloodstream infection (BSI) in 77 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients, There is an absence of association between Crohn's disease and TLR4 gene in the Tunisian population., lipopolysaccharide-stimulated ICAM-1 expression in human aortic valve interstitial cells is mediated by TLR4 and ICAM-1 interacts with microfilaments, expulsion of intracellular E. coli by infected bladder epithelial cells is initiated by the pattern recognition receptor, Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, after activation by LPS., increased expression in intestinal epithelial cells in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, Data show that TLR4 protects CK(-) granulosa cells against oxLDL-dependent apoptosis via the oxLDL-dependent activation of lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1., U937 cells and monocytes responded to C. pneumoniae in a TLR4-dependent manner with induction of mRNA and protein of HBD-2. The treatment of cells with TLR4-neutralizing antibody resulted in a decrease in C. pneumoniae-induced HBD-2 production., The increased expression of TLR4 may be associated with the progression of acute cerebral infarction., Cultured human melanocytes express functional toll-like receptors 2-4, 7 and 9., TLR4/CD14 and TLR3 polymorphisms have roles in acute rejection after kidney transplantation, prolonged TLR4 engagement is required for the generation of polySia-expressing DCs that facilitate CCL21 capture and subsequent CCL21-directed migration, TLR4 serves as a receptor for the pro-inflammatory effects of resistin in human cells., The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) polymorphisms, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, were investigated with PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing methods in 938 and 980 individuals from the Yunnan Hani ethnic minority and the majority Han population, respectively., HSP60, TLR4 and NF-kappaBp65 are overexpressed in the peripheral blood of patients with atopic dermatitis., Results reveal a positive correlation between CXCR4, CCR5, and TLR4 expression in hiv-infected t-lymphocyte subsets., Body mass index may modify the associations of TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism with FEV1/FVC ratio and FEF25-75., Of 129 children hospitalized for bronchiolitis during the first 6 months,and the carriers of TLR4+896 A/G allele G were more likely to need tympanostomy than noncarriers., SOCS2 is required for appropriate TLR4 signaling in maturating human DCs via both the MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling pathway, There was no association between TLR4 polymorphisms and severity of Behcets disease (BD) ; distribution of allele and genotype frequencies did not differ significantly between the BD patients and healthy controls., in a Tunisian population single nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR2 (toll-like receptor 2) and TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4) genes were not significantly associated with susceptibility to Behcets disease, Neu1 desialylation of alpha-2,3-sialyl residues of TLR receptors enables in removing a steric hinderance to receptor association for TLR activation and cellular signaling., TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism modulates clinical expression in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, but does not correlate with iron overload, suggesting that TLR4 plays a role in an inflammatory process arising from toxic effects of iron accumulation., CD14 C-159T and toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly polymorphisms have roles in surviving meningococcal disease, The results did not show that IL-18 and TLR4 variants have an effect on the susceptibility to chronic periodontitis, Toll-like receptor 4 has a role in gram-negative bacterial sepsis, which can be attenuated by the TOY fusion protein decoy, LPS/CD14/TLR4-mediated inflammation has a role in necrotizing enterocolitis in humans and rats, TLR4/MyD88 signaling supports ovarian cancer progression and chemoresistance, promoting immune escape., the TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile SNPs are not associated with sarcoidosis., These direct interactions between MBL and TLR4 or MD-2 suggest that MBL may modulate cellular responses by altering signals through TLRs., Activation of endosomal TLRs 7, 8 and 4 leads to downregulation of degradative HIF-1 alpha prolyl hydroxylation., Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR4 does not influence the susceptibility to malaria infection or mortality., NGF is able to induce TLR4/TLR9 overexpression in vernal keratoconjunctivitis-endothelial cells., identify the host innate immune protein TLR4 as a sensor for Ebola virus GP which may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of Ebola virus infection., TLR4 gene transcription was repressed by epigenetic regulations, which were, at least in part, dependent on ZNF160., TLR4 Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile are very rare in the Japanese population., Results suggest a potentially new role for TLR4 polymorphisms in HIV-1 peak viral load and confirms a role for TLR9 polymorphisms in disease progression., This study demonstrated that H. pylori LPS may be a pathogenic factor causing gastric tumors by enhancing cell proliferation and inflammation via the MAPK cascade in gastric epithelial cells., Results demonstrate a decrease of TLRs and dectin-1 expression mainly on monocytes as opposed to neutrophils, as soon as 30 minutes after Paracoccidioides brasiliensis stimulation., TLR-4 is up-regulated in circulating mononuclear cells of patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy, particularly in association with proteinuria and heavy microscopic haematuria., Data show that the gene expressions of TLR-4 and TLR-5 in human cultured HCT-15 and HT-29 cells were confirmed by RT-PCR., (Asp299Gly) polymorphism is associated with an increased susceptibility to Guillain-Barre syndrome ., When dendritic cells were triggered with the potent synergistic combination of TLR4 and TLR7/8 in conjunction with a TLR2 ligand, there was a clear shift to more Th2- and Th17-prone responses in the naive and memory T cell subpopulations, A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gene region coding for the TLr4 extracellular domain, characterized by substitution at amino acid 299, is associated with susceptibility to metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and syndromes of lipid accumulation., Direct binding to CD14 by the synthetic TLR4 antagonist mediated principally through the lipid chains of the synthetic compound., These results suggest that for persons exposed to a swine facility, one's immunological response varies with gender as well as TLR4 genotype., Data show that AIP1 is a novel GTPase-activating protein for Arf6, a small GTPase regulating cellular PIP(2) production and formation of the TLR4-TIRAP-MyD88 complex., TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 were expressed by infiltrating cells of perimysium in dermatomyositis, whereas they were expressed by infiltrating cells of endomysium in polymyositis, CO broadly suppresses the initial inflammatory response of human monocytes to LPS by reshaping proximal events in TLR4 signal transduction such as stress kinase responses and early NF-kappaB activation, Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 have roles in pulmonary inflammation and injury induced by pneumolysin, Hypoxia attenuates the TLR4 signaling pathway in human corneal epithelial cells., TLR4 expression in endothelial cells of carotid atheroma was enhanced in symptomatic patients with most commonly 'unstable' - 'more prone to rupture' carotid plaques, Data revealed that TLR2 and TLR4 SNPS were rare in the southeastern Chinese population and were not associated with susceptibility to TB., Results demonstrate that cell interaction, TLR4 activation, and high glucose up-regulate osteopontin expression, and adipocyte-derived IL-6 played a major role in the up-regulation., The findings demonstrate a novel pathway by which TLR4 activation by HMGB1 delays mucosal repair., TLR4 polymorphisms do not play an important role in the development of uveitis in Japanese patients with sarcoidosis., MD-2-mediated ionic interactions between lipid A and TLR4 are essential for receptor activation, TLR4 11367 polymorphism might be a good predictor to develop complications such as sepsis or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in trauma, results indicate that the major genetic variations in TLR4 is rare and may not be associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease in Korea, Functional TLR4 can be expressed on human platelets induced by LPS., Our results identify CD36-TLR4-TLR6 activation as a common molecular mechanism by which atherogenic lipids and amyloid-beta stimulate sterile inflammation, the lipid A mimetic CRX-527 does not require the CD14 co-receptor to elicit TLR4-mediated responses., The binding of TRAF2 and TRAF6 to TICAM-1 cooperatively activates the IFN-inducing pathway through ubiquitination of TICAM-1., exercise reduced monocyte TLR4 expression, Saturated fat and carbohydrates, components of the high fat meal, known to induce oxidative stress and inflammation, also induce an increase in LPS, TLR-4, and SOCS3, Data show that TLR2 and TLR4 expression and their ligands, signaling, and functional activation are increased in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes and contribute to the proinflammatory state., gene polymorphism is associated with Crohn's disease in Hungarian cohort, Significant associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms with wheeze in the past year were detected in only four genes (IL4R, TLR4, MS4A2, TLR9). Variants in IL4R and TLR4 were also related to allergen-specific IgE., The CD14-dependent meconium-induced inflammatory reaction is mediated through the TLR4/MD2 complex., TLR4 D299G and T399I confer a significant risk for developing CD and UC in Caucasians., found that peritoneal macrophages of MHC class II knock-out mice show a decreased responsiveness to TLR2 and TLR4 stimuli compared to macrophages of wild-type mice, Data demonstrate that the vast majority of LPS-responsive genes in IRAK4-deficient monocytes were greatly suppressed, an observation that is consistent with the described role for IRAK4 as an essential component of TLR4 signalling., Our results support the hypothesis that the association between fecal E coli and allergic sensitization is mediated by genetic variations in TLR4., Overrepresentation of heterozygous CT genotype and mutated T allele of C8993T polymorphism in TLR-4 gene in the control group may indicate that, possibly, it plays a protective role against PROM, Data show that TLR activation was associated with significantly increased production of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and CCL3., TLR4 is a receptor for Acanthamoeba, High expression of Toll-like receptor 4 is associated with colorectal cancer., The functional TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism is associated with lower left ventricular mass in hypertensive women., TLR2 and TLR4 expression and signaling are increased in Type 1 diabetics with microvascular complications as compared with levels in Type 1 diabetics without microvascular complications., The importance of TLR4 was confirmed as potential biomarkers for assessment of the aggressive tumor phenotype in laryngeal carcinoma., genetic polymorphism is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers, On the dendritic cell, the C-type lectin DC-SIGN and TLR4 are both critically involved in the induced activation, as was demonstrated by using monoclonal antibodies that block interaction of these receptors with the glycolipids., Studies show that a decrease in the expression of TLR4 during the progression of cervical neoplasia and this down-regulation of TLR4 appeared to be associated with the expression., Toll-like receptor 4 modulates skeletal muscle substrate metabolism, Siah1 is a bona fide E2F1 target gene, which at least partly, mediates the suppression of beta-catenin/TCF signalling pathway, TLR4 and 5 signalling in unrestricted somatic stem cells is slow and results in the up-regulation of a restricted number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhanced osteoblastic differentiation, MyD88-dependent TLR4 signaling is selectively impaired in alveolar macrophages from asymptomatic HIV+ persons, Common germ line genetic variation in TLR4 and TLR6-1-10 did not seem to have a strong association with risk of prostate cancer, Novel insights are discussed relevant to the effect of D299G.T399I haplotype substitutions within the TLR4 ectodomain on HEK293 cell responsiveness to endotoxin and possibly other potential agonists of TLR4., vitamin D actions are mediated by the TLR4 pathway in inflammation-induced colon cancer, Study describes an independent association between TLR4 Asp299Gly SNP and active TB in Caucasian Mediterranean HIV-infected patients., Polymorphisms in TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 that recognize bacterial and viral pathogens are associated with bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplantation., Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is expressed on human colon carcinoma cells and may play important roles in promoting immune escape of human colon carcinoma cells by inducing immunosuppressive factors and apoptosis resistance., the toll-like receptor 4/2242 polymorphism was significantly associated with higher sepsis morbidity rates and multiple organ dysfunction scores in patients with major trauma, Higher mRNA expression of TLR4 were detected in gingival tissue from chronic periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls., the MTB-induced IL-17A response relies strongly on the endogenous IL-1 pathway and IL-1R signaling. TLR4 and dectin-1 are the main receptors responsible for mediating the signals responsible for IL-17A production by MTB., Lack of association of TL4R gene Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms with rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese Han population of Yunnan Province., Results support a genetic role of TLR4 and TNF-alpha in controlling the blood infection level in mild malaria., Our results implicate IL18 gene-promoter polymorphisms in the susceptibility to giant cell arteritis and an additive effect between the associated IL18 and TLR4 genetic variants., Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in TLR4 gene is associated with gastric carcinogenesis., Altered linkage of hydroxyacyl chains in lipid A of Campylobacter jejuni reduces TLR4 activation and antimicrobial resistance., TLR4 signaling may effectively stimulate B cell maturation in vivo, acting as an accessory stimulus in B cell development, complementary to the B lymphocyte-activating factor (BAFF) physiological pathway., toll-like receptor 2 and 4 polymorphisms and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its soluble receptors may have a role in obesity in children, Macrophages stimulated with bacteria and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands revealed a specific defect in the TLR4 response in UC, SIGIRR can inhibit TLR4, 5, and 9-mediated immune responses in human airway epithelial cells., we provide new insights into the mechanisms how TREM-1 and TLR interact creating synergistic activation in polymorphonuclear neutrophils, IL-8 and IL-10 production involved TLR2 and mainly TLR4 modulation in human neutrophils challenged with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Mal is a substrate for IRAK1 and IRAK4 with phosphorylation promoting ubiquitination and degradation of Mal, which may serve to negatively regulate signaling by TLR2 and TLR4, these results suggest that TLR2, TLR4, and Tregs correlate closely with chronic HCV infection., TLR4 substitutions at residues 299 and 399 are associated with pulmonary TB, particularly the most severe disease, No significant difference was found for polymorphism (+896 A/G) for controls and patients with Henoch Schonlein purpura, Data show that CD180, CD284 and CD14 expression is higher on normal B cells than on CD19+ B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells., TLR4 gene polymorphisms may not be correlated with susceptibility to sepsis among Chinese Han children in Wenzhou., The first year of life represents a critical period during which adult-like levels of TLR responses are reached for most but not all cytokine responses, Data show that blocking TLR2, TLR4 or CD14 resulted in a approximately 60%-70% decrease in mmLDL-induced TNF-alpha secretion., Data show that TLR2 and TLR4 genes did not show copy number variation in both CD and control, and all samples presented with two copies., Low-penetrance variants in TLR genes may alter the susceptibility towards gallbladder cancer., individuals bearing TLR4 mutations have to be mentioned as a possible, etiologic factor responsible for delayed healing, found that TLR4 promoted apoptotic signalling by affecting the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) pathway in a serum-deprivation-induced apoptotic paradigm., Our results suggested both the TLR4, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, genetic polymorphisms were not observed in all Hunan Changsha subjects. Therefore, we speculate they might not be an important factor in the development of cerebral infarction in the Chinese., oral administration of HA900 modulates Th-1-type autoimmune disease and inflammation by up-regulating SOCS3 expression and down-regulating pleiotrophin expression via TLR-4 in intestinal epithelial cells, The results suggest that genetic variation in the TLR4 promoter may be an essential, largely overlooked mechanism to influence TLR4 expression and UTI susceptibility., These results suggested that TLR4 functions to maintain the stem cell phenotype of EPCs and enlarge its population, which reveals a novel aspect of the multiple-faced TLR biology., LPS induces the dissociation of gp96 from AIMP1 by phosphorylation through TLR4/MyD88-mediated JNK activation, resulting in translocation of gp96 on the cell surface., This study suggests an association between the presence of TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms and the occurrence of serious infections in HIV-1 infected patients with a history of nadir CD4 cell count of <100 cells/mm(3)., Investigates variations of TLR4 and TIRAP/MAL on cytokine release and for susceptibility and course of severe hospital acquired infections. Patients with this genotype showed a decrease in cytokine release and increased risk for severe infections., Sialylation of Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharide enhances human dendritic cell (DC) activation via TLR4 signaling; supernatants from activated DCs induced proliferation of mucosal B cells., The expression of TLR4 and HIF-1alpha had a significant impact on survival of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma., The association of the Gly299 allele with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection was not confirmed., CD14 and TLR4 mRNA are upregulated during in severe hepatitis B induced by endotoxin., IL-8 and TNF-alpha baseline levels did not differ, but were significantly higher in the autoimmune disease group following TLR stimulation, Studies indicate that upon activation, TLR4 is internalized into the cytoplasm, which is considered to be necessary for TLR4 to induce type I interferon production., data suggest that polymorphisms in TLR4 and MBL2 play a role in receptiveness to pathogens causing genital tract infections, while MBL2 genotypes contribute to susceptibility to tubal factor infertility, A nonsignificantly higher number of cases have TLR4 expression in the amnion of preterm infected placenta than in term placenta, Rickettsia akari triggers cell activation via TLR2 or TLR4, Loe TLR4 is associated with breast cancer., Data suggest that upregulation of Toll-like receptor 2/4 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells may contribute to the development of postoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome following liver transplantation., Results suggest that a history of atopic disease is associated with impaired TLR-4-mediated innate immune function compared with non-atopic children., in an Italian pediatric cohort, no evidence of correlation between TLR-2 or TLR-4 polymorphism and eczema and food allergy incidence and/or severity was found, TLR2 Arg677Trp and Arg753Glu, TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile and TLR9 1237T/C polymorphisms are not associated with IBD in Chinese Han patients. In Caucasians, both TLR4 299G and 399I confer a significant risk for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease., Granulysin-induced antigen-presenting cells recruitment and activation required the presence of Toll-like receptor 4., TLR4-mediated SphK1 activation was found to be critical for the redox-dependent activation of HIF-1alpha and ASK1, and the prevention of lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of caspase 3 and the expression interleukin-6., Studies indicate that understanding the roles of TLR4 in AP will help to further clarify the pathogenesis of AP and to search a new target for the treatment of AP., Polymorphisms at the TLR4 locus are not associated with an increased risk of target vessel revascularization or angiographic restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention., Yiqi huoxue recipe block the high expression of TLR4, and also influence the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway of TLR4 in HUVECs., Variant alleles of TLR2 and TLR4 genes influence the susceptibility to adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on childhood asthma., p38 MAPK is a determinant of virus infection that is dependent upon MyD88 expression and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligation, Ni(2+) triggered an inflammatory response by directly activating human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)., Determination of the TLR4 Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile haplotype is of no clinical benefit in predicting the nature or intensity of cytokine production., Neither myeloid cell TLR-2 and TLR-4 expressions nor TLR-2 Arg753Gln, TLR-4 Asp299Gly, and Thr399Ile polymorphisms seem to affect the development of secondary amyloidosis in familial Mediterranean fever., The increased surface expression of TLR4 seen in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) appears to be related to having CF per se and not related to current pulmonary infection., This study revealed that miR-146a rs2910164 G/G genotype plus the TLR4 +3725 C allele significantly increased the risk of severe gastric atrophy among H. pylori-infected Japanese., TLR4 has a role in regulating the expression of MMP-9 in human aortic smooth muscle cells, Three SNPs (beta2-adrenergic receptor, toll-like receptor 4, complement factor H) were identified that were associated with an increased or decreased frequency of heterotopic ossification., A bout of strenuous aerobic exercise alters the surface expression of TLR2, TLR4 and HLA.DR on blood monocytes and some of their subtypes., viral inhibitor peptide of TLR4 possibly represents a surface domain of A46 that specifically inhibits TLR4 by masking critical binding sites on MyD88 adaptor-like and TRIF-related adaptor molecule, Data demonstrate that during bacterial infection, newborns amplify the TLR2-MyD88 pathway in G+ bacterial infection and the TLR4/MD2/MyD88 pathway in G- bacterial infection, implicating the innate immune pathway in response to bacterial infection., TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms were significantly associated with the occurrence of neurocysticercosis and progression to symptomatic neurocysticercosis, compared with control subjects, TLR2 and TLR4 SNPs appear to alter susceptibility to developing the maternal syndrome of preeclampsia., To respond to LPS stimulation, human primary endocervical epithelial cells may function in the mucosal immune defense through TLR4 activation and HD5 secretion., The concentrations of TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 appeared to be increased in bacterial pleural effusion compared to non-bacterial pleural effusions., Significant reduction in the expression and inactivation of TLR4 in human adrenal cortex tumors., data suggest that the IL10-819 and TLR-2 polymorphisms may be potential predictors of sepsis., Among the TLRs in pulmonary macrophages recognizing bacterial patterns, TLR1, -2 and -4 show the strongest expression, whereas TLR8 as a sensor of viral infections shows highest expression of the RNA-responsive receptors., Cytokines can enhance TLR4 and MD-2 expressions and promote the reaction with LPS in intestinal epithelial cells., TLR4 and NF-kappaB p65 expression increase significantly in colonic mucosa of ulcerative colitis compared to controls., the regulation of TLR4-induced inflammation in endothelial cells, Sulphoraphane inhibited the expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 through MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor-4 pathway in cultured endothelial cells., Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory prodcts (OVES) induce upregulation of TLR4, and Il-6 and Il-8 production in chlonagiocytes., Trauma patients with TLR4-induced transcriptional changes in peripheral blood leukocytes provide a tool for monitoring systemic inflammation and injury., Rab11a is an important regulator of TLR4 and Toll-receptor-associated molecule transport to E. coli phagosomes thereby controlling IRF3 activation from this compartment., Compared to normal livers, lower levels of TLR2/4 mRNA and TLR4 and pIKKalpha protein were found in primary biliary cirrhosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, indicating the maintenance of suppressed inflammation and immune tolerance in normal livers., mRNA levels for TLR4 and its legend myeloid differentiation factor 88 were increased in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts., Peripheral blood cell gene expression profiling in ankylosing spondylitis shows an upregulation of TLR4 and TLR5., These data identify mechanisms that can activate B cell TLR4 expression in inflammatory disease patients, Elevated leukocyte TLR4 levels may be a useful biomarker associated with preterm labor., The specific capacity of a Gram-negative bacterium to alert or evade the host innate immune defense system through TLR4-dependent signaling is currently recognized as a critical aspect defining the relationship between the host and the bacterium., Our findings indicate that polymorphism in 3'-untranslated regions of the TLR4 gene may be related to protection from HBV recurrence after liver transplantation in Han Chinese patients., The Samples of carcinomas with recurrence exhibited a significant increase in the mRNA levels of TLR4., Up-regulated expression of TLR4 in IBS patients might contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea., Symptomatic carotid artery plaques are characterized by increased expression of TLR4 in macrophages supporting a potential role for TLR4 in the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of cerebrovascular disease., TLR4 mediates silica-induced TNFalpha release from macrophages., Neisserial lipooligosaccharides from different meningococcal and gonococcal strains have different potencies to activate NF-kappaappaB through the TLR4-myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) pathway in monocytes., TLR4 expression on PBMCs was markedly elevated in acute myocardial infarct patients either reperfused or non-reperfused after thrombolysis., Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may have an important role in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis through interactions with TLR-4 and induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-8., TLR4 is imperative in innate immunity against gram-negative bacteria., The results showed the frequency of the TLR4 Asp299Gly genotype was increased in patients with chronic disease and patients with acute disease compared to leishmanin skin test negative subjects., data suggest that high TLR-4 expression in the tumor microenvironment represents a possible marker of disease progression in colon cancer, TLR4 expression in cord blood mononuclear cells from patients with preeclampsia was increased, and there was a positive correlation between the expression of TLR4 mRNA and TNF-alpha., Data show that an additive gene-gene interaction involving TLR4, PSMG1, Data show that an additive gene-gene interaction involving TLR4, PSMG1, TNFRSF6B and IRGM was identified with CD.and IRGM was identified with CD., Dysregulation of the TLR4 signaling owing to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may alter the ligand binding and balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, thereby modulating the risk of chronic inflammation and cancer., TLR-4 and its signal transduction pathway contribute to anti-beta2GPI/beta2GPI-induced tissue factor expression in THP-1 cells, and the effects of TLR-4 with annexin 2 are tightly co-operative., PBMC expression of TLR4 is down-regulated in uremic patients with or without dialysis, and its expression is lower in conventional dialysate group than in ultrapure dialysate group., Increased TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression on PBMCs and SFMCs may recognize microbial/endogenous ligands and up-regulate IL-6 and MMP-3 leading to disease exacerbation., Toll like receptor 4 as the receptor for CXCL10 and as new pathway for the induction of beta-cell apoptosis., The -238A and -308G polymorphisms of the TNF-alpha promoter and 299D/399T polymorphisms of the TLR-4 gene are associated with more pronounced clinical symptoms, higher cytokine and IgE levels, and low PNIF values., Findings support the role of TLR4 as a molecular link between obesity and insulin resistance., extracellular HSP90alpha transactivates EGFR/ErbB1 through TLR4 and a PKCdelta/c-Src pathway, which induces ATP release and cytosolic Ca(2+) increase and finally favors glioblastoma cell migration., The expression levels of TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9 have clinical interest as indicators of tumor aggressiveness in breast cancer., Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphism and may have a role in determining urinary tract infection types in adults, Both PAR2 and TLR4 activation on SW620 cells can trigger the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, regulate gene expression, and promote the proliferation and migration of cells., The effect of TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 upregulation on adrenocortical cell steroidogenesis, is reported., data demonstrated that expression profiles of AIF-1 and TLR-2 correlated with biopsy-proven allograft rejection in both peripheral blood and local tissue, suggesting their potential as diagnostic biomarkers for early detection of allograft rejection, Activation of NF-{kappa}B by TMPRSS2/ERG Fusion Isoforms through Toll-Like Receptor-4., Prior to liver transplantation, patients who subsequently experience rejection demonstrate robust TLR4-dependent immune responses, which are not seen in those who do not reject., central role for TAPE (CC2D1A/Freud-1/Aki-1)in linking TLR3 and TLR4 to innate immune defenses at an early step, Innate immune recognition of meningococcal capsular polysaccharides by macrophages can occur via TLR2- and TLR4-MD-2 pathways., TLR2 and TLR4 expression is associated with poor outcome and higher inflammatory response in acute ischemic stroke., TLR4 expression and the level of NF-kappaB p65 phosphorylation increased in THP-1 cells treated with serum from obese patients., This study demonstrates an association for the first time between TLR4 896AG polymorphism, the GG genotype, and the G allele in women with endometriosis., Unambiguous characterization of site-specific phosphorylation of leucine-rich repeat Fli-I-interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2) in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling., High TLR4 is associated with renal diseases., These findings suggest that NHE-1 in ulcerative colitis is regulated by NFkB induced through TLR-4 and MyD88 signaling mechanism., This study gives the first evidence that the TLR4/11367 polymorphism was associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease in a Han Chinese population., Suggest that the peripheral mechanism of inflammatory injury after stroke may be mediated by TLR4 through a COX-2-dependent pathway., LPS-mediated production of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids in whole blood samples, low frequency electromagnetic field exposure does not modulate toll-like receptor TLR2 or TLR4 signaling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Results suggest that neutrophils are associated with the prognosis of patients with ischaemic stroke through the expression of their toll-like receptors (TLR) 4 but not TLR2., Results show that TLRs are functional on myeloma tumor cells, and the ligands to these TLRs have a functional role in affecting myeloma cell proliferation, survival, and response to chemotherapy and immune attacks., TLR4, CD14, and NF-kappaBp65 were upregulated significantly in UC, to an extent that reflects the degree of inflammation and thereby might contribute to the occurrence and development of ulcerative colitis., Results demonstrate that LPS, through TLR4 activation, up-regulates the expression and function of H1R and amplifies histamine-induced inflammatory responses in HCAEC., mitochondria extracts obtained from hydrogen peroxide-dysfunctionalised cells contain endogenous TLR4 ligands, Interleukin-6 induction of toll-like receptor 4 gene expression via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3(STAT3) is one of the main mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle, variants in TLR2 and TLR4 were associated with monocyte receptor levels of TLR2 and TLR4. This is the first study to look at associations between variants in the toll-like receptor family and toll-like receptor levels on monocytes, Our findings show increased expression of TLR2, TLR4, RAGE and HMGB1 in reactive glia in human ALS spinal cord, The Asp299Gly polymorphism in TLR4 was associated with increased insulin, insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. The intronic polymorphism rs5030728 modified the relationship between dietary saturated fatty acids and HDL cholesterol., Data indicate that down-regulation of TLR-4-mediated IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-10 production in summer was observed compared to winter., Data show that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a relevant target of miR-146a., Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in human and mouse vein graft remodeling, and local gene silencing reduces vein graft disease in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3Leiden mice., Data indicate a novel function for TLR4 as a molecule capable of altering homeostasis of pancreatic beta-cells., stimulation of the TLR4/MD2 complex by LPS activates PI3K/AKT signaling and promotes downstream beta1 integrin function, PBMNC from type 2 diabetics were more sensitive to innate immune stimulation with LPS and monoclonal agonist anti-TLR4 than were cells from ND. The actions of LPS, anti-TLR4 and anti-RAGE potentiated the production of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in both groups., These data are in line with the TLR4-TREM1 co-localization in human neutrophils., Data demonstrate a key role for Mal in mediating TLR2 and TLR4 activation of CREB and induction of CREB-responsive genes including Il-10., Four SNPs in the TLR4 gene (rs10759931, rs11536889, rs1927911 and rs6478317) were associated with an increased risk of developing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, TLR2 and TLR4 expression is increased in dendritic cells from HIV-1-coinfected patients with opportunistic infections., TLR4-mediated autophagy in macrophages is a p62-dependent type of selective autophagy of aggresome-like induced structures., The results suggested that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis gp43 binds to human TLR2, TLR4, and mannose receptors, with TLR2 and mannose receptors having the strongest effect., Kir3.1 channel is involved in the TLR4-mediated signal at an early event by facilitating the recruitment of TLR4 into lipid raft., Single nucleotide polymorphism in TLR4 is associated with measles vaccine immunity., The TLR4 Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile mutant alleles were not detected in any patient, suggesting that they are very rare in the Korean population. Our results do not permit any conclusion regarding their role in the development of liver cirrhosis., Increased expression of toll-like receptor 4 is associated with gastric dysplasia., Common tlr-4 SNPs and promoter SNPs of tlr-9 were distributed among P. falciparum-infected and non-infected groups (P > 0.05) that showed no association of these variants with mild clinical manifestation., Pattern recognition scavenger receptor CD204 attenuates Toll-like receptor 4-induced NF-kappaB activation by directly inhibiting ubiquitination of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6., Regulation of the immunoendocrine stress response during systemic inflammation is influenced by the presence of a TLR4 SNP., Ultraviolet light up-regulates the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and downstream signaling molecules MAPK, NF-kappaB/p65 and IRF-3 in human Langerhans cells., Expressions of TLR2, TLR4 and dectin-1 increased in HaCaT cells in response to Trichophyton rubrum exposure., TLR4 activation can decrease the chemotaxis function of CD34(+) cells towards SDF-1., High expression of TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 may play important roles in the development and progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical squamous cell carcinoma in Uighur women., The TLR4 pathway is activated after MI and correlates with infarct severity but not with the extent of inflammation., The TLR4 ectodomain has multiple roles in enabling ligand regulated activation, providing proper localization while serving as an inhibitor to prevent spontaneous, ligand-independent dimerization., The findings of this study suggest that polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene might be associated with the risk of prostate cancer in Korean men., TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms may play an important protective role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, Genetic variation across TLR4 alone is not strongly associated with prostate cancer risk or mortality., Asthmatic macrophages showed an increase in TLR2 and TLR4 expression in response to to hyaluronan fragments., alpha1-AR modulation of TLR4 signaling characterized in these investigations may prove to be a useful therapeutic strategy for the management of human diseases with known chronic inflammatory etiologies., results do not support the association of these TLR4 variants with giant cell arteritis, MLK4 is a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling., These data suggest that TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399lle polymorphisms confer a higher risk for typhoid infection., the studies described herein are the first to demonstrate a functional TLR4-signaling pathway specifically in human granulosa tumor cells., TLR4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile alleles) as well as TLR2 (Arg753Gln allele) are not associated with risk of colorectal cancer., a mechanism for LPS signaling which involves a decrease in miR-107 leading to an increase in CDK6, Mutant TLR4 alleles confer protection against DM2. However, their presence does not seem to play any role, protective or aggravating, in the manifestation of ischemic heart disease either in diabetic or in non-diabetic individuals., The TLR4 complex is required for human metapneumovirus-induced activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells., MicroRNA expression profiles of human blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages reveal miR-511 as putative positive regulator of Toll-like receptor 4., TLR-4 surface expression was significantly reduced in CFBE41o-., Blocking platelet TLR2 and TLR4 with mAbs reduced the percentage of activated platelets and lowered the amount of thrombin generated in platelet-rich plasma., renal increased expression of TLR4 is an important feature of chronic kidney disease, interactions between TLR4 and IL-1R2 are associated with cervical pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations., Bakery workers carrying the TLR4 variants are at lower risk of developing work-related chest symptoms, suggesting that the TLR4 gene may be involved in allergic sensitization to wheat flour., This study showed that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and caveolin-1 are binding partners in chondrocytes; their expression is temporally regulated by fluid shear via the sequential up-regulation of microsomal PGE synthase-1 and L-PGDS., None of the investigated SNPs clearly predicted outcome of sepsis-related multiorgan failure., no association of TLR4 (+896 A/G) gene polymorphism with susceptibility to giant cell arteritis (Meta-Analysis), LPS can induce inflammatory injuryin alveolar epithelial cells via activating TLR-4 and subsequently activating NF-kappaB., analysis of the area under receiver operating characteristic curves showed that ULBP2 was superior to CA 19-9 in discriminating patients with early-stage PC from healthy controls, TLR4 is a key receptor mediating the interaction of Hsp70L1 with DCs and subsequently enhancing the induction of Th1 immune response by Hsp70L1/antigen fusion protein, Computational study of the interactions of the unmodified dendrimer, glucosamine, and of the partially glycosylated dendrimer with TLR4 and MD-2 using molecular docking and molecular dynamics techniques., STAT1 has been identified as a point of convergence for the cross-talk between the pro-atherogenic IFN-gamma, TLR4 and IL-6 activated pathways in immune as well as vascular cells, as such amplifying pro-inflammatory signals., Fumigaclavine C attenuated TNFalpha via the TLR4-NFkappaB signaling transduction pathway., Glycosaminoglycans and glucose prevent apoptosis in 4-methylumbelliferone-treated human aortic smooth muscle cells in a process mediated by Toll-like receptor 4, CD44, and PI3K but not by ERK1/2, activated TLRs reduce sperm motility, induce sperm apoptosis and significantly impair the potential for fertilization, TLR4(1196C>T) variant was associated with protection from melioidosis when compared with non-hospitalized controls., The stimulation of HK-2 infected with HBV by LPS may upregulate the expression of TLR4 and reduce the copies of HBV DNA., In acute coronary syndromes, MRP8 and MRP8/14 complex are specific ligands of TLR4, which induce the release of TNFalpha and probably other pro-inflammatory agents from monocytes, This is the first study describing the expression of CD14 on, and TLR2 and 4 signalling in, primary human alveolar type (AT)II cells and ATI cells., Heat shock protein 10 of Chlamydophila pneumoniae induces proinflammatory cytokines through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in human monocytes THP-1, The 299/399 TLR4 haplotype had only minor influence on susceptibility and severity of complicated dengue virus infection., For the first time, we have shown that short ragweed pollen initiates TLR4-dependent TSLP/OX40L/OX40 signaling, which triggers T(H)2-dominant allergic inflammation, Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms do not appear to increase the risk of gram-negative bacterial infections after liver transplantation, 14-3-3 theta is a new and important regulatory protein in the TLR-2 and TLR-4 signaling suppressing the MyD88-dependent pathway, The level of expression of TLR-4 did not differ according to anatomic location, but did differ according to the histological layer of the human fetal membranes and gestational age. These results suggest that TLR-4 may be involved in preterm parturition., TIRAP and MyD88, which are known to be adaptor proteins for Toll-like receptor-2 and -4 (TLR2/4), bound to the phosphorylated RAGE and transduced a signal to downstream molecules, TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-9 were expressed in normal and preeclamptic placentas, in the trophoblast, at the vascular endothelium, and at placental villous stroma, although increased expression was detected in preeclampsia, These data suggest that TLR4 signal transduction pathways neutralize proliferation and migration induced by Fas pathway activation in glioblastoma cell lines, TLR4 299Gly und 399Ile alleles may serve as markers for prognosis of head and neck cancer in patients., TLR4 3725G>C gene polymorphisms were also not associated with Helicobacter pylori infection., TLR4 might be critically involved in the development of sepsis, and changes in TLR4 expression are correlated with levels of proinflammatory cytokines., TLR2, TLR4, and iNOS expression was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in C. trachomatis-positive women, than in controls., results suggest that MyD88 degradation driven by the Smad6-Smurf pathway is a novel mechanism for TGF-beta1-mediated negative regulation of MyD88-dependent pro-inflammatory signalling, inhibition of signaling pathways of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 by ST2L, Polymeric structure and TLR4 may play important roles in rendering NY-ESO-1 immunogenic and thus serve as a potent molecular adjuvant. NY-ESO-1 thus represents the first example of a cancer/testis antigen, The TLR4/D299G, TLR4/T399I and TLR2/R753Q polymorphisms, were genotyped., genetic polymorphism is associated with asthma severity but not susceptibility in a Chinese Han population, Der-p2 is capable of triggering B cell activation and MKP-1-activated p38/MAPK dephosphorylation-regulated TLR4 induction., Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphisms do not associate with normal tension glaucoma in a Korean population., Increased TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression in patients with chronic cystic echinococcosis highly suggests the involvement of these Toll-like receptors in the recognition of E. granulosus pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)., Increased expression of TLR4 and TNF-alpha in PBMCs is linked with reduced myocardial perfusion in patients with diabetic cardiomyopathy., have identified specific structural and dynamic features of the MD-2-endotoxin complexes that may control dimerization of TLR4 molecules., data suggest role for D299G polymorphism in the TLR4 gene in overall melanoma survival and potential link with systemic treatment at stage IV of the disease; polymorphic amino acid residue, in the ectodomain of TLR4, can have functional consequences, Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity was associated with higher amniotic fluid sTLR4 levels independent of confounders., [review] This review focuses on the role of TLR4 in the innate and adaptive immune functions of the pulmonary airway structural cells., Suggest that Gnia2 is involved in endothelial TLR pathways along a signaling cascade that is distinct from MyD88., CCL34 is a synthetic glycolipid with anticancer activity that is a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activator, Point mutations in TLR2 and TLR4 genes are associated with the presence of urogenital infections in the random population of the Poltava Region, Ukraine., adipocyte-derived IL-6 and TLR4 activation acted in concert to synergistically stimulate MMP-1 expression by U937 cells, differences in distribution of TLR4 polymorphisms Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile in European populations are most likely due to a combination of population migration events combined with selection due to sepsis[review], TLR4 expression may be differently regulated on neutrophils and monocytes. They could be dynamically modulated across the early development of hemolytic uremic syndrome on neutrophils, resulting in negative regulation preceded by TLR4 overactivation., The functional data from human macrophages suggest a potential cross talk between the CCR8 and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways, both of which are present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients., Data suggest that TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 expression is important to the biological pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma., These findings suggest a weak, or absent, selection pressure on TLR4 polymorphisms in the Middle-East that does not support the assumption of an important role of these polymorphisms in the host defense against local pathogens., LPS increased while trichostatin A decreased the expressions of TLR4 and HDAC2 in cultured endothelial cells., In patients with sepsis, platelet TLR4 expression is elevated together with platelet activation. The joint application of Western medicine and Modified Liang-Ge San may suppress the up-regulation of TLR4., Results do not support the association of TLR4 variants with age related polymyalgia rheumatica and rheumatoid arthritis., Dienogest inhibits Toll-like receptor 4 expression induced by costimulation of lipopolysaccharide and high-mobility group box 1 in endometrial epithelial cells., Toll-like receptor 4 is up-regulated by mTOR activation during THP-1 macrophage foam cells formation., TLR4-mediated pathway may promote tubulointerstitial inflammation in diabetic nephropathy, There is an association between nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization and genetic variation of MBL, TLR2 and TLR4 in young infants., study showed that coactivation of TLR4 and TLR2/6 coordinates an additive augmentation of IL-6 gene transcription via p38MAPK pathway in U937 mononuclear cells, This study examined whether single nucleotide polimorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for TLR2 and TLR4 could be associated with atopic dermatitis, Chemerin enhanced expression of TLR4 and induced release of CCL2 in synovial fibroblasts., PBP2 induces MHC II, CD80, and CD86 and activates human and mouse dendritic cells in a time and dose-dependent manner through Toll-like receptor 4, Systemic lupus erythematosus patients have altered IL-10 and TNF-alpha protein production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after activation of TLR-2, TLR-4, or TLR-9., The results showed that high levels of expression of TLR4 in patient with Guillain-Barre syndrome., Our results demonstrate increased expression of TLR4 and TLR9 on lung CD8(+) T cells in COPD. CD8(+) T cells exposed to CSC increased TLR4 and TLR9 levels and increased cytokine production., After adjusting for gender, family history of acnes, intake of any therapy and skin isolation of P. acnes, carriage of TLR4 gene SNPs was the only independent variable linked with a protective role against acne conglobata, C-reactive protein increased the protein expression of TLR4 on CD14+ monocytes in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Atorvastatin can inhibit the signal transduction of TLR4 and reduce proinflammatory cytokine release induced by CRP., Decreased TLR4-mediated IL-10 production is associated with increased risk of subsequent atopic dermatitis in neonates., Biglycan modulates cross-priming via the TLR2 and TLR4 pathways, involving both MyD88 and TRIF adaptors and triggering histocompatibility class II-mediated antigen presentation preferentially via the TLR4 pathway., TLR2 and TLR4 signaling may indirectly regulate hematopoiesis by modulating bone marrow-mesencymal stromal cells' functions., These data demonstrate a significant role of BM monocytes in the pathophysiology of CIN through the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a TLR4-mediated mechanism under the influence of endogenous ligands such as HMGB1., Alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 elicit a catabolic effect in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes that is dependent on Toll-like receptor 4., TLR2 and TLR4 gene polymorphisms do not predispose to Acute anterior uveitis (AAU), undermining the implication of reported mutations in the selective perturbations of TLR expression and function evident in AAU., TLR4 polymorphisms influence the risk to develop IgA nephropathy and proteinuria., Identification of interaction sites for dimerization and adapter recruitment in Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain of Toll-like receptor 4., Periodontopathogenic microorganisms can play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic injury of coronary arteries in ischemic heart disease. The presence of TLR4 gene allele 299Gly significantly contributes to these processes., An interleukin (IL)-27 time- and dose-dependent increase in mRNA and cell surface expression and signaling of TLR4 is demonstrated in human monocytes., Compared with controls, expression of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNAs are up-regulated in patients with late onset Alzheimer's disease., Suggest that TLR4 expression by hepatic progenitor cells and biliary epithelial cells contributes to the progression of liver damage in the course of chronic HCV-related infection., these findings reveal broadly utilized mechanisms underlying temporally distinct patterns of TLR4-dependent gene activation required for homeostasis and effective immune responses., the recombination of TLR4, MD-2 and CXCR7 strongly correlated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis in colorectal carcinoma tissue samples, a novel mechanism of C3 gene regulation in macrophages and new aspects of cross-talk between mLDL, C3, C3a, and TLR4 during development of atherosclerotic lesions, No TLR4 polymorphisms were detected in Korean subjects., Findings suggest that TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88 or MAL/TIRAP genes are not involved as risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Colombian population., Data indicate that plasma proteins alpha2-macroglobulin can signal via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to induce macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines implicated in osteoarthritis (OA)., The frequency of SNP896A/G in the TLR4 gene was not associated with acute myocardial infarction and arterial hypertension., Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipase increases mononuclear cell IL-23, VEGF, TLR2/4 expression., Among African American women with pelvic inflammatory disease, variants in the TLR1 and TLR4 genes, which may increase signaling, were associated with increased Chlamydia trachomatis infection., TLR overexpression on CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes in acute myocardial infarction, as demonstrated both in the circulation and at the coronary culprit site, might be associated with the pathogenesis of AMI., The expression of TLR4 may be closely associated with the course of gallbladder carcinoma., The toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphisms are associated with the development of emphysema in Japanese subjects., FRP has the function of evoking innate immune responses as one of the endogenous TLR4 agonists., shown that endogenous ApoA-I stabilizes ABCA1, moreover, down-regulation of ApoA-I by siRNA results in an increase of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA and membrane surface protein expression, This study suggests that the TLR4 gene contributes to the susceptibility for LOAD in Han Chinese., The TLR4 rs2148356 T allele is associated with a reduced risk of HCC and could slow down its clinical progression in HCV-induced chronic liver disease, data indicate lipopolysaccharide-LPS-binding protein may activate TLR4 signalling and downstream transcription factor NF-kappaB, which further can activate STIM1 and eventually lead to calcium influx and injury of HUVECs, TLR4 Asp299Gly variant seems to confer protection against hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.., Curbed TLR4 activation might be beneficial in preventing chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy., Sporothrix schenckii triggered an immune response through TLR2 and TLR4 pathways., TLR-4 c.896A, Our data suggest that TLR4 T399I modify cytokines and chemokines patterns and play a role in the development of NPC., increased mRNA in hepatitis and cirrhosis, and decreased in hepatocarcinoma, The expression of TLR4 is abnormal in the renal tissue of HBV-associated nephropathy patients, mainly in renal tubular epithelial cells and interstitial region., TLR4 genotypes may have, at best, a modest influence on bronchopulmonary dysplasia severity in some populations of high-risk preterm infants, lack of association between TLR4 rs4986790 polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Toll-like receptor 4 expression decreased in the presence of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW HA) in cord blood., This study suggests that TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism might influence production and persistence of antibodies after pertussis booster vaccination in adolescents., Syk plays a key role in TLR4-mediated macrophage responses to host-generated ligands, like mmLDL, with subsequent activation of an AP-1 transcription program, A strong association was found between the Asp299Gly polymorphism in the TLR4 gene and asthma severity., analysis of activated apoptotic cells induce dendritic cell maturation via engagement of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), and beta2 integrins, study demonstrates a lack of association of TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms with asthma and allergic rhinitis but suggests significant association between these genetic variants and the disease severity, Data suggest that insufficient LPS-induced chaperones, GRP94 and GRP78, expression links TLR4 signaling to endoplasmic reticulum stress., An inflammatory environment and/or Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation could affect the mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation potential., TLR4 gene polymorphism are associated with vitiligo susceptibility in Turkey., In LOS.MD-2 complexes, one of the six fatty acyl chains of LOS is more susceptible to paramagnetic attenuation, suggesting protrusion of that fatty acyl chain from the hydrophobic pocket of MD-2, independent of association with TLR4., higher expression on peripheral blood monocytes in preterm labor women, Asp299Gly represented a risk factor on cancers in digestive system but tend to have a protective effect on prostate cancer. Thr399Ile polymorphism was significantly associated with an elevated cancer risk in overall analysis. [Meta-analysis], human neonatal plasma contains at least two distinct factors that suppress TLR4-mediated IL-12p70 production or induce IL-10, the proline-rich Src homology 3 domain-binding motif in TRAF6 interacts directly with activated SFKs to couple LPS engagement of TLR4 to SFK activation and loss of barrier integrity in HMVEC-Ls., these results demonstrated that hypoxia attenuated the host immune and inflammatory response against Acanthamoeba infection by suppressing TLR4 signaling., Studies indicate that TLR4 is essential for host resistance to a range of bacterial infections., Regarding TLR4, Asp299Gly polymorphism A allele frequency was 90 % in controls and 96 % in patients, The TLR4-signaling pathway plays a critical role in the proinflammatory response seen after acute eccentric exercise., a novel TLR4 regulatory pathway exists within the newborn gut involving Hsp70 that may be pharmacologically activated to limit NEC severity., IL-17A is a critical factor in the increase in IL-8 expression resulting from TLR2- and TLR4-dependent activation in cystic fibrosis airway., Data indicate that TLR2 -196 to -174 del and TLR4+896G may increase the risk of gastric cancer in a Brazilian population., the D299G polymorphism compromises recruitment of MyD88 and TRIF to TLR4 without affecting TLR4 expression, TLR4-MD2 interaction, or LPS binding, suggesting that it interferes with TLR4 dimerization, analysis of a novel role for tyrosine phosphorylation in regulating the interaction with IRF3 and the activity of TRIM21 downstream of TLR3 and TLR4, The Mal-Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains AB loop is capable of mediating direct binding to the TIR domains of TLR4 and MyD88 simultaneously., Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 up-regulates the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in pancreatic cancer cells under hypoxic conditions., finding that binding of mAbs to at least two distinct regions on TLR4 inhibits LPS-dependent activation provides a novel method for manipulating TLR4 activation and also a rationale for designing drugs targeted to TLR4, This is the first study to show that common TLR4 polymorphisms are associated with TB susceptibility in the Sudanese population., TLR4 mRNA levels in peripheral monocytes are significantly elevated in nondiabetic hypertensive patients., interaction between intact respiratory syncytial virus and TLR4 receptor does not seem to play a biological role in RSV pathogenesis, Meta-analysis revealed that the two common TLR4 polymorphisms, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, have no strong association with the likelihood of sepsis in Caucasian populations., TLR4 is a key receptor for the melanoma lysate-mediated in vitro generation of clinically efficient antigen-presenting cells, Systemic up-regulation of TLR4 in symptomatic allergic rhinitis may explain why lipopolysaccharide exposure preceded by allergen increases nasal cytokine release., findings show strong inhibitory effect of oxidized LDLs on TLR2 and TLR4 dependent production of interleukin-10, The -174 to -196del of TLR2 gene and Asp299Gly of TLR4 gene polymorphisms may confer an increased susceptibility to breast cancer development., higher expression in decidual cells than interstitial trophoblasts across human pregnancy, TLR4 polymorphisms appear to increase the risk for Crohn's Disease only in association with CARD15 mutation., TLR4 overexpression in mRNA levels is observed in stroke patients, which might account for the probable inflammatory injury before or after stroke., expression significantly higher in early-onset preeclampsia tissues than control group placentas, TLR4 was functionally expressed in human OSCC cells and development of resistance to cisplatin in human OSCC might occur through the mechanism involving TLR4 and its signaling pathway., This study provides the molecular basis for pathogen subversion of TLR4 signaling and clarifies the importance of TIR motif BB loops, which have been selected for viral antagonism, in the formation of the TLR4 complex., there is no evidence that the TLR4 (Thr399Il) polymorphisms can be considered risk factors for Crohn's disease., Our data indicate an involvement of periodontopathogens in increased plasma levels of soluble CD40L in periodontitis and therefore provide a novel link between periodontitis and increased risk for CVD., Data show that when added with Toll-like receptors TLR4 and TLR2 ligands, oxmLDL suppressed the expression and release of cytokines., Among patients with DCM, the presence of the TLR4 variants rs4986790 and rs4986791 predicts impaired cardiac recovery independently of medical treatment or cardiac risk factors, the present study demonstrates that the activation of TLR4 signaling by lipopolysacharide stimulation significantly inhibits hepatoblastoma cell motility and invasiveness, genetic variation of rs11536889 contributes to translational regulation of TLR4, possibly by binding to microRNAs., Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 are highly associated with hearing loss in survivors of bacterial meningitis., Toll-like receptor 4 and TLR9 are induced in oral lichen planus (OLP); our finding confirms the results of a previous study. TLR4 and TLR9 may play a part in the pathogenesis of OLP, Osteocalcin-induced fibroblast transformation via vascular remodeling is mediated by angiotensin II, TLR4, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2., Report induction of VEGF and MMP-9 expression by toll-like receptor 2/4 in human endothelial cells infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae., TNC produced by oxLDL-stimulated macrophages increases foam cell formation through TLR4 and scavenger receptor CD36., The results showed that the genetic markers in TLR1, TLR4, TLR5 TLR6, and TLR10 were associated with the occurrence of acute Graft-versus-host disease following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, TLR4 D299G/T399I polymorphisms are not associated with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis susceptibility., Human neutrophils unable to induce the transcription of IFN-beta in response to TLR4 stimulation are able to recognize and respond to microbial cytosolic DNA., Amniotic fluid inhibits Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in the fetal and neonatal intestinal epithelium, These findings highlight the role of GRPR signaling in sepsis outcome., FOXP3 and TLR4 may coordinate to play a role in tumor escape and subsequent tumor progression, Correlation between anti-LPS antibodies binding and the level of TLR4 (Thr399Ile) gene polymorphism in rheumatoid arthritis., TL4 expression by monocytes and serum INF-gamma levels are lower in infants with positive PCR results for pertussis than in infants with a non-pertussis upper respiratory tract infection., Suggest that TLR4 Asp299Gly gene variant has an impact on TLR4 signaling via increased NF-kappaB activity in colorectal cancer cell line., The association between TLR4 activation and APRIL expression in examined leukocytes might have important implications for the immune response of the host exposed to TLR4 ligands such as lipopolysacharides., Association of POAG with TLR4 rs7037117, in a recessive model, was identified in the Hong Kong and Shantou cohorts (both Southern Chinese) but not the Beijing cohort (Northern Chinese)., results demonstrate that TLR4 may play an important role in the antiviral immunity of the host against Hantaan virus infection through an MyD88-independent signaling pathway, These data demonstrate that TOLLIP has an anti-inflammatory effect on TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in humans, The TLR4-NF-kB pathway is upregulated in preeclampsia., Data indicate that TLR2 and TLR4 ligands can downregulate CD36 on the surface of monocytes, guiding the protein to intracellular compartments., alpha(1)-Acid glycoprotein up-regulates CD163 via TLR4/CD14 protein pathway, This study demonstrated that TLR4 polymorphisms are associated with NTG in the Japanese, and they also play a role in the pathogenesis of POAG and XFG., TNC and TLR4 were mainly expressed by visceral fat, and its expression was significantly enhanced (P<0.01) by TNF-alpha treatment in obesity., These findings indicated that TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism may not play a role in AS atherosclerosis development., L. interrogans secretes many hemolysins that function as powerful inducers of proinflammatory cytokines through both TLR2-and TLR4-dependent JNK and NF-kappaB pathways., A key role for the endothelium in NOD1 mediated vascular inflammation, Respiratory syncytial virus F protein requires MD-2 for the induction of the TLR4-mediated inflammatory response., Report role of TLR4 mRNA/protein expression in predicting early posttransplantation kidney graft dysfunction., LPS and PCB coadministration disrupts the blood-brain barrier through activating TLR4 and and IRF3., Notably, response heterogeneity to TLR4 activation is provided and confirmed in human brain tissue., TLR4 signaling triggers a cascade that leads to mantle cell lymphoma growth and evasion from immune surveillance., The presence of TLR-4 Asp299Gly and TLR-4 Thr399Ile polymorphisms is related to ulcerative colitis pancolitis, involvement of the colon in Crohn disease, and lower antichitobioside IgA levels., BMSCs modulate HSCs in vitro via TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway, The results demonstrate that bradykinin up-regulates the expression of TLR4 and promotes an additive increase in inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharides., These results indicate that TLR4 signaling is required for lipopolysaccharide-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor cell invasion and metastasis., MAPKs (p38, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2) were the crucial downstream targets of the anti-beta(2)GPI/beta(2)GPI -triggered TLR4 signaling pathways in THP-1 cells., enhanced expression is associated with complicated malaria in ethnic groups of Assam, northeast India, The results provided evidence for a role of TLR4 at sites of injury, and suggested that TLR4 is an important regulator of wound inflammation via the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling system., SNPs in TLR2 and TLR4 are associated with the level and decline of lung function as well as with inflammatory cell numbers in induced sputum in COPD, TLR4 polymorphisms may be novel protective factors against Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Chinese population., The D299G/T399I TLR4 polymorphism impairs TLR4/MD-2 responses by altering ligand-dependent dimerization., anti-beta(2)GPI/beta(2)GPI complex induced TF and TNF-alpha expression involving both TLR4/MyD88 and TLR4/TRIF signaling pathways and TLR4 and its adaptors might be molecular targets for therapy of antiphospholipid syndrome, TLR4 is a crucial receptor of the innate immune system in the immunopathogenesis of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies., Notch1 enhances the inflammatory response to TLR4 in human aortic valve interstitial cells by modulating NF-kappaB activation. Excessive cross-talk between the TLR4 & Notch1 pathway augments the TLR4 response in AVIC of stenotic valves., show that exogenous recombinant CD14 can potentiate innate immune response via TLR4-dependent and possibly via TLR9-dependent pathways to promote enhanced expression/production of IL-8 and IFN-beta, respectively, A protective regulatory function of TLR4 against emphysematous changes of the lung in response to cigarette smoke., IL-6 and soluble CD40L are required for low-affinity/avidity autoreactive B cells to maintain tolerance through a mechanism involving receptor cross-talk between the transgenic B cell receptor, TLR4, and the interleukin (IL)-6 receptor or CD40., Findings suggest that the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway is associated with the survival of patients with ovarian epithelial cancers (OECs), and that MyD88 is an independent prognostic predictor in patients with OECs., Donor polymorphisms in TLR4 could be important factors in modulating TLR4 activity and, therefore, affect the risk of liver graft loss., IL-18 associates to microvesicles shed from human macrophages by a LPS/TLR-4 independent mechanism in response to P2X receptor stimulation., Functional Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms significantly alter the risk to have colorectal cancer., These results suggest that protosapanin A has anti-oxidative/nitrative activities on brain immune and neuroinflammation through regulation of CD14/TLR4-dependent inflammation signal pathway., gene variants associated with bacterial vaginosis among HIV-1 infected adolescents, increase in the monocyte expression is associated with percutanoeus coronary intervention, genetic polymorphism as a genetic risk factor for migraine in Iranian cohort, IL-18 stimulates the TLR4 promoter via AP-1 activation to increase TLR4 expression in tubular epithelial cells., Irritable bowel syndrome-Mixed subgroup patients display a significant up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 in the colonic mucosa., Human colon cancer cells expressed TLR4 at both mRNA and protein levels. TLR4 ligand LPS did not affect the expression of TLR4 and the proliferation of colon cancer cells. LPS induced resistance of human colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis., TLR4 gene polymorphisms at the positions 896 and 1196 cannot be regarded as the major contributors to visceral leishmaniasis susceptibility among the Iranian population., Local structural differences of TLR4 were observed around D299G, but not around T399I polymorphism site., our data validate TLR4 crosslinking as common mechanism of Co2+- and Ni2+-induced innate immune activation, A high simvastatin dose or the combination of a low-dose simvastatin with ezetimibe reduce to a similar extent TLR2, TLR4 membrane expression and LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-1beta production in monocytes of hypercholesterolemic patients., The TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism may confer susceptibility to giant cell arteritis. [Meta-analysis], The prevalence of TLR4 +3725GC and CC genotypes were significantly increased in bladder cancer cases than in controls., The production of lipopolysaccharides-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-12p40 is increased significantly when miR-187 expression is silenced., There was no change in TLR4 expression on monocytes or T cells of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection or coinfection with HIV., Single nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR4 is associated with neoplasms., expression on monocytes up-regulated during the early period after a major abdominal surgical operation, resistin contributes to the pro-inflammatory state of SMC by the up-regulation of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 expression via a mechanism involving NF-kB, AP-1, and STAT1/3 transcription factors, (2) resistin employs TLR4 and Gi-protein signaling., In conclusion, our data suggests that TLR2 Arg677Trp or Arg753Gln, TLR4 Asp299Gly or Thr399Ile and TLR9-1237T/C polymorphisms and TLR9-1486T/C polymorphism may not be a marker in for susceptibility to type 2 diabetes or coronary artery disease., in HBV-positive Caucasian patients, the A/A genotype of the rs4986790 polymorphism may influence a worse outcome of chronic HBV infection, mainly through a synergistic interaction with male gender., Data indicate that atorvastatin significantly decreases the levels of TLR4 protein and mRNA in THP-1 cells., results show Carriage of the TLR4 gene alleles was not associated with any disease parameter.SNPs of promotor region of TNF gene indicated for susceptibility to HS, platelet TLR4 can function as an LPS "danger sensor" to increase the expression of adaptor proteins to activate platelets, Following acute myocardial infarct treatment, monocyte TKR4 expression by individual subsets is unchanged. TLR4 expression may not be a reliable marker of monocyte activation in myocardial infarct., Polymorphisms located in the regulatory region of TLR4 were associated with rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese Han population., Toll-like receptor 4 signaling augments transforming growth factor-beta responses, These results indicate that TLR4 polymorphisms do not play a prominent role in the development of PBC in Japanese patients., there is no evidence for involvement of the TLR4 gene Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms in susceptibility to primary gouty arthritis in the Chinese Han population., TLR4 +3725G/C polymorphism may be a novel protective factor against type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Chinese population., we have concisely summarized the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlining the development of IBD and colitis-associated cancer, with particular focus on the TLR4- and CHI3L1-signaling pathways in CECs., Down-regulated TLR4 expression in lung was associated with emphysema and airflow limitation in smokers., High TLR4 expression was significantly associated with a shortened relapse-free survival and may be a new prognostic factor of unfavorable evolution in cutaneous malignant melanoma., TLR4 variation appeared to influence the association between Trichomonas vaginalis serostatus and prostate cancer risk consistent with the hypothesis that inflammation plays a role in this association., an overall heterogeneous pattern of TLR4 polymorphism can be attributed to genetic drift., TLR4 gene Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms are not associated with the susceptibility of tuberculosis., These studies show for the first time that lipopolysaccharide causes an increase in intestinal permeability via an intracellular mechanism involving TLR-4-dependent up-regulation of CD14 membrane expression., wheat alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors elicit release of proinflammatory cytokines in cells from celiac and nonceliac patients and in celiac patients' biopsies, engaging the TLR4-MD2-CD14 complex, The results suggest that TLR2/4 expression in MDMs from active BD patients is significantly increased., Toll-like receptor agonists and febrile range hyperthermia synergize to induce heat shock protein 70 expression and extracellular release, Our results suggest that fibrin mediates inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts via a TLR4 pathway., study reveals the existence of Btk-dependent molecular cooperation between FcgammaRIIa and TLR4 signaling cascades in LPS-"primed" human neutrophils, TLR4 gene Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile and TLR2 gene Arg753Gln, Arg677Trp polymorphisms may not be associated with IBD in the Zhuang population from the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China, These results showed that +3725C variant of of TLR4 has a functional effect down-regulating gene expression and it could be considered as a predictive factor against overweight, particularly in nonsmokers, ATF4 acts as a positive regulator in TLR4-triggered cytokine production., Relationship between TLR4 and mPGES-1 mRNA in endometriotic lesions indicate that innate immunity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis., This study first confirms that fatty acids do not activate TLR2 and TLR4., Sequence variants of TLR4 are associated with an increased risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease, especially in ApoE e4 non-carriers and in hypertensive patients, meta-analysis identified that the AG/GG genotypes of D299G are associated with decreased metabolic disorders risk, Ultraviolet radiation also upregulated mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB/p65 expression via Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4, and upregulated interferon regulatory factor-3 expression, The relationship of polymorphisms TLR2 (rs5743708) and TLR4 (rs4986790) with increased production of specific IgE in patients with allergic diseases was observed., genetic polymorphism is associated with preterm birth in Polish population, Two polymorphisms located in the TLR2 gene and two located in the TLR4 gene have been genotyped in 201 unrelated individuals from Saudi Arabia., PIP5Kalpha promotes TLR4-associated microglial inflammation by mediating PIP(2)-dependent recruitment of TIRAP to the plasma membrane, TLR-4 engagement of dendritic cells confers a BST-2/tetherin-mediated restriction of HIV-1 infection to CD4+ T cells across the virological synapse., study reports deviations from the normal intracellular trafficking route of TLR4 in LPS-stimulated cystic fibrosis epithelial cells, Data indicate that human TLR4 (CD4-TLR4) transgene into APC(Min/+) mice (CD4-TLR4-APC(Min/+)), a model of colorectal carcinoma, resulted in a dramatic drop in tumor load., Data suggest that the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) may be a treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD)., High TLR4 expression is associated with lymph node metastasis in breast cancer., Data indicate that stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a prototypical TLR4 ligand, can induce eosinophil-basophil differentiation colony-forming units haematopoietic progenitor cell., MicroRNA-92a negatively regulates Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered inflammatory response in macrophages by targeting MKK4 kinase, TLR4 896A/G polymorphism plays a role in atherosclerosis pathogenesis by determining the increased microbial contamination of the coronary arteries., Tim-3 negatively regulates the TLR4 response in sepsis patients., Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 were strongly expressed in chronic otitis media and middle ear cholesteatoma, N-butyrate massively induces PGE(2) production by increasing the expression of PTGS2 (COX-2) in monocytes following TLR4 and TLR2 activation and induces secretion of LTB(4) and thromboxane B(2)., Increased renal expression and urinary excretion of TLR4 in acute kidney injury associated with cirrhosis., Apoptotic cell clearance defect of marrow macrophages in myelodysplastic syndromes may contribute to the inflammatory process through aberrant release of molecules inducing toll-like receptor-4, such as high mobility group box-1 protein (HGMB1)., Expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 in polymorphonuclear neutrophils and the TLR-induced activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was comparable in granulomatosis with polyangiitis and healthy controls., By modulating a lipooligosaccharide-induced response through the TLR4 signaling pathway, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) may participate in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS)., TLR4 and HMGB1 appear to play a role in muscle protection and regeneration after muscle ischemia., blood monocytes of preterm newborns display rapid increase in TLR2 and TLR4 expression during the first few months of life, whereas LPS-induced cytokine production functionality did not improve in parallel., Structural genetic variants of the receptors TLR2 and TLR4 do not substantially affect the risk of prosthetic joint infection, Of the seven SNPs studied, the TLR2 T-16934A increased the risk, the TLR9 T-1486C SNPs may decrease the risk, and TLR4 variation seemed unrelated to outcome., REVIEW, Let-7b targets at TLR4 mRNA, and regulates the activation of NF-kappaB and the expression of the downstream genes related to the inflammation and immune responses in H.pylori infection., both oral and enteric C. concisus strains upregulated expression of TLR4 and MD-2 in HT-29 cells., TLR4-induced autophagy plays a critical step in the pathogenesis of NEC, which occurs through the negative regulation of enterocyte migration., A mutation in TLR4 (rs4986790) and IL10RA (rs22291130) was significantly associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-positive Crohn's disease patients., Differential TLR42 gene expressions on psoriatic PBMCs and correlations with regulatory andor proinflammatory cytokines andor damage-associated molecular pattern molecule S100A9 emphasize innate immune response role in psoriasis, Identification of binding sites for myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and Toll-like receptor 4 in MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)., TLR4 activation by palmitate increased subsequent cellular uptake of palmitate, and inhibiting ceramide synthesis ablated palmitate effects on PCK1 mRNA abundance and promoter activity., Minor modifications to the phosphate groups and the C3' acyl chain length of lipid A in two Bordetella pertussis strains, BP338 and 18-323, independently affect Toll-like receptor 4 protein activation., Polymorphisms in TLR4 gene were significantly associated with inflammatory bowel disease in North Indian population and they contribute in modulating transcription of inflammatory cytokines during UC leading to aberrant immune response., Polymorphisms in TLR4 were significantly associated with inflammatory bowel disease in North Indian population and they contribute in modulating transcription of inflammatory cytokines during ulcerative colitis leading to aberrant immune response, These data strongly support TLR4 as a mediator of cytomegalovirus-triggered cell cycle activation in THP-1 macrophages favouring, in turn, the development of an efficient viral lytic cycle., Cells in the gliding surface zone of osteo-arthritis cartilage are fully equipped with TLR in mild osteoarthritis., Polymorphism in TLR4 gene was associated with increased susceptibility to breast cancer and could be used as a prognostic marker for this malignancy., Colonies of bacteria were identified in the majority of lesions, and this correlated with the cellular expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in all lesions, TLR4 mutations are associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma., Studied if SNPs in TLR 2, 4 and 5 affect susceptibility of L. pneumophila infection in a Han Chinese population by in vitro assay. 54 healthy subjects were genotyped for TLR SNPs. PBMCs from these subjects and stimulated with live L. pneumophila for 24 h., tetra- and penta-acylated lipid A structures of P. gingivalis LPS differentially activate TLR4-mediated NF-kappaB signaling pathway, and significantly modulate the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in HGFs., Combined TLR2/4-activated dendritic/tumor cell fusions induce augmented cytotoxic T lymphocytes., based on our ethnic Chinese case-control study and meta-analysis, TLR2 -196 to -174del, TLR4 Asp299Gly, TLR4 rs11536889 and CD14 -260 C/T polymorphisms appear to play an important role in the development of gastric cancer., meta-analysis findings suggest a lack of direct association between the TLR4 +896A>G polymorphism and asthma, Lgr4/Gpr48 plays a critical role in modulating the TLR2/4 signaling pathway and represents a useful therapeutic approach of targeting Lgr4/Gpr48 in TLR2/4-associated septic shock and autoimmune diseases., The TLR4 +896A/G SNP is a risk factor in gastric carcinogenesis, especially in H. pylori-infected patients with precancerous lesions., TLR4 signaling regulates luminal exosome release and shuttling of antimicrobial peptides from the gastrointestinal epithelium, revealing a new arm of mucosal immunity relevant to antimicrobial defense., Review of how TLR4 regulation within the gut can explain the unique susceptibility of the premature infant to the development of necrotizing enterocolitis., that children carrying TLR-4 Thr399Ile polymorphism and/or having low level of monocyte/neutrophil TLR-4 expression have a tendency to develop febrile urinary tract infection, activation of TLR4 signaling in bladder epithelial cells induces IL-10 expression via activation of p38 and JNK, study highlights how variations in three structural components of C. jejuni LOS alter TLR4 activation and consequent monocyte activation., the toll-like receptor 4 gene TLR4 may have a role in in Behcet disease along with the familial Mediterranean fever gene MEFV, Children carrying a minor rs1800629 (TNF) or rs1927911 (TLR4) allele may be at a higher risk of allergic rhinitis., Expression of TLR4 was high in all grades of oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma, Data indicate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress impaired toll-like receptor 4(TLR4) signaling of monocytes., The expression of CD11b, TLR4 and TLR2 is increased in monocyte-derived macrophages in IQ memory-discrepant individuals., Early changes in TLR4 expression on circulating monocytes are not necessarily part of the inflammatory response to low dose lipopolysaccharides in humans., our findings suggest that GMFG functions as a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling by facilitating TLR4 endocytic trafficking in macrophages, activation of NOD2 induces granuloma formation in the skin, joints and eyes, Data indicate that cobalt-alloy particles induce expression of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-8 via toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway., TLR-4 and VEGF polymorphisms in chronic periaortitis, TLR4 can trigger a neoplastic program through activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, Development of contact allergies to stimulatory transition metals may be facilitated by signals from direct TLR4 ligation, whereas other metal sensitizers, such as chromium, may depend on microbial or tissue-derived cofactors to induce sensitization., In hippocampal tissue from patients with pharmacoresistant medial temporal lobe epilepsy, we observed abundant TLR4 gene expression to relate to seizure frequency per month., The HMGB1-TLR4 axis plays a pathogenic role in triggering cardiomyocyte apoptosis during myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury., TLR4 gene rs2149356 SNP might be associated with gouty arthritis susceptibility, Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), one of the well characterized PRRs, recognizes not only the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, but also the endogenous ligands in indirect acute lung injury, M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells partially through TLR4/IL-10 signaling., The expression of CD91 and TLR4 in trophoblasts and decidual cells may play a role in birth initiation and pathological early pregnancy termination after release of gp96 at the maternal- fetal interface from cells rich in gp96, Upregulation of TLR4 protein content suggests that bed rest in older adults increases the capacity to mount an exaggerated, and perhaps unnecessary, inflammatory response, The synergic effect of TI,II/CC genotypes for TLR4 Thr399Ile and TLR9 T-1486C polymorphisms showed increased risk of PTB susceptibility. In conclusion, no significant relation was found between TLR4 and TLR9 polymorphisms alone and PTB., Biologically relevant levels of mixed AFs elicited early immune modulation in human PBMCs. qRT-PCR results showed several folds increase of MyD88, TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 transcripts in PBMCs, TLR4 rs4986790 polymorphism was not associated with risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Chinese and prostate cancer (Chen et al, 2005), which corresponds to our results and no association between TLR4 rs4986791 polymorphism and oral cancer risk, results thus identify miR-146b as an IL-10-responsive miR with an anti-inflammatory activity based on multiple targeting of components of the TLR4 pathway in monocytes, Toll-like receptor-4 expression by stromal fibroblasts is associated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer., PSP has an immunoregulatory effect through regulation of the TLR4-TIRAP/MAL-MyD88 signaling pathway., The reults of this study suggested that evidence for a role of the coding variant of the Toll-like receptor 4 gene in temporal lobe epilepsy., no association between genetic polymorphism and ulcerative colitis in Iranian patients, low-grade TLR4 activation exerts control over leukocyte metabolism in the absence of systemic inflammatory indicators., Polymorphism of TLR4 gene rather than of TLR2 gene associates with severe and complicated course of atopic dermatitis in children., These results indicate that TLR4 signaling in cancer cells promotes cell survival and proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma., Data showed that TLR4, CD4+ T cells (Th1, Th17 and Treg cells) and related cytokines (IL-23, IL-2) may take part in the pathogenesis of ITP., Our findings suggest that ENV-mediated induction of nitrosative stress via activation of TLR4 results in an overall reduction of the oligodendroglial differentiation capacity, thereby contributing to remyelination failure., Histone deacetylase 7 promotes Toll-like receptor 4-dependent proinflammatory gene expression in macrophages., It plays a role in the inflammation-associated liver cancer development.(review), analysis of the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in brain injury caused by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion [review], We report a novel association between presence of non-synonyous TLR4 variants and increased Gram-negative bacterial infections in VLBW infancts., this study was not able to detect associations between TLR4 polymorphisms and sepsis, The two common TLR4 polymorphisms, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, have no association with the likelihood of periodontitis. However, there was a significant increased risk for periodontitis in recessive models of Asp299Gly. [meta-analysis], CD14 and TLR4 mediate cytokine release induced by LDL(-) in human monocytes., In the cord blood of children with respiratory syncytial virus disease there was downregulation of interleukin 7 receptor and chemokine receptor 7, and in the severe disease subcategory, downregulation of Toll-like receptor 4., In Chlamydia epithelial cell infections, oestradiol significantly reduced TLR4 expression and upregulated IL-10 secretion, modulating the Th1 immune response to a Th2-type response, which may lead to pathogenesis., A markedly higher expression at the mRNA and protein level of TLR4 was observed in active BD patients as compared with controls., the role of the TLR4 gene in the pathogenesis of E. coli brain abscess is still not clear, we think that neonates with brain abscess should be evaluated for immunodeficiency in their genetic background, such as TLR4 gene polymorphism, The activated TLR4/NANOG oncogenic pathway is linked to suppression of cytostatic TGF-beta signaling., The presence of five SNPs in the TLR4 gene having association with chronic otitis media with effusion in our study population lends evidence for the possible role of this gene in the susceptibility to otitis media., The TLR4 rs1927914 polymorphism GG genotype and recent cefepime therapy were independently associated with fecal toxigenic Clostridium difficile colonization., TLR4 SNPs and their haplotypes may increase the risk of impairment of wound healing in T2DM patients., elevated expression of unusual splice variants in Behcet's disease, mediates proinflammatory differentiation of dendritic cells via combined action of MyD88 and TRIF, TLR4 D299G and T399I polymorphisms are significantly associated with clinical features variables such as differentiation and tumor architecture, with advanced stage, lymph node, and metastasis, the present meta-analysis indicates that TLR4 gene Asp299Gly polymorphism is not associated with increased ischemic cerebrovascular disease risk., These data suggest that the stimulation of the macrophage TLR4 pathway by TSP1 is partially mediated by the interaction of TSP1 with its receptor, CD36., TLR4 activation in Barrett's esophagus results in a strong increase in COX-2 and may contribute to malignant transformation., IRF5, but not TLR4, DEFEB1, or VDR, is associated with the risk of ulcerative colitis in a Han Chinese population., TLR4 activation of hepatocytes participate in the immediate response to lipopolysaccharide induced hepatic injury., the mean relative gene expression and difference in protein expression of TLR4 in macrophages of patients with healing form of lesion were significantly higher than that of patients with non-healing form of lesion respectively, Two TLR4 mutations,D299G and TLR4T399I were present and the prevalence of heterozygous genotype of the TLR4D299G SNP, but not any of the other SNPs, was significantly higher among scrub typhus patients., TLR4 Delta22, Asp299Gly, and Thr399Ile may increase the susceptibility of gastric cancer in Caucasians, whereas Delta22 may decrease the susceptibility of gastric cancer in Chinese [meta-analyssi], Extracellular complex formation of TLR4 with secreted MD-2 was detectable using monoclonal antibodies., Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was highly expressed in gastric cancer (GC) cells and was associated with the aggressiveness of GC., TLR4-NFkappaB-IL1beta signaling might play a crucial role in the development of acute inflammation in primary gout patients., In the atherosclerosis model, the levels of TLR4 and NF-kappaB were increased, but this increased expression was inhibited in the fosinopril treated group., These results suggest that the activation of TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 might affect intestinal inflammation., we have identified TLR4 as the receptor that specifically recognizes Stx1 and Stx2 in human neutrophils., The rs10983755, located in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of TLR4, was most strongly associated with fungal keratitis of Chinese Han population (p < 0.05)., Cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) increased the expression of TLR4 in CSE stimulated bronchial epithelial cells and carbocysteine was able to reduce this effect., Blockage of TLR-4 signaling by CLI-095, a TLR-4 inhibitor, completely inhibited the nickel-induced ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression and NFkappaB activation., TIRAP and IRAK2 are critical for the sustained inflammatory response that is mediated by late-phase signaling by the TLR-4-1BBL complex., Our findings suggest that the g.14367G>A genetic polymorphism of the TLR4 gene is associated with the susceptibility to T2DM in the Chinese population., EDAvidin retains the proinflammatory properties of EDA, inducing NF- kappabeta by TLR4-expressing cells, as well as the production of TNF- alpha by the human monocyte cell line THP1 and IL-12 by DC., production of endogenous IgG by RPE is regulated by the TLR4 pathway in a concentration- and duration-dependent manner, and IgG affects the activation of the TLR4 pathway in a synergistic manner., Investigated the effect on TLR4 gene expression of three polymorphisms., Blood was drawn before the first and third cycle and analyzed by flow cytometry for frequency (%) of CD4+, CD8+, CD45RO+, and PD1+ mononuclear cells and for TLR4 expression on neutrophils., Data show that Lactobacillus crispatus promotes epithelial cell defense against Candida albicans infection through the involvement of TLR2/4, IL-8 and human beta-defensin 2 and 3, suggesting this Lactobacillus as an anti-infective agent against C. albicans., Investigated whether Finnish children who carry the Asp299Gly TLR4 SNP had increased risk of M. catarrhalis colonization during their first 2 years of life., Data suggest that progesterone can inhibit the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MyD88-dependent signaling pathway signaling pathway in pre-eclampsia (PE) significantly and benefit for the pregnancy., Patients with reduced TLR4 had an increased risk of disease progression and development of autoimmune complications. No relationship was found between reduced TLR4 expression and infectious episodes., All blood samples were genotyped with description of the coding polymorphisms in p.R753Q of TLR2 gene and p.D299G of TLR4 gene, The expression of TLR4 and TLR3 closely correlated with the severity of coronary artery disease as reflected by the number of coronary artery stenoses., As anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibodies, rheum Polysaccharide can also inhibit the secretion of cytokines produced by monocytes from HLA-B27 positive AAU patients of convalescence stage., Collectively, these data showed for the first time that, HIV-1 Tat interacts physically with high affinity with TLR4-MD2 to promote proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha) and the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 both., the genetic association of TLR4 G896A polymorphism with risk among contacts of affected leprosy patients; contacts with AA genotype may be at higher risk of leprosy and may therefore require prophylactic inputs, these results suggest that membrane CD14 ligation-mediated TLR4 internalization is a novel mechanism for effective down-regulation of surface expression of TLR4 and subsequent reduction of LPS response of human monocytes., SNPs rs1927914 AA and rs11536891 TT are more frequent in bipolar disorder than in controls, Phe-126 is a crucial residue in allosteric activation of TLR4 by MD-2., Saturated fatty acids can up-regulate COX-2 expression in prostate epithelial cells, and this effect was mediated mainly through the TLR4/NF-kappaB signaling pathway., The toll-like receptor 4 gene Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms were not associated with susceptibility to ACS in the Mexican population, In Polish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 1196C/T polymorphism of TLR4 does not increase the risk of developing neuropsychiatric SLE; however, genotype CC and dominant allele C is associated with arthritis in the course of SLE, Data indicate that TcpB (Q8YF5, BtpA/Btp1) interacts with MAL, MyD88, and TLR4 but interferes only with the MAL-TLR4 interaction., no significant association between the TLR4 gene polymorphism and myocardial infarction, genetic polymorphism is associated with precancerous lesions in the stomach in a Chinese Han population, Data indicate that blockade of CD14 inhibits TLR4 internalization, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) phosphorylation and IRF3 signaling in epithelial cells., Data indicate that ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is negatively involved in the toll-like receptorS TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathway by the inhibition of TAK1 (MAP3K7) activity., the association of two common polymorphisms (TLR4 896A>G and TLR4 1196C>T) with infectious diseases (Meta-Analysis), Data show that IL-29 enhances Il-6 and Il-8 proinflammatory cytokines production in the synovial fibroblasts from rheumatoid arthritis via upregulation of Toll-like receptors TLR2, 3 and 4., No correlation was found between the appearance of disease and HP infection or the presence of TLR4 and IL-8 gene polymorphisms and HP infection., calcineurin to downregulate fibrosis and induce transcription of cardioprotective wound healing genes, including COX-2, HMGB1 acts in synergy with LPS to upregulate TLR4 and RAGE expression on the surface of SF in rheumatoid arthritis and then to augment IL-6, MMP-3, and MMP-13 production, which depends on p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB activation, Lipopolysaccharide activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated NF-kappaB signaling pathway and proinflammatory response in human pericytes, TLR4 (Asp299Gly) and CD14 (C/T -159) functional SNPs do not play a major role in acute graft rejection, chronic allograft nephropathy, and kidney graft survival., inhibition of autophagy by chemical or genetic approaches blocked TLR4- or TLR3-induced Lys63 (K63)-linked ubiquitination of TNF receptor-associated factor 6, The present results may in fl uence to the future criteria for initiation antiretroviral treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis of opportunistic infections in patients with Asp299Gly polymorphism of the TLR 4 gene., This study provides data on the baseline expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the largest cohort of children from birth to 18 years. There was no significant gender difference in TLR2 expression; however basal TLR4 expression was higher in boys., Radiation-induced liver diseases correlated with high TLR4 expression, but not with HBV reactivation, which is inhibited in liver with high TLR4 expression after liver cancer radiotherapy, enhanced number of blood leucocytes, the expression of the receptors TLR-2, TLR-4 and dectin-1 on blood monocytes was significantly enhanced in exposed subjects., Wnt5a, TLR2 and TLR4 are elevated in advanced human atherosclerotic lesions., TLR2 and TLR4 have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. (Review), Upon knockdown of TLR4, the cytolytic activity was considerably compromised. Re-expression of TLR4 in CIK cells restored their function, confirming the essential role of TLR4 in CIK cell cytotoxicity., Expression of TLR4 or CXCR7 is associated with tumor size and lymph node metastasis., Two common SNPs of the TLR2 and TLR4 genes--Arg753Gln and Asp299Gly--were associated with a shorter time-to-onset of severe sepsis or septic shock in patients admitted to the ICU, There is an association of TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms with risk of cancer. (Meta-analysis), Polyoxygenated cholesterol ester hydroperoxide-induced and TLR4/SYK-mediated macrophage responses may contribute to chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis., In summary, enriched HMGB1 in chronic hepatitis B patients shifts Treg/Th17 balance to Th17 dominance via the TLR4-IL-6 pathway, which exacerbates liver injury and inflammation., TLR dependent XBP-1 activation induces an autocrine loop in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes., mRNA expression observed in rectal adenocarcinoma cells but not in normal colon epithelial cells, MBL could directly bind to PMA-activated THP-1 cells in the presence of Ca(2+), and this binding decreased TLR2 and TLR4 expressions in C. albicans-induced THP-1 macrophages., a role in signaling driving DC recruitment in myasthenia gravis thymus via CCL17 and CCL22, and in generating an inflammatory response, TLR4 plays an important role in the process of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cell maturation induced by beta2GPI, In a large, well characterised group of haemochromatosis subjects did not demonstrate any relationship between TGF-beta/TLR4 gene polymorphisms and hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis., the TLR4 codon 299 heterozygous gene mutation (Asp299Gly) in humans may have a preventive role against the genesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, suggest that the g.14461A>G genetic polymorphism of the TLR4 gene is potentially related to the susceptibility to T2DM in the studied population, IL1B_1473G/C and TLR4_896A/G SNPs are implicated in rectal cancer development in a Russian population., There is no evidence of an association between TLR4 polymorphism and susceptibility to giant cell arteritis., Data from the present study suggest that polymorphisms in the TLR4 genes do not influence the response to endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis., Serum from peripheral arterial disease patients with elevated beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies induces a genomic overexpression of TLR4 and its cellular signalling molecules in endothelial cells., Fetuin-A and/or palmitate influence the expression of proinflammatory and angiogenic proteins only partially via TLR4 signalling, Data suggest that binding of MAM to HLA-DR leads to a conformational change in MAM structure allowing its interaction with TLR2 and TLR4 and a better recognition by T cells., TLR4 (Asp299Gly) G and DG alleles frequency in H. pylori infected population was signi fi cantly higher in the chronic gastritis group than in the chronic active gastritis group (P=0.021; OR, 2.409; 95% CI, 1.124-5.162, Leishmania mexicana Lipophosphoglycan (LPG)binds TLR2 and TLR4 receptors in human macrophages, leading to ERK and MAP kinase phosphorylation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines., These findings identify a novel link between TLR4-induced ER stress and ISC apoptosis in NEC pathogenesis and suggest that increased ER stress within the premature bowel predisposes to NEC development, TLR4 299 and TLR4 399 genotypes and asthma phenotypes were not found to be significantly correlated, VGX-1027 modulates genes involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll-like receptor 4 activation and in a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus., Data suggest that zhankuic acid A (ZAA), which competes with LPS for binding to MD-2 as a TLR4/MD-2 antagonist, may be a potential therapeutic agent for gram-negative bacterial infections., Methylation analysis of four CpGs in the first exon of TLR4 showed significantly lower methylation in obese individuals, but no significant difference between type 2 diabetics and lean controls., anti-tuberculosis treatment modulates the immune response, inducing an increase in the expression of TLR2 and TLR4, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines to combat bacteria and reduce the inflammatory process, This study found that the mRNA levels of TLR3 and TLR4 are increased in depressed suicide, non-depressed suicide and depressed non-suicide compared with control., Migration of MSC to apoptotic cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts was driven by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and platelet activation was followed by HMGB1/TLR-4-dependent down-regulation of HGF receptor MET on MSC, Suggest PGE2-EP2-cAMP-type I PKA axis down-regulates TLR4 expression on alveolar macrophages., TLR4 and B7-H1 may contribute to immune escape of urothelial bladder cancer., Results of this study demonstrate that the TLR4/NF-kappaB signaling pathway has an important function in the up-regulation of oxLDL-induced expressions of LOX-1, MCP-1, and VCAM-1 in HUVECs., The expression of TLR1 was the lowest and expression of TLR4 was the highest on leukocytes in acute otitis media children., Chimeric platelet TLR4 contributes to the pathogenesis of experimental pulmonary hypertension., TLR4 expression by regenerating and inflammatory cells at the porto-septal and interface level, favoured by increased LPS activity, is associated with activation of fibrogenic cells and the degree of fibrosis., TLR2 expression is shifted to lower layers, and TLR4 is shifted to upper layers in diseased skin with atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis and psoriasis compared to control skin, The interaction between beta2GPI and TLR4 is confirmed by the reduction of anti-beta2GPI antibody binding and by the up-regulation of E-selectin or ICAM-1 by TLR4 silencing in HUVEC., TLR4 rs4986790 gene polymorphism was increased the risk for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis., observed that the TLR4 Asp299Gly variant, but not the Thr399Ile variant, is responsible for impaired responsiveness of TLR4 to LPS and corresponding activation of NF-kappaB, TLR 4 gene polymorphisms were found to be related to psoriatic arthritis., HIV-1 Tat protein induces PD-L1 expression on dendritic cells through tumor necrosis factor alpha and TLR4 mediated mechanisms., Meta-analysis results revealed that the TLR-4 399 C>T polymorphism might increase the risk of colorectal cancer., Increased intracellular ROS formation activated the TLR-4/MyD-88 signaling pathway., TLR-4 signaling is up-regulated in newly diagnosed patients with MDD, which may be related to bacterial translocation or to the presence of various damage-associated molecular patterns., TLR2 and TLR4 interaction and a specific vitamin D receptor haplotype influence protection against pulmonary tuberculosis in Moroccan patients., TLR2 is required for the suppression of TLR4 signaling activation., this study suggests rapamycin may be efficient for the treatment of HNSCC by attenuating TLR4-induced pro-oncogenic effects, Tethering of antibodies to both TLR4 and FcgammaRs proves valuable in ameliorating inflammation in vivo., Normal human monocytes were found to be qualitatively different from those of filariasis-infected subjects; whereas filarial antigens mediate apoptosis of normal human monocytes through TLR4, those of infected subjects were found to be resistant., fibronectin extra domain A (Fn(EDA)) is an endogenous TLR4 ligand markedly elevated in the circulation and lesional skin biopsies from patients with scleroderma, as well as in mice with experimentally induced cutaneous fibrosis., TLR4 is a crucial mediator in oxLDL-induced inflammatory cytokine expression and secretion, and p38 and NFKB activation., Asp299Gly GA polymorphism not associated with delayed onset of labour in pregnancy, Differently, costimulation of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR7/8 enhances IL-1beta secretion but severely inhibits IL-1Ra production., the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 was dysregulated in kidneys of patients with AAV. The expression of TLR-4 in glomeruli was associated with severity of renal injury of patients with AAV., We concluded that common variants within TLR4 genes were not associated with diabetic nephropathy in the Chinese type 2 diabetes patients., TLR4 activation increased BAFF production in mesenchymal stem cells., Results of our study suggest an important role of mutated 8993T allele of 8993C>T TLR4 polymorphisms in the etiology of postmenopausal osteoporosis., There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics or medical history of patients on the basis of whether or not they had a defined TLR4 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism., Results indicate that obesity and endotoxemia favor the development of adipose tissue fibrosis, a condition associated with insulin resistance, through immune cell Toll-like receptor 4., +896 A/G TLR4 polymorphism as an indicative of prevalence of complications in T2DM patients, CD36 mediated hematoma absorption after ICH, and TLR4 signaling inhibited CD36 expression to slow hematoma absorption., the wild-type TLR2 genotype was associated with an increased risk of CMV infection and that heterozygosity for TLR2 and TLR4 SNPs diminished the risk of CMV infection in adult patients. An association between CMV load and the TLR4 SNP was found., TLR-4, ACE, and MBL-2 genes might play roles in the genetic etiopathogenesis of FN in patients with ALs, Influence of TLR4 rs1927907 locus polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in the early stage after liver transplantation, Lipopolysaccharide decreases SIGIRR expression by suppressing specificity protein 1 Sp1 via the TLR4-p38 pathway in monocytes and neutrophils., Four TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms were not found associated with Graves' disease in Chinese Cantonese population., Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) showed significantly increased S100A1 serum levels. S100A1 signaling in cardiac fibroblasts occurs through endosomal TLR4/MyD88., Patients undergoing PCI were shown to have a TLR-dependent pro-inflammatory state, mediated by a downregulation of TLR3 pathway, and upregulation of TLR4., acetaminophen usage may be associated with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in genetically susceptible subjects. This effect may be modified by polymorphism at TLR4., TLR4 was strongly expressed in cervical cancer tissues and HPV16-positive cancer cell lines. It induced apoptosis resistance and might participate in regulating carcinogenesis and tumor progression., Attenuated TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 in middle ear mucosa contribute to susceptibility of chronic suppurative otitis media., Results of the present case-control study that included 698 north Indian subjects suggested that TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms rs10759931 and rs1927914 modulate the risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus cases., TLR4 is associated with the important colorectal cancer-related outcomes of survival and stage., These data suggest that TLR4 plays an important role in tumorigenic properties of human non-small cell lung cancer, Purified monomeric ligand.MD-2 complexes reveal molecular and structural requirements for activation and antagonism of TLR4 by Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins., TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms may not be risk factors to acute pancreatitis susceptibility [meta-analysis], The myocardium releases HSP27 after global ischemia, This study demonstrates that ionizing radiation modulates ligand-responsive TLR expression through the JNK pathway, depending on differentiation state., Novel polymorphisms in TLR2, TLR4, MD-2, LBP, CD14 and TIRAP, genes encoding important molecules of the TLR signaling pathway, showed clear associations with H. pylori-related gastric cancer in Chinese., Resistin-induced SDF-1 upregulation by activation of TLR4, p38 MARK and NF-kappaB may explain a new role of resistin in the link of obesity and gastric cancer., TIPE2 can regulate TLR4 inflammatory effect and inhibit further amplification of cascade reaction via caspase-8., results offer the first evidence that TLR4 rs11536889 is a useful marker of organ failure in patients with sepsis, Our results showed that the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 proteins in the patients group was significantly higher than that of healthy controls. TLR-2 but not TLR-4 was correlated with expanded disability status scale (EDSS)., The expression of MyD88 is associated with significantly reduced patient survival and altered microRNA levels; an intact/ functioning TLR4/MyD88 pathway is required for acquisition of the chemoresistant phenotype., found that TLR4 and its co-receptors, MD2 and CD14, are over-expressed in lesional skin from patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, TLR-mediated inflammatory response to neonatal pathogens is differentially regulated by different pathogens., High levels of TLR4 protein expression was associated with a short survival rate in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients., Our study suggests an interesting PTPRO/TLR4/NF-kappaB signaling feedback loop in Hhepatocellular carcinomcarcinogenesis and progression, TLR-2 and TLR-4 play a role in mediating vascular abnormalities in patients with primary arterial antiphospholipid syndrome., TLR-4 expression was similar in OSCC and CSCC tumors., LPS could significantly enhance the invasive potential and induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma cells with TLR4 dependent, Data indicate that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein CD14 controls Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling through the ligation with sialic acid-binding lectin 3 (CD33)., sCD14 correlated significantly with monocyte TLR4 protein and activity. In LPS-primed HAECs, sCD14 increaseD TLR4 abundance, TLR4 activation enhances the PD-L1-mediated tolerogenic capacity of colonic CD90+ stromal cells., TMED7 is required to initiate and mediate the delivery of TLR4 to the plasma membrane, The TLR4-2081G/A polymorphism seems to affect the risk of gastric carcinogenesis and may to some degree play a protective role against H. pylori infection., Cyclooxygenase 2, toll-like receptor 4 and interleukin 1beta mRNA expression in atherosclerotic plaques of type 2 diabetic patients, genetic variants of TLR4 are associated with type 2 diabetes in the Chinese population, especially in female subjects, TLR4-mediated expression of Mac-1 in monocytes plays a pivotal role on monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium, leading to increased foam cell formation in the development of atherosclerosis., TLR4 gene polymorphisms (rs1927914, rs1927911 and rs2149356) is associated with large artery atherosclerotic stroke., The expression of TLR 4 has been reported for the first time in HSV infection., Data show that lipopolysaccharide induced vascular endothelial cell migration is mediated by toll-like receptor TLR-4/NF-kappa B pathway and enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase in association with the transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) ion channel., This study describes the interaction between S. Abortusovis LPS and TLR4 from human and ovine sources., M. hyorhinis induces EMT and promotes cell migration via TLR4-NF-kappaB signaling, which provides a clue to the pathogenesis of M. hyorhinis in gastric cancer., TLR4 expression was found to be an independent risk factor relating to severity of major depression., These results suggest that TLR4 signaling maintains IL-10 production in IECs by generating epithelial-MPhis crosstalk, which is an important mechanism in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis mediated through host-bacterial interactions., Both TLR4 SNPs under investigation were found to be significantly implicated with HCV-infection among Saudi Arabian population., TLR-4 expression levels were higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) than in patients with stable angina. TLR-4 might play a more important role than TLR-2 in atherogenesis, especially in ACS., the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with a functional variant at miR-34a binding site in toll-like receptor 4 gene. miR-34a/TLR4 axis may play an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma., this study identifies TLR4 D299G polymorphism as a risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus in South Indians., These results suggest that epithelial wounding induces the expression of functional TLR4. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling appears to contribute to early corneal epithelial wound repair by enhancing migration and proliferation., Substitution of hMD-2 residue V82 with an amino acid residue with a bulkier hydrophobic side chain enables activation of TLR4/MD-2., changes in the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 genes do not appear to be involved in triggering familial Mediterranean fever attacks, Increased risk of influenza for people with Asp299Gly TLR-4 genotype, TLR 4 haplotype of G-T-G-C-A-G may increase risk of CRC, In this study population of Han Chinese, there was a significant association between an ethnically unique SNP in the TLR4 promoter region and preterm neonatal gram-negative bacterial infections., this study assessed the possible interactions between TLR4 and RAGE signalling on apoptosis and on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in PBMC from individuals with and without diabetes., no statistically significant differences were found between patient with Perthes disease and control groups for TLR4 (Asp299Gly, Thr39911e)polymorphisms, results demonstrate that multiple regulatory factors, such as impaired TLR4 surface expression, increased intracellular iron, and decreased HIF-1alpha, downregulate HO-1 expression, Increase in TLR4 levels in left atrium was associated with development of postoperative pneumonia., Analysis of mRNA expression revealed significantly elevated levels of mRNA encoding TLR2 (P = 0.0006) and TLR4 (P = 0.0084) in pretreatment splenic aspirate samples from patients with visceral leishmaniasis, compared to post-treatment samples, but no change in expression of TLR9 (P = 0.43), Data show that a total of nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR1, TLR4, TLR6 and TLR8 in Caucasians, and two other SNPs, one each in Toll-like receptors TLR4 and TLR8, in African Americans were significantly associated with HIV status., upregulated in choriodecidua following labor, Sulforaphane prevents changes in Lipopolysaccharides induced TLR4 mediated global gene expression at concentrations that would be expected to occur in plasma following consumption of broccoli., pancreatic cancer derived exosomes downregulate TLR4 and downstream cytokines in dendritic cells via miR-203, TLR4 polymorphisms (+896A/G and +1196C/T) may be associated with a significantly increased gastric cancer risk in Caucasians., These findings indicated that TLR4 may participate in the progression and metastasis of human breast cancer and provide a new therapeutic target, These results are suggestive that Cpn-DNA positivity and increased TLR4 mRNA expression in blood leukocytes may be associated with AMI and could be useful markers to evaluate the severity and progression of the atherosclerotic disease in AMI patients., Data indicate that expression levels of toll-like receptors TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 were positively correlated, and bore close correlation with the disease activity index (DAI), colonoscopic and histologic grades and fecal microbial flora., PDGFB and IL18R1 represent plausible candidates for studying the pathophysiology of these disorders in the context of TLR4 activation, This is the first study conducted in India conferring TLR4 (Thr399Ile) polymorphism resistance towards asthma, while lack of association was found between TLR4 (Asp299Gly) polymorphism and asthma in the studied North Indian population., The elevated expressions of TLR2/4 on dendritic cell surfaces in peripheral blood may synergistically promote the disease progression of chronic HBV infection., HMGB1 is the major TLR4 ligand in sickle cell disease and likely plays a critical role in SCD-mediated inflammation, TLR4 blockade leads to a significant improvement of syngeneic islet engraftment and of allogeneic islet graft survival., Ubiquitination of ECSIT might have a role in the regulation of NF-kappaB activity in TLR4 signaling., TLR4 polymorphisms were not significantly associated with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathway activation or MyD88 activation alone may be a risk factor for poor prognosis in breast cancer., This study clarified the important role for TLR4 signaling in dendritic cells in response to Enterovirus 71 virus-like particles., We conclude that these TLR4 SNPs affect constitutive receptor activity which impacts on the hosts ability to respond to LPS challenge leading to a dysregulated sub-optimal immune response to infection., Data show that the ECSIT (evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways) complex, including MEKK7 (TAK1) and TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), plays a role in Toll-like receptor 4 -mediated signals to activate NF-kappa B., our results demonstrate increased risk for cervical cancer associated with homozygous TLR3 (c.1377C>T) C/C genotype, and TLR4 (Asp299Gly) Asp allele and Asp/Asp genotype., Intestinal expression of Fas and Fas ligand is upregulated by bacterial signaling through TLR4 and TLR5, with activation of Fas modulating intestinal TLR-mediated inflammation., Circulating TLR4-responsive miRNAs including miR-31, miR-181a, miR-16 and miR-145 were significantly lower in patients with coronary artery disease compared with controls., Decreased production of IL-1beta in low birth weight newborns was correlated with reduced expression of TLR-4 and MyD88 mRNA., lipopolysaccharide triggers immune response via TLR 4 and activates MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which is involved in remodeling of nasal polyps., Results show that rs11536889 polymorphism in TLR4 and rs2563298 polymorphism in CD14, as well as two haplotypes were associated with increased susceptibility to sepsis., H. pylori infection was associated with increased expression of TLR4 and TLR9 in gastric mucosa. In superficial gastritis and atrophy/intestinal metaplasia the inflammation was predominately mediated by TLR4., mRNA expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the patients with acute pancreatitis and showed a decrease in the examined parameters associated with lornoxicam treatment., The value of soluble TLR2 and soluble TLR4 levels for discrimination between infections and non-infectious inflammatory diseases, as well as between viral and bacterial infections was analyzed., The role of TLR4 and TLR2 polymorphisms in the development and maintenance of chronic hepatitis C infection is reported., Polymorphisms of TLR2 or TLR4 are associated with the risk of developing sepsis and pneumonia in acute myeloid leukemia patients who received intensive induction chemotherapy as first-line treatment., the common TLR4-D299G, TLR4-T399I and BAFFR-P21R polymorphisms provide the carriers with a protective advantage against ICU-acquired sepsis; this finding was more profound for medical patients compared to trauma or surgical ones, The TLR2 and TLR4 expression in healthy mouse and rat kidneys was analyzed and compared with human kidneys., These findings suggest that the upregulation of TLR2 and TLR4 in the lower FRT may play a key role in the modulation of the innate immune and inflammatory mechanisms of the ectocervix during pregnancy, These data suggest that TLR4 polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to bladder cancer possibly by downregulating gene expression in various immune cells, CXC195 suppresses proliferation and inflammatory response in LPS-induced human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via regulating TLR4-MyD88-TAK1-mediated NF-kappaB and MAPK pathway, These preliminary findings indicate that the g.13726T>C and g.15090G>A genetic polymorphisms of TLR4 gene are potentially related to the susceptibility to T2DM in the studied population, and might be used as molecular markers for evaluating the risk of T2DM., TLR2, TLR4 and CD86 gene polymorphisms are associated with Recurrent aphthous stomatitis., intranasal delivery of cell lysates containing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial products can activate the innate and adaptive immune response, and the observed modulatory effects were mostly dependent on TLR4 signaling., Data indicate that monoclonal antibody Hu 15C1 simultaneously interacts with both Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaRI or FcgammaRIIA) at the cell surface., Our overall meta-analyses indicated that TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism might contribute to rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis., bladder cancer cell lines express functional TLR4 and TLR9 with possible effects on cancer progression and outcome of BCG-based immunotherapy, by independent functional experiments. Our data confirm the primary importance of the TLR4/MRP8 axis in the activation of human monocytes, TLR4 may act as a CSC marker, prompting tumor invasion and migration, which contributes to the poor prognosis of HCC., TLR4 along with its accessory protein MD-2 builds a heterodimeric complex that specifically recognizes lipopolysaccharides, which are present on the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, activating the immune response. (Review), TLR4 polymorphisms were associated with a distinctive pattern of cytokine production in cirrhotic patients, suggesting that they play a role in the development of cirrhosis complications., Toll-like receptor-4 in human and mouse colonic epithelium is developmentally regulated and may play a role in necrotizing enterocolitis., our data demonstrated that TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly gene variants were not risk factors for asthma or its features in Iranian patients, Cosegregating polymorphisms in TLR4 were associated with lower levels of fatigue in stroke patients., Based on our results the common genetic variants of the TLR4 gene are not an important determinant of coronary artery disease, however, the TLR2-Arg753Arg genotype was associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease., expression is increased in both maternal part and fetal part of the placenta in Iranian women with preeclampsia, TLR4 genotype and environmental LPS mediate RSV bronchiolitis through Th2 polarization., TLR4 (and NF-kappaB) signaling pathway were activated in colon cancer., CD14 may have a functional role in the viral conjunction to the structural complex TLR4/CD14., These results demonstrate an independent association between the TLR4 rs1927911 polymorphism and rheumatoid arthritis disease progression over time, The rs1927911 polymorphism of the TLR4 gene may be risk factor for Atherosclerotic cerebral infarction in the Southern Han population of Hunan Province, China; however, it may not be associated with blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, or blood lipids., Enforced NOX1 expression promoted TLR4 signaling-enhanced NSCLC metastasis., Helicobacter bizzozeronii lipopolysaccharides is shown to activate the TLR2 in a dose and strain dependent manner in the in vitro HEK-293 cells model expressing TLR2, but not the cells expressing TLR4., PF4-heparin complexes can elicit a TLR4-mediated response, suggesting that these complexes can mimic a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, and supporting the suggestion that the HIT immune response represents a misdirected host defense mechanism., Hyperglycemia induces TLR-2 and TLR-4 activation and downstream signaling mediating increased inflammation possibly via reactive oxygen species and could contribute to diabetic retinopathy., High mRNA expression of TLR4 is associated with acute myeloid leukemia., CD14-mediated lipid signaling induced epithelial apoptosis, whereas TLR4 antagonistically promoted cell survival and cancer development., Constitutive IL-19 expression was present in both PBMCs and SFMCs and the secretion of IL-19 was increased by TLR-2 and TLR-4 ligands., The present meta-analysis indicates that TLR4 gene Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms are not associated with increased T2 Diabetes mellitus risk.[meta-analysis], high-glucose environment reduces the expression of TM and TLR4 in keratinocytes possibly through the action of TNF-alpha, and recombinant sTM can increase the TLR4 expression and promote wound healing under diabetic condition, Hyperglycemia of short duration increases TLR4 and TF-procoagulant activity, key players in inflammation and thrombosis., increased in neonates with abnormal neuroimaging and/or severe neonatal encephalopathy, The GC+CC genotypes of the TLR4 rs41426344 polymorphism protect against thyroid destruction and are less prone to hypothyroidism., Odontogenic phlegmon is associated with polymorphic variant 896A/G of gene TLR4, but not with 2258G/A of gene TLR2., Galectin-3 knockdown inhibited TLR-2, -3 and -4-induced IL-6 secretion, but not TLR-2, -3 and -4-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-3 or CC chemokine ligand-5 secretion., We found that the activation of TLR3 inhibited the differentiation of UCMSCs into osteocytes, while that of TLR4 increased this differentiation to a certain extent., We found no strong gene-environment interactions between the examined TLR4 polymorphism and diet and life style factors in relation to colorectal cancer risk., Data suggest that both Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4 participate in the modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide production in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients., TLR2- and TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses have a role in platelets and platelet inhibition and are affected by ticagrelor, The results of this meta-analysis suggest that susceptibility to pneumonia was associated with TLR4 A299G polymorphism., WDFY1 mediates TLR3/TLR4 signaling by recruiting TRIF., Study describes evidence for the role of HMGB1-RAGE and the HMGB1-TLR4 axis associated with pulmonary dysfunction and central nervous system injury. [review], A monocytic model of atherosclerotic plaque instability suggests TLR4/NF-kappaB signaling pathway activation by 27-hydroxycholesterol and 4-hydroxynonenal., Thus, the present study provided information on the prevalence of TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Japanese patients with invasive aspergillosis and indicated that these mutations played a minor role in increasing disease susceptibility., HpGroES, in which a unique conformational structure, domain B, is generated by these two disulfide bonds, induces IL-8 secretion via a TLR4-dependent mechanism., A role for APPL1 in TLR3/4-dependent TBK1 and IKKepsilon activation in macrophages., no association between genetic polymorphism the hyper-IgE syndrome phenotype, ABCB1 functional activity is affected by TLR4 agonists suggesting that modulation of TLR4 is important in ABCB1 function., Predominantly hydrophobic interactions between MD-2 and TLR4 contribute to the stabilization of the TLR4/MD-2/metal ion complex in a conformation that enables activation., TLR-4 signaling and ROS production is involved in modulating podosome dynamics with Polyethylenimine-coated SPIONs, Ang-1 disrupts TLR4 signalling, resulting in inhibition of LPS-induced inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. This inhibition occurs through selective targeting of IRAK1 and TRAF6 proteins by miR-146b-5p., analysis of neutrophil and monocyte expression of toll-like receptor 4, CD11b and reactive oxygen intermediates, and correlation with neuroimaging outcomes in preterm infants, study reveals that bacterial lipopolysaccharides enhance survival of prostate cancer cells under conditions of nutrient stress through Toll-like receptor-4 activation, Results show that TLR4 SNPs are significant associated with human cytomegalovirus congenital infections through a mechanism affecting the immune function of TLR4 against the human virus., TLR4 mRNA in blood from patients with cutaneous chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was increased compared with non-GVHD patients and healthy controls. NF-kappaB expression, TLR4 downstream signaling, and TLR4-mediated cytokines were also upregulated., Ninj1 modulates TLR4 signaling, which itself plays a major role in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis., TLR 2, 4, 5, 7 and 9 appear to reflect certain clinicopathological variables and prognostic markers of MCC tumors, Studies indicate the role of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and its ligands on proliferation, differentiation and migration of adult stem cells., The use of lornoxicam at the onset of acute pancreatitis decreased TLR2 and TLR4 expression and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, thereby reducing the risk of systemic complications and mortality., There was no association between the polymorphisms in TLR4 and 9 and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) risk overall, but TLR4 rs4986791 and TLR9 rs352139 might be associated with increased PTB risk in Africans and Asians, respectively., Syk is constitutively associated with TLR4., Results suggest that the TLR4 gene might contribute to the risk of developing Parkinson's disease in Han Chinese and rs1927914 polymorphism may be a protective factor, The SNP Thr399Ile was associated with juvenile spondyloarthritis in a Croatian population. The SNP Asp299Gly was not associated with juvenile spondyloarthritis or juvenile idiopathic arthritis., Data suggest that exercise intervention (stretching and resistance training) improves low back pain symptoms, down-regulates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, up-regulates sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression, and reduces oxidative stress., It is unlikely that TLR4 C1196T polymorphism is related to bone mineral density and fracture incidence in Polish osteoporotic women after menopause., Data suggest that toll-like receptors, both TLR2 and TLR4, play roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications such as diabetic nephropathy. [EDITORIAL; review-like article], TLR4 transgene enhances the antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte-inducing ability of the leukemic plasmacytoid dendritic cells., Three polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene were analysed in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study suggested that rs1927914, rs1927911 and rs1927914 was associated with susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy in a Han Chinese population., TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in the pathogenesis of the Guillain-Barre syndrome., expression and activity of TLR2 and 4 in peripheral blood monocytes as well as B cells in in type-2 diabetic subjects; surface expression of TLR2 and 4 was significantly reduced in B cells of the newly diagnosed type-2 diabetic subjects and was associated with decreased cellular activation and cytokine secretion, In chronic rhinosinusitis, expression of TLR4 closely related to neutrophil infiltration., House dust mite allergen regulates constitutive apoptosis of normal and asthmatic neutrophils via TLR4., Data suggest MIRN194 (microRNA-194) down-regulates TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4) signal transduction via down-regulation of TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6) expression; TLR4 signaling is activated by free fatty acid in inflammatory response., Authors determined the effects of T. suis soluble products (SPs) on Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)- In addition, T. suis SPs induce Rab7b, a negative regulator of TLR4 signalling, A strong response to TLR4 stimulation is a critical host condition for the development of Guillain-Barre Syndrome., The TLR4 polymorphism Asp299Gly is associated with Crohn's Disease and ulcerative colitis susceptibility in Caucasians, but not Asians., Interaction of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE9-PE10 complex with TLR4 in THP-1 macrophages was associated with increased levels of phospho-IRF-3, which correlated with an increase in transcript levels of its target gene interferon-beta., the S100A9-induced release of IL-6 and IL-8 from human periodontal ligament cells is dependent on TLR4, but not RAGE., human SAA is possibly only expressed in a subset of septic patients; SAA induces HMGB1 release via TLR4 and RAGE receptors; SAA supplementation worsens the outcome of lethal endotoxemia, Thr399Ile polymorphism and Asp299Gly polymorphism frequencies were not significantly different between chronic suppurative otitis media patients and controls. Middle ear expression of TLR4 was increased in suppurative OM patients compared to controls., demonstrate that the effect of TP53 mutational status on TLR4 activity may extend to ovarian, colon, and lung cancers, among others, suggesting that the viability of TLR4 as a therapeutic target depends on TP53 status in many different tumor types, Results indicated that TLR4-induced inflammatory responses may affect TAM infiltration and accumulation, and that TAMs and TLR4 may interact to play important roles in DLBCL microenvironment regulating the tumor growth, TLR4 polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility to infection with solitary cysticercus granuloma., Analysis of single-cell cytokine secretion reveals a role for paracrine signaling in coordinating macrophage responses to TLR4 stimulation., Pellino-1 ablation in THP-1 cells impairs induction of MyD88, and TRIF-dependent cytokine genes in response to TLR4 and TLR2 activation., TLR4 expression is upregulated in a large cohort of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients., TLR4 dependent macrophage signaling is controlled via hepcidin-ferroportin1 axis by influencing TLR4-lipid raft interactions, Autocrine/paracrine and recombinant human SAA1 via TLR4 stimulate a proinflammatory phenotype that is both part of the early phase of osteogenic differentiation and the development of senescence., Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 (TLR4) expression was reduced on lymphocytes and monocytes., Data show that SNP interactions among H. pylori-related genes PGC, PTPN11, and IL1B, are associated with susceptibility to gastric carcinogenesis., suggest that activation of TLR4 pathway is important for TLR4+ MSC and MSC to obstruct anti-tumor immunity by inhibiting NK cell function, which may provide a potential stroma-targeted tumor therapy, Aminoarabinose residues in lipid A contribute to Burkholderia lipid A binding to the TLR4.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 2 complex., Results suggest a role for Toll-like receptor 4 in gastric acid regulation and that the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) +896 and +1196 wild type homozygozity increases peptic ulcer risk via gastrin secretion., TLR4 polymorphisms did not alter expression of TLR4 mRNA/protein in colorectal cancer., HMGB1 A-box can reduce LPS-induced intestinal inflammation through inhibition of the HMGB1/TLR4 signaling pathways., The results obtained may be indicative of an important role of TLR2 and TLR4 in the development of endometrioid ectopia and should be considered while treating infertility in women with endometriosis., The TLR4 gene locus, regulating the innate immune response, influences the genetic predisposition to childhood otitis media., Asthmatic children showed an increase in dendritic cell TLR4 levels post Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection., Exogenous fatty acids induce a pro-inflammatory cytokine response in human placental cells in vitro via activation of TLR4 signaling pathways, Data show that constitutively active Toll-like receptor 4 (caTLR-4) is capable of exerting multiple T cell-enhancing effects and can potentially be used as a genetic adjuvant in adoptive cell therapy., TLR4 activation releases prolyl endopeptidase containing exosomes from airway epithelial cells., Data show that both AMPKalpha cleavage and MMP9 expression are required for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated mTORC1 activation and HIF-1alpha expression., TLR3 and TLR4 But not TLR2 are Involved in Vogt-Koyanagi- Harada Disease by Triggering Proinflammatory Cytokines Production Through Promoting the Production of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species, Whole-body vibration improves the anti-inflammatory status in elderly subjects through toll-like receptor 2 and 4 signaling pathways., TLR4 and MyD88 expression might be associated with breast cancer growth and regional and distant metastases., We now report that NAMPT/PBEF induces lung NFkappaB transcriptional activities and inflammatory injury via direct ligation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)., Suggest that targeting TLR4 expression and its cognate signaling may modulate proliferation and chemosensitivity in hepatoblastoma cells and serve as a potential therapeutic target., IL-29 can aggravate LPS/TLR4-mediated inflammation., IL-6 secretion, TLR4 expression, and reactive oxygen species production, classical markers of inflammation, are down-regulated by moderate hypoxia., Pellino-3 is involved in endotoxin tolerance and functions as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 2/4 signaling., ATX was induced in monocytic THP-1 cells by TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TLR9 ligand CpG oligonucleotide, and TLR3 ligand poly(I, The study revealed the impact of specific residues and regions of MD-2 on the binding of lipolysaccharides and TLR4., PAUF mediated dendritic cell activation and immune stimulation are dependent on TLR4, Associations between non-missense polymorphisms located in the regulatory regions of TLR4 and TLR2 genes and the risk of T2DM in a southern Chinese population. [meta-analysis], Data show a lack of Association between Polymorphisms of the TLR4 Gene and Infection with the Hepatitis B and C Viruses, Campylobacter jejuni-modified Eschrichia coli disrupted TLR4 gene expression and induced proinflammatory CXCL8 gene expression in colonic enterocytes., The role of TLR-4 in systemic lupus erythematosus and periodontal disease (review, TLR4 is expressed in a functional form in ER/PR-negative breast cancers., Suggest an essential role of TLR4-Src signaling in macrophages in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis., Data show that toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA levels are high in endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs)., Knockdown of LRRC59 reduced TLR3-, 8-, and 9-mediated, but not TLR4-mediated, signaling., LPS-induced increases in intestinal TJP and intestinal inflammation were regulated by TLR4-dependent activation of the FAK/MyD88/IL-1R-associated kinase 4 signaling pathway., Altogether, our experiments suggest that histone induces TF expression in ECs via cell surface receptors TLR4 and TLR2, simultaneously depending on the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1., Heat shock protein 60 stimulates the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via Toll-like receptor 4 and ERK MAPK activation, C5a can induce the expression of TLR4 in retinal pigment epithelial cells., TLR4 Thr399Ile genotype was associated with end stage renal disease patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD); however, the genotype frequency was similar in PD patients with and without peritonitis., TLR2 and TLR4 gene expression is upregulated when total cholesterol (TC) levels are increased, Triglyceride (TG) levels are increased, or TC and TG are increased., TLR4 plays a tumor-promoting role in HBV-related HCC cells, which is associated with regulation of ERK1/2 activation and interaction with HBx., Evasion of CD14-dependent endocytosis is an attribute that transcends the concept of pathogenesis., findings were confirmed in EPC precursors in vitro; where it was determined that heme-induced apoptosis and CXCL10 expression was TLR4-mediated, TLR4/TIRAP polymorphisms are associated with progression and survival of patients with symptomatic myeloma., This study describes a novel posttranslational regulation of the HOIP-containing linear-ubiquitin-chain assembly complex (LUBAC)-mediated linear ubiquitination that is critical for specifically directing TLR4-mediated NF-kappaB activation., we conducted this meta-analysis to clarify the effect of TLR4 +896A/G and +1196C/T polymorphisms on the risk of asthma., suggest that IL-27 modulates innate immunity of lung tissue cells through upregulating TLR4 expression during pulmonary infections, Argon treatment was accompanied with a significant reduction of TLR2 and TLR4 receptor density and protein expression., Our results suggest a correlation between the TLR4-729G/C polymorphism and the risk of developing bladder cancer in this Chinese population., Median levels of TLR4 mRNA in alveolar echinococcosis and cystic echinococcosis groups were significantly elevated as compared with that in healthy control group, That siRNA delivery resulted in efficient protein knockdown of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)., TLR4 genetic polymorphism rs41426344 may be a specific genetic risk factor in Chinese infants associated with RSV infection and disease severity, PRG4 binds to TLR2 and TLR4 and this binding mediates a novel anti-inflammatory role for PRG4, M-860 induces the activation of huPMNs partially through TLR4 ... M-860 is thus a powerful tool to analyze the expression and function of human mbLTF, which will further our understanding of the roles of LTF in health and disease., MicroRNA-381 Negatively Regulates TLR4 Signaling in A549 Cells in Response to LPS Stimulation., Toll-like receptor 4-mediated lymphocyte influx induces neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis., LPS activation of TLR4 significantly increased MARCH3 expression and that siRNA against MARCH3 prevented the decrease in FcgammaRIIb following LPS treatment., TLR7 rs179008 showed some associations with post-bronchiolitis lung function deficiency, and polymorphisms of TLR4 rs4986790, and TLR6 rs5743810 in particular, with airway reactivity., TLR4 is located in vascular smooth muscle cells and is upregulated in human abdominal aortic aneurysm., an association between TLR4 rs10759931 polymorphism (OR = 0.086, CI, Review/Meta-analysis, Genetic variation in MORC4, CD14, and TLR4 may affect the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation., These results suggest that Porphyromonas gingivalis outer membrane vesicles outer membrane vesicles., HMGB1 and TLR4 are overexpressed in endometriosis patients and correlate with the extent of stromal and epithelial cell death., TAK-242 also significantly suppressed the expression of TLR4, MyD88 and the activation of NF-kappaB in lungs, suggesting that TAK-242-mediated inhibition occurred largely through the TLR4/NF-kappaB signal pathway., Our data suggested that MIF affected the intrinsic properties of tumors and the host immune response in tumor microenvironment by regulating the TLR4/HMGB1 axis, leading to metastasis of breast cancer, TLR4 signaling initiates microglial IL-6 secretion through glioma stem cells, not bulk glioma cells.,
OMIM_DISEASE Colorectal cancer, susceptibility to, Macular degeneration, age-related, 10, Endotoxin hyporesponsiveness,
SP_COMMENT disease:Genetic variation in TLR4 is associated with age-related macular degeneration type 10 (ARMD10) [MIM:611488]. ARMD is a multifactorial eye disease and the most common cause of irreversible vision loss in the developed world. In most patients, the disease is manifest as ophthalmoscopically visible yellowish accumulations of protein and lipid that lie beneath the retinal pigment epithelium and within an elastin-containing structure known as Bruch membrane., domain:The TIR domain mediates interaction with NOX4., function:Cooperates with LY96 and CD14 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Acts via MYD88, TIRAP and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response., polymorphism:Allele TLR4*B (Gly-299, Ile-399) is associated with a blunted response to inhaled LPS., PTM:N-glycosylated. Glycosylation of Asn-526 and Asn-575 seems to be necessary for the expression of TLR4 on the cell surface and the LPS-response. Likewise, mutants lacking two or more of the other N-glycosylation sites were deficient in interaction with LPS., similarity:Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family., similarity:Contains 1 TIR domain., similarity:Contains 21 LRR (leucine-rich) repeats., subunit:Belongs to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor, a multi-protein complex containing at least CD14, LY96 and TLR4. Interacts with LY96 via the extracellular domain. Interacts with MYD88 and TIRAP via their respective TIR domains. Interacts with NOX4., tissue specificity:Highly expressed in placenta, spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes. Detected in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and several types of T-cells.,