Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 2.1
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
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toll like receptor 2(TLR2) toll like receptor 2(TLR2) Related Genes Homo sapiens
GENERIF_SUMMARY TLR2 stimulation resulted in the release of the IL-12 inhibitory p40 homodimer, producing conditions that are predicted to favor Th2 development, also resulted in preferential induction of IL-8 and p19/IL-23., These results indicate that the direct interaction of SP-A with TLR2 alters PGN-induced cell signaling, identification of role in novel signal transduction pathway utilized by exracellular HSP70, stimulation of signal pathway by HSP70, Glucocorticoids synergistically enhance nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced Toll-like receptor 2 expression via a negative cross-talk with p38 MAP kinase., TLR2 initiated the signaling pathway for p38 in response to bacterial products /LPS/, signaling events by TLR2 and TLR4 agonists are similar but there are distinct differences in the responses elicited by two bacterial products, Non-LPS components of Chlamydia pneumoniae stimulate cytokine production through Toll-like receptor 2-dependent pathways., mycoplasmal lipoproteins induce caspases-dependent necrotic and apoptotic cell death in lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages, which is partially induced by TLR2-mediated signaling., involvement in cell activation by mannuronic acid polymers, report that wild-type measles virus but not vaccine strains activate cells via the TLR2, and this is a property of the hemagglutinin (H) protein, TLR2 has a role in mediating signaling responses to Aspergillus fumigatus, Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae activate human peripheral blood monocytes utilizing TLR2, CD14 and CD11a/CD18 as cellular receptors., Susceptibility of human dendritic cells (DCs) to measles virus (MV) depends on their activation stages in conjunction with the level of CDw150, glucocorticoids synergistically enhance NTHi-induced TLR2 expression via specific up-regulation of the MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) that, in turn, leads to dephosphorylation and inactivation of p38 MAPK, TLR4 was found to be involved in PM(2.5-10) and Pseudomonas-induced activation, whereas TLR2 activation was induced by both Gram+ and Gram- bacteria and by PM., An extensively associated dimer is observed in the crystal structure of a mutant of the TIR domain of TLR2., lipopolysaccharide may induce proliferation of periodontal epithelial cells by upregulating keratinocyte growth factor 1 expression via the CD14 and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, On cell surface. LPS response inhibited with mAb specific for TLR2.LPS response of epidermal keratinocytes might be mediated by TLR2-dependent recognition of non-LPS bacterial components contaminating commercial LPS preparations., innate immune response of monocytes against M. lepraeis is mediated by TLR2, the mutation in the intracellular domain of TLR2 gene is associated with IL-12 production in lepromatous leprosy, TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA were significantly up-regulated by IL-10 in monocyte cells that were adherent compared to those nonadherent., The relative absence of TLR2 protein expression by intestinal epithelial cells may be important in preventing chronic proinflammatory cytokine secretion in response to commensal Gram-positive bacteria in the gut., findings suggest that oral treponemes and their outer membrane extracts activate human gingival epithelial cells through TLR2, participates in the innate immune response to stimulation by bacterial products in periodontal tissues, innate immune recognition of LTA via LBP, CD14, and TLR-2 represents an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of systemic complications in the course of infectious diseases brought about by Gram-positive pathogens. while TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved., Review. Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and cytokine induction by the cell wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin are induced via both TLR2 and TLR4., Expression of the Arg677Trp variant of human TLR2, which was identified in Korean patients with lepromous leprosy, was not able to mediate a response to either M. leprae or M. tuberculosis., role in synovial fibroblast activation in rheumatoid arthritis, Human cytomegalovirus activates inflammatory cytokine responses via CD14 and Toll-like receptor 2, Costimulation with TLR2 (or TLR9) and TLR4 induces synergistic release of Th1 cytokines, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, and additive HIV-LTR trans-activation and HIV replication, as measured by p24 antigen release from HIV-1 transgenic mouse spleen cells., First comparative investigation in highly purified, monocyte-depleted neutrophil populations shows a distinct and separate role for TLR2, compared with TLR4, in neutrophil responses and neutrophil survival., Data show that Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4 were expressed on dendritic cells, whereas only TLR2 was weakly detected on Langerhans cells., TLR2 is an endocytic receptor that channels ligands into the major histocompatibility complex class II presentation pathway for stimulation of specific CD4+ T cells., Zymosan cosediments the soluble form of recombinant TLR2 possessing the putative extracellular domain (sTLR2); sTLR2 directly binds to zymosan with an apparent binding constant of 48 nM., contains multiple binding domains for ligands that may contribute to the characterization of its promiscuous molecular pattern recognition, Human TLR2, but not TLR4, can mediate cellular activation by heat-killed Brucella abortus (HKBA); human embryonic kidney 293 cells, which do not respond to HKBA, are made responsive by transfecting TLR2, but not TLR4 or TLR9., Results show that the surface receptors TLR2/4 and CD14 are essential for in vitro cellular activation induced by Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide-containing outer membrane vesicles and purified lipopolysaccharides., TLR-2 on human NK cells is upregulated and stimulated by Leishmania major lipophosphoglycan (LPG), a phosphoglycan belonging to a family of unique Leishmania glycoconjugates, Toll-like receptor 2 mediates beta-defensin 2 gene induction through NF-kappaB in lung epithelial cells., In addition to TLR2, the activation of NF-kappaB by H.8/Lip in HEK cells was enhanced upon coexpression of TLR1 but not TLR6., TLR1 and TLR2 are required for ara-lipoarabinomannan- and tripalmitoyl cysteinyl lipopeptide-stimulated cytokine secretion from mononuclear cells. Confocal microscopy revealed that TLR1 and TLR2 cotranslationally form heterodimeric complexes, Leu-107, Leu-112, and Leu-115 in a leucine-rich repeat motif of TLR2 are each critical for recognition of mycoplasmal diacylated lipoproteins and lipopeptides and are involved in the recognition of Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycans., Data show that flagella signaling in airway cells can be initiated by interactions with asialoGM1 and toll-like receptor (TLR)2 as well as by activation of TLR5., TLR2 is coexpressed with tracheobronchial epithelial cell markers; airway epithelial cells respond to bacterial lipopeptide in a TLR2-dependent manner with induction of mRNA and protein of the antimicrobial peptide beta defensin-2., CD14 and TLR2 but not TLR4 play a major role in lipoteichoic acid -mediated effects on PMN and granulocytes, peptidoglycan signaling through TLR2 and bacterial CpG DNA signaling through TLR9 are functionally equivalent at synergizing with IFN-gamma in regulating Tap-1 expression in macrophages, downregulated by Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in monocytes, stimulation by Mycoplasma fermentans lipoproteins mediates NF-kappa B activation as an early event and apoptosis as a later event in HEK293 cells, Direct activation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts via TLR-2 results in chemokine secretion and points to RA synovial fibroblasts at a very early stage of the disease as part of the innate immune system., expression of CCL21, and TLRs 2 and 4 is predominantly induced in the peripheral lymphatic endothelium of the small intestinal microcirculation, Toll-like receptor 2 dimerized with Toll-like receptor 6 or 1 is activated by saturated fatty acid and inhibited by polyunsaturated fatty acid, The present data suggest that the arginine to glutamine substitution at residue 753 polymorphism of the Toll-like receptor 2 gene influences the risk of developing tuberculosis., TLR2 serves as a costimulatory receptor for antigen-specific T cell development and participates in the maintenance of T cell memory., genetic variation in TLR2 is a major determinant of the susceptibility to asthma and allergies in children of farmers, The toll-like receptor 2 R753Q polymorphism defines a subgroup of patients with atopic dermatitis having severe phenotype., Expression of toll-like receptor 2 and immune response in innate immunity may be altered after surgical insults., primary ATII cells express mRNA and protein for both TLR-2 and TLR-4, which can be modulated by incubation with lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor, Lipoteichoic acid-stimulated p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation is mediated through a TLR2 receptor and involves tyrosine kinase, PLC, PKC, Ca(2+), MEK, and PI 3-kinase., The frequency of a human TLR2 Arg677Trp polymorphism (C2029T nucleotide substitution) in tuberculosis patients in Tunisia is significantly higher than in healthy controls (P < 0.0001)., epitope-specific binding of exogenous ligands precedes specific TLR2 signaling in septic shock, TLR2 in association with asialo-glycolipids presented within the context of lipid rafts provides a broadly responsive signaling complex at the apical surfaces of airway cells to initiate the host response to potential bacterial infection., CD16+ monocytes and synovial macrophages with high TLR-2 expression may be induced by M-CSF and IL-10, and production of TNFalpha could be simulated by endogenous TLR ligands such as Hsp60 and FcgammaRIIIA ligation by immune complexes in arthritic joints., upregulation of TLR expression during differentiation in keratinocytes could be a part of the differentiation process of keratinocytes and could have biological significance in protecting skin against microbes., response in U937 myelomonocytic cells and macrophages impaired by secretory leucoprotease inhibitor, Toll-like receptor 2 glycosylation sites contribute to efficient protein secretion, GTPase RhoA and atypical protein kinase Czeta are required for TLR2-mediated gene transcription., defective NOD2 function results in a pro-inflammatory cytokine bias after stimulation of mononuclear cells with TLR2 stimuli, toll-like receptor 2 internalization and targeting to the Golgi is lipid raft-dependent, inhibition of TLR2-mediated activation of NF-kappa B by MalE190A, results show that the lipopolysaccharide of Bacteroides fragilis NCTC-9343, Chlamydia trachomatis LGV-1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAC-611 signal via TLR2 as well as TLR4, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was expressed in the human adrenocortical cell line NCI-H295. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human adrenal glands revealed TLR2 expression in the adrenal cortex, but not in the adrenal medulla., The 19-kDa lipoprotein proapoptotic signal was mediated by Toll-like receptor 2, The presence of multiple lipid A species in Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide contributes to cell activation through both TLR2 and TLR4., Apoptosis of neutrophils from patients with active TB is induced by the interaction with the whole M. tuberculosis via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and involves the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway., Results imply distinct susceptibilities of humans and mice to challenge with specific Toll-like receptor 2 ligands., TLRs are differentially expressed in distinct compartments of the female reproductive tract, The mutants of TLR2 inhibited H. pylori-induced COX-2 promoter activity. in gastric mucosa., the endotoxin tolerance seen in patients with sepsis does not depend solely on TLR-2 or TLR-4 expression, dominant innate immune receptor for recognition of gastrointestinal Helicobacter species, Hepatitis c virus core and NS3 proteins trigger inflammatory pathways via TLR2 that may affect viral recognition and contribute to activation of the innate immune system., host receptor for H.pylori HSP60 and role in secretion of Il-8, The extracellular leucine-rich domain of TLR2 carries the specificity for recognition of triacylated bacterial lipopeptide Pam3-Cys-Ser-Lys4 through direct binding., Together, these results suggest that TPA-induced TLR2 expression in U937 cells may be at least in part mediated through activation of PKC and ERKs as well as NF-kappaB transcription factor, and that cross-talk between PKC or ERKs and NF-kappaB may exist., These results indicate that the CD14 region spanning amino acids 57-64 is critical for interacting with TLR2 and enhancing TLR2-mediated peptidoglycan signaling., Innate immune responses mediated through TLR2 play a role in augmenting allergic reactions, in part by modulating basophil cytokine secretion and mediator release independently of NFkappaB activation., TLR2 polymorphisms are associated with diabetes mellitus, type 1 (T1DM), and distribution differences between T1DM vs controls were not influenced by the HLA genes., PAL (peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein)activates inflammation through TLR2, the TLR2 Arg677Trp polymorphism associated with lepromatous leprosy is not a true polymorphism of the TLR2 gene and has resulted from the variation present in the 93% homologous duplicated region of TLR2 exon 3 present approximately 23 kb upstream., mediates cellular activation by the B subunits of type II heat-labile enterotoxins., E. coli Nissle 1917 modulates cell cycling and apoptosis of peripheral blood and lamina propria T cells via tlr2 signaling, Helicobacter pylori induces interleukin-8 secretion by Toll-like receptor 2- and Toll-like receptor 5-dependent and -independent pathways, Toll-like receptor-2 polymorphism associated with increased prevalence of gram-positive bacterial infection in critically ill adults, H. pylori LPS-induced cell activation is mediated through TLR2., BCG induced transcription and secretion of the chemokine CXCL8, by signalling through Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4, in conjunction with myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)in neutrophils, Mastoparan, a G protein agonist peptide,preferentially targets the TLR4 pathway over the TLR2 pathway, confirming the importance of heterotrimeric G proteins in TLR4-mediated responses, The TLR2 expression was analyzed after the stimulation of JAR cells with different TLR ligands., TLR2-TLR1 coactivation serves as the underlying mechanism for the proinflammatory toxicities associated with Amphotericin B, Microcrystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and monosodium urate use TLR2-mediated signaling in chondrocytes to trigger NO generation., ASK1-p38 cascade regulates the innate immunity of the skin by forming an immune barrier consisting of hBD, LL37, and TLR2 during epidermal differentiation., Study on TLR-2 as a risk factor for coronary restenosis.a functional TLR-2 is protective and potentially involved in a reaction pattern preventing restenosis. Screening for the TLR-2 Arg753Gln SNP may be of importance for stratifying a patient's risk, results indicate that Entamoeba histolytica lipopeptidophosphoglycan initiates an innate immune response by interacting with TLR2 and TLR4, phenomenon as shown by experiments using different toll-like receptor-agonists in interleukin 10(-/-) macrophages, Saccharothrix lipomannans induced a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2)-dependent production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by human THP-1 monocyte/macrophage cell lines., the common TLR-2 Arg to Gln polymorphism at position 753 significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of acute rheumatic fever, Diminished expression and function of TLR2 is a likely consequence of chronic filarial antigen stimulation and could serve as a novel mechanism underlying the dysfunctional immune response in lymphatic filariasis, In addition TLR2 mRNA and protein expression was increased after LPS stimulation on non-smokers AM in contrast to smokers and COPD patients., TLR-2 is necessary for the up-regulation of group 1 CD1 (CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c) protein expression on competent antigen-presenting cells, Biliary epithelial cell antibodies via induction of TLR2 and TLR3, as well as inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production may induce epithelial cell inflammatory responses to bacterial components and contribute to posttransplantation cholangitis., Arg753Gln polymorphism of human TLR-2 protects from the development of late stage Lyme disease due to reduced signaling via TLR-2/TLR-1 heterodimers, EGFR signaling has a role in regulating host defense and immune response by tightly controlling TLR2 induction during bacterial infections, The up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis supports the idea of a role for Toll-like receptors in allergic airway inflammation., Subunit b of F0F1 type ATPase from Mycoplasma pneumoniae activates NF-kappaB through human TLR1, TLR2, and TLR6, vascular smooth muscle cells express functional TLR2 that mediates both a persistent activation of chemokine release in Chlamydia pneumoniae infections, Our results suggest that overexpression of TLR2 and TLR4 in CHO cells sensitizes the cells to serum deprivation-induced apoptosis and that the mechanisms are involved in the death receptor-mediated signaling pathway., study provided direct evidence for the negative regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling by the tumor suppressor cylindromatosis (CYLD), the synergistic effect of LPS and PepG on cytokine release is preceded by a reciprocal upregulation of TLR2 and TLR4 by both Staphylococcus aureus cell wall components, These findings suggest that S. aureus induces beta defensin-2 production through TLR2-mediated pathways in human corneal epithelial cells ., first direct evidence that HMGB1 can interact with both TLR2 and TLR4 and also supply an explanation for the ability of HMGB1 to induce cellular activation and generate inflammatory responses that are similar to those initiated by LPS, TLR2 and TLR4 agonists have a significant role in diseases such as atherosclerosis and DIC, but our research suggests that this is through a mechanism other than direct platelet activation or by modification of platelet responses to other agonists., findings suggest that TLR2 is involved in the Malassezia furfur-induced expression of human beta-defensin 2 and interleukin-8 in keratinocytes, Maternal allergy status may affect allergic risk in offspring through a decreased expression of fetal TLR2., TLR2 is specifically recruited to the bacterial or inclusion membrane during a productive infection with chlamydia., characterized the contribution of the lipid portion to the TLR2 dependent pattern recognition, which may explain specific immuno-stimulatory potentials of different microorganisms, The development of tuberculosis in Koreans is associated with shorter guanine-thymine repeats in intron II of the TLR2 gene., Mal phosphorylation has an effect on tyrosine during signaling by TLR2 and TLR4 and Btk is the kinase involved, High-dose simvastatin pretreatment blunted TLR2 expression on monocytes in a human endotoxemia model on a posttranscriptional level., Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes PorB through direct binding, and that PorB-induced cell activation is mediated by a TLR2/TLR1 complex, TLR2 expression is epigenetically up-regulated in CF bronchial epithelial cells and suggest that TLR2 overexpression or prolonged activation of TLR2 signaling might be critical in CF pathogenesis., the interaction of IRF-8 with TRAF6 modulates TLR signaling and may contribute to the cross-talk between IFN-gamma and TLR signal pathways, reported here that Toll-like receptor activation of macrophages up-regulated expression of the vitamin D receptor and the vitamin D-1-hydroxylase genes, leading to induction of cathelicidin and killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis, A marked up-regulation of TLR2 and Fas-FasL was detected in primary human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC) stimulated with heat-killed P. gingivalis, data provide evidence for a common requirement for Bruton's tyrosine kinase in TLR2- and TLR4-mediated induction of two important proinflammatory cytokines, TNF and IL-1beta, Cells from neonates were stimulated with the TLR2 agonist peptidoglycan or the allergen house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae and results compared to unstimulated cells., Abnormalities of TLR-2 receptor expression occur in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), highlighting the potential relationship of TLR-2 with systemic inflammation in COPD patients., demonstrated production of interferon-gamma by human dendritic cells on the single cell level, identified TLR2 as a pattern recognition receptor involved in this process, In human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells, at least TLR2 and 4 are capable of mediating innate immune system function in vitro, suggesting the involvement of TLRs in the development of chronic inflammatory cholangiopathies., TLR2 and TLR6 play an important role in the regulation of the apoptosis of PMNs., we here demonstrate that S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and N. meningitidis each activate several TLRs in species-specific patterns and show that infection with live pathogens may lead to activation of PRR not targeted by inactivated bacteria., TLR2 inside-out signaling via phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase is a proadhesive pathway in human monocytes activated by Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae that may constitute a mechanism linking P. gingivalis to inflammatory atherosclerotic processes., TLR2 and TLR4 ligand interaction with the N-terminal domain of Gp96 amplifies innate and adaptive immune response, role of TGF-beta signaling in positively regulating host defense response by tightly controlling the expression level of TLR2 during bacterial infections, We found a subset of partially differentiated TLR2+ PB and splenic B cells which responds to TLR2 agonists by mediating events involved in germinal center formation, such as upregulating CD77 and secreting chemokines., Results suggest that heat shock protein 60, a self-molecule, can downregulate adaptive immune responses by upregulating regulatory t cells innately through Toll-like receptor 2 signaling., Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are increased in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage lesions. TLR-2 and TLR-4 ligands strongly induce catabolic responses in chondrocytes., Calcium participates as a second messenger in TLR2-dependent signaling and provides another target to modulate proinflammatory responses to bacterial infection., TLR2 polymorphisms do not appear to be responsible for host susceptibility to nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease, at least in the Korean population, HSP60 uses TLR2 as well as TLR4 to cause its mitogenic effect on venous smooth muscle cells, This study suggests that CD14 directly binds to triacylated lipopeptides and facilitates recognition of the lipopeptides by the TLR2/TLR1 complex without binding to the receptor complex., data show rapid response of Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells upon TCR-plus-TLR2 signaling, TLR2, IL-6 and IL-1beta may have roles in inflammatory reactions in the course of Lyme disease, data suggest that there is a differential usage of TLR2 and TLR4 in HMGB1 signaling in primary cells and in established cell lines, we report an association of microsatelite GT polymorphisms of TLR2 gene and Asp299Gly polymorphism of the TLR4 gene with sporadic colorectal cancer among Croatians., TLR-2/6 and TLR2/1 heterodimer sorting at the cell surface determines heterotypic associations with CD36 and intracellular targeting, Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the TLR2 DD loop and part of the alpha D region identifies Arg-748, Phe-749, Leu-752 and Arg-753 as crucial for signaling, by association with Toll-like receptor 1., Evidence of a functional response to TLR ligand TLR2 supports an immunomodulatory role for airway smoooth muscle cells during inflammatory responses., TLR2 and TLR9 cooperate in the control of parasite replication during infection with Trypanosoma cruzi., increased monocyte expression of TLR2, but not of TLR4, correlates significantly with both increased circulating TNF-alpha levels and hepatic necroinflammatory activity in this disorder, VIP decreased monocyte differentiation to macrophages induced by LPS from either species and also reduced overall TLR2 and TLR4 expression in these cells., In summary, TLR2 activation by P. gingivalis LPS or fimbriae involves differential dependence on accessory signalling or ligand-binding receptors, which may differentially influence innate immune responses., findings demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 were expressed at relatively high levels on the surface of human adipose cells, Pc-mediated IL-8 release by human AM requires the coexpression of MR and TLR2 and further supports the concept that combinatorial interactions of macrophage innate receptors provide specificity of host defense cell responses to infectious challenge., TLR2 activation was observed with a high bacterial inoculum, and in epithelial cells expressing TLR2 but not TLR4., Circulating levels of MBL and sTLR2 may reflect different aspects of innate immune response. Innate immunity responses may be involved in pathogenesis of post-myocardial infarct heart failure., Overexpression of human TLR2 in the TLR2-deficient EFs restituted the response to patient IgG, TLR2 mediates NF-kappa B activation and inflammatory cytokine responses in cells that support productive human cytomegalovirus infection., Upon LPS stimulation, expression of TLR-2 mRNA is increased in cord blood lymphocytes., found no Arg753Gln polymorphism of the TLR2 gene in the rheumatic heart disease patient group; did not detect Arg677Trp polymorphism of the TLR2 gene in both patient and control groups, The role of TLR2 and TLR4 in bacterial infections and their potential role as therapeutic targets are reviewed., There is no association of TLR2 polymorphism with diabetes mellitus, type 1 in the Basque population., Arg753Gln polymorphism impacts herpes and other viral infecions after transplantation., These data suggest that Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression correlates with the extent and severity of coronary artery disease., In the absence of HBeAg, HBV replication was associated with up-regulation of the TLR2 pathway leading to increased TNF-alpha production., In contrast to TLR4 expression, TLR2 levels did not differ between monocytes of preterm and newborn age groups., Diminished TLR1/2 signaling may contribute to the increased infection-related morbidity and mortality and the impaired vaccine responses observed in aging humans, Signaling by soluble CD14 was TLR2 dependent. CD14-triggered TLR2-mediated response in astrocytes lead to the production of CXCL8, IL-6, and IL12p40, whereas typical TLR-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines were not produced at detectable levels., Alleles and genotype including the shorter GT repeats in intron 2 of the TLR2, were not associated with the development, extent and bacterial colonization of bronchiectasis in Koreans., Ganglioside GD1a is an essential coreceptor for Toll-like receptor 2 signaling in response to the B subunit of type IIb enterotoxin., Toll-like receptor 2 pathogen recognition activates Weibel-Palade body exocytosis in human aortic endothelial cells, Development of skin lesions in mycosis fungoides appears associated with an increase of TLR2 expression by keratinocytes in cutaneous lesions., expression of TLR2 in placentas with chorioamnionitis was significantly lower than in placentas without chorioamnionitis; data suggest that TLR2 expression in the trophoblast could be involved in the response to infectious pathogens in the placenta, The effect of PGN was not inhibited by previous treatment with anti-TLR2 mAb, thus suggesting a nonarchetypal involvement of the TLR2 signaling route and/or participation of other receptors., expression levels of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4 & TLR9 in endometrium varied in a similar pattern during the menstrual cycle; levels were high in perimenstrual period & low in periovulatory period, results suggest FSL-1-induced enhancement of macrophage phagocytosis of bacteria may be explained partly by upregulation of scavenger receptors & C-type lectins through TLR2-mediated signalling, & that TLR2 does not function as a phagocytic receptor, no evidence for genetic variation in TLR2 being risk factors for increased carotid artery intima-media thickness either directly or through interaction with proinflammatory risk factors, There is a selective perturbation in the expression and function of TLR2, which could be consistent with a state of endotoxin tolerance, in patients with active acute anterior uveitis, TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression on monocytes was investigated by flow cytometry in the following groups of subjects, Intestinal enteroendocrine cells express TLRs which may be involved in innate immune responses., identified a new mutation Arg447stop leading to a premature stop codon in the extracellular portion of the receptor, TLR2 Arg753Gln polymorphism is possibly associated with cytomegalovirus replication and disease after liver transplantation., Production of HMBPP by a microbial-specific isoprenoid pathway plays a major role in determining whether bacteria will stimulate Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells in vivo., In neonates the mRNA expression of TLR2 increased mainly in the Gram positive bacterial infection groups., TLR2 appears to be expressed within human renal tubule cells., Lipoteichoic acid reduces surface expression of FcepsilonRI through TLR2. TLR2 ligands could be novel therapy for controlling allergic disorders., These results demonstrate that the expression and function of TLR in intestinal cells are highly dynamic and tightly regulated in response to encountered bacterial stimuli., Data show that Epstein-Barr virus infection of primary human monocytes induced the release of monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and the use of small interfering RNA targeting Toll-like receptor 2 significantly reduced such a chemokine response to EBV., TLR2 and TLR4 may have a role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B and chronic severe hepatitis B., Proinflammatory monocytes, from patients with atopic dermatitis, are functionally defective in their capacity to produce proinflammatory cytokines on TLR2 stimuli in part because of the high levels of their Fc epsilon RI expression., soluble factor(s) present in the lower genital tract of women with bacterial vaginosis activate cells via TLR2., study demonstrates a strong association of TLR2 single nucleotide polymorphism T597C with the development of Tuberculous meningitis and miliary TB and indicate that TLR2 influences the dissemination of M. tuberculosis, results have indicated that there is a strong significant relationship between susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections and Arg753Gln polymorphism of the TLR-2 gene, TLR2 gene polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in Turkish patients., A major mediator of Borrelia garinii-induced secretion of CXCL13 from human monocytes., Blockade of TLR2 or NOD2 abolished peptidoglycan-induced HMC-1 cell activation and T84 monolayer barrier dysfunction., data show that polymorphisms in TLR-2 might be important in a small group of sarcoidosis patients and that their functional consequences explain partly some of the variance in cytokine pattern observed in different clinical phenotypes of this disease, Polymorphism of TLR2 may be related to an increased risk of ulcerative colitis., downregulation of TLR2 and decreased production of interleukin-12 p40 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha following Mycobacterium avium or lipoteichoic acid stimulation may contribute to host susceptibility to nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease, Syncytiotrophoblastss expressed TLR-2 & TLR-4, but myofibroblasts expressed only TLR-4; results indicate that there exist cell type-specific patterns of TLR function in placenta which likely regulate innate immune response at the maternal-fetal interface, Potential role for activation through TLR-2 in the inflammation and joint destruction of rheumaatoid arthritis., Polyamines are necessary for TLR2 expression and that polyamine-induced TLR2 activation plays an important role in regulating epithelial barrier function., Expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in chronic rhinosinusitis tissues was significantly increased compared with that in nasal polyps and control tissues., IlpA of V. vulnificus functions as an immunostimulant to human cells via TLR2, data suggest that TLR2/6 heterodimers are responsible for sensing Bacillus anthracis cell wall and PA, whereas the formation of the subsequent toxin (LF + PA) seems to evade detection by the innate immune system contributing to the virulence of the toxin., TLR2, TLR4, and NOD2 are involved in the recognition of M. paratuberculosis by the innate immune system., Carriage of two variant TLR2 alleles potentially leads to aberrant innate immune responses, which may have contributed to very preterm birth., Expression of TLR2 is closely correlated with hepatitis B, especially to the grades of its necroinflammatory activity., P. gingivalis, therefore, selectively up-regulated CCR5 by two independent signaling pathways, Rgp acting on PAR-1 and PAR-2, and LPS on TLR2 and TLR4., Transfection of HEK293 cells with TLR2 rendered these cells responsive to Burkholderia pseudomallei., Study found that among pleural fluid lymphocytes, natural killer cells are a major source of early IFN-gamma upon M. tuberculosis stimulation and Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 agonists activate NK cells but do not induce IFN-gamma like M. tuberculosis does., The -196 to -174del/del genotype of TLR2 may increase the risk of gastric cancer in the Japanese population., Homozygous TLR2 Arg753Gln polymorphism is associated with allograft failure and mortality after liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis C virus., Microbial products stimulate TLR2 expression through histone modification surrounding a proximal NF-kappa B-binding site., Patients with severe and mild malaria showed increased surface expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on CD14(+)monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells and decreased intracellular expression of TLR9 on plasmacytoid dendritic cells compared to healthy controls., Induced TLR2 cooperated with TLR4 to amplify iNOS induction in gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori which contain lipopolysaccharide as a pathogen., No correlation was demonstrated between TLR2 polymorphisms and susceptibility to Q fever., Expressions of both TLR2 and TLR4 at the vessel wall synergistically accelerated atherosclerosis. The present study revealed the role of TLRs expressed locally at the vessel wall in the early stage of atherosclerosis, AKAP13 plays a role in TLR2-mediated NF-kappaB activation; GEF-containing scaffold proteins may confer specificity to innate immune responses downstream of TLRs, It can be proposed that exposure of resting CD4+ T cells to pathogen-derived products that can engage TLR2 induces the acquisition of an effector-like phenotype in naive and memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, Propose that formation of the TLR1-TLR2 heterodimer brings the intracellular TIR domains close to each other to promote dimerization and initiate signaling., In human neutrophils, Helicobacter pylori induces an early inflammatory response, partially mediated via TLR2 and TLR4 activation., These results collectively indicated that Chlamydophilal antigens induce foam cell formation mainly via Toll-like receptor 2 and c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase., TLR2 variants were not major risk factors for Crohn's disease., Host-derived factors (IFN-gamma and TLR4 ligand) and viral factors (TLR2 ligand) act in tandem to induce and maintain monocyte/macrophage activation, thus favoring persistent inflammation in patients with cHCV infection., the levels of sCD14 and sTLR-2 in saliva were upregulated in oral lichen planus and burning mouth syndrome. Oral epithelial cells in the saliva of patients exhibited elevated levels of CD14 mRNA and decreased levels of TLR-2 mRNA., M-Ficolin expression is silenced in macrophages but can be re-activated after prolonged activation via TLR2 and TLR4, Decreased TLR-2 (toll-like receptor 2) expression was noted in monocytes of Behcets disease patients, We did not find any association between TLR2 polymorphism and risk of gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric and duodenal ulcer and gastritis compared to healthy controls., Suggest that TLR2/4 may play role in aortic valve inflammation and stenosis., This study showed that the leucine-rich repeat of Tannerella forsythia BspA protein is an important modulator of host innate immune responses through activation of TLR2., it is concluded that TLR2 and TLR4 may play a vital role in hepatitis C virus (HCV) recognition, initiation and progression of HCV induced liver diseases, Infection of THP-1 cells with Brucella abortus inhibited expression of major histocompatibility class II molecules and antigen processing through interleukin-6 secretion via Toll-like receptor 2., subjects carrying the TLR2 Arg753Gln allele had higher risk of urinary tract infection with gram-positive pathogens, history of more than two attacks of urinary tract infection (UTI) and asymptomatic UTI, activation of NF-kappaB by beta-defensin 3 depends on the expression of both TLR1 and TLR2, Exposure of polymorphonuclear neutrophils to Rhizopus oryzae hyphae resulted in upregulation in Toll-like receptor 2 mRNA and a robust proinflammatory gene expression with rapid (1-h) induction of NF-kappaB pathway-related genes., these results indicate that activation of the ASK1/p38 MAPK/p47phox cascade plays a central role in PPD/TLR2-induced ROS generation and suggests the existence of a 'ROS/ASK1' inflammatory amplification feedback loop in monocytes/macrophages., TLR2 expression and signaling are increased in type 1 diabetes mellitus and contribute to the proinflammatory state., Dysregulation of TLR2, TLR4, and CD14 expression in different parts of the intestinal mucosa may be crucial in IBD pathogenesis., CF blood PMNs expressed enhanced level of CD64, a marker of neutrophil activation, and lower level of Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2)., Although various bacteria may activate different TLR2 dimers, the development of different signal pathways in response to lipopolysaccharides does not seem to be of vital significance for the innate defense system., The present study failed to find any significant association between polymorphisms and generalized aggressive periodontitis, M. bovis BCG, acting through both TLR2 and TLR4, induces the activation of the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, which in turn plays a major role in CXCL8 secretion., Estimation of TLR4 expression on antigen presenting cells may be predictive of in acute rejection after liver transplantation., studies reveal coordinated induction of TLR2 and TLR6 during hypoxia and suggest tissue hypoxia in transcriptional adaptation of innate immune responses during acute infection or inflammation, Microbial patterns signaling via Toll-like receptors 2 and 5 contribute to epithelial repair, growth and survival. This effect is independent of hematopoietic and other cells as well as inflammatory cytokines, Dissociation of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated innate immune response to Zymosan by organic solvent-treatment without loss of Dectin-1 reactivity., These data suggest a significant role for TLR-2 in the occurrence of leprosy reversal reaction and provide new insights into the immunogenetics of the disease., The findings suggest that S. aureus lipopolysaccharide activates TLR2 and triggers innate immune response in the cornea to S. aureus infection via production of proinflammatory cytokines and defense molecules., EDN can activate myeloid DCs by triggering the Toll-like receptor (TLR)2-myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling pathway, The binding of Lipomannan to TLR2 triggers MAPK activation, followed by an up-regulation of MKP-1 expression, which in turn may act as a negative regulator of MAPK activation., To determine the role of MAP kinases in TLR- induced corneal inflammation, we stimulated human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells with TLR2 ligands., The significant reduction in TLR2 gene expression in allergic adults supports the concept that increased TLR2 protects against the development of allergy., The outcome of innate and adaptive immune responses in atopic dermatitis is modulated by the Toll-like receptor 2 Arg753Gln single nucleotide polymorphism., TLR2 SNP Arg753Gln results in altered cytokine release in response to Candida but not to Gram-positive sepsis., A new Brucella protein Btp1 down-modulates maturation of infected dendritic cells by interfering with the TLR2 signaling pathway., TLR2 signaling is not deficient in hyper-IgE patients., TLR1, 2, and 4 protein colocalized with adiponectin in human adipocytes., Results showed that TLR2 was up-regulated on the monocytes from pleural fluid indicating a prominent role for this receptor in anti-tuberculous immunity., Monocytes were pretreated with opioid receptors antagonists before being cultured with morphine and peptidoglycan, a specific TLR2 agonit., In response to TLR2 stimulation, by either lipid agonists or P. aeruginosa, gap junctions functioned to transiently amplify proinflammatory signaling by communicating Ca(2+) fluxes from stimulated to adjacent, IL-6 alone was able to upregulate TLR2 in airway epithelial cells. Hog confinement dust upregulates TLR2 in the airway epithelium through an IL-6-dependent mechanism., the low frequency of TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms observed here and in other populations corroborates and suggests that these do not play an important role in Chagas' disease., review of well-defined structure-function relationships for TLR2 [review], Selective attenuation of Toll-like receptor 2 signalling may explain the atheroprotective effect of sphingosine 1-phosphate., Data found that the level of TLR2 and SOCS-3, genes associated with atopy in the children, were significantly downregulated by presence of S. haematobium infection., Findings reveal a unique role of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein 60 favouring development of Th2 type response by upregulating surface expression of TLR2 on macrophages which could be a survival strategy adopted by the bacilli., This report implicates SP1 as a critical component of DNA demethylation-dependent up-regulation of TLR2 expression in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells., bacterial T cell Ags includes lipoglycoproteins, which act as TLR2 ligands but also require glycosylation for MHC class II-restricted T cell activation in vivo., M. abscessus signals human cells through MAPK and TLR2 pathways and triggers more pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines than MAV., No association was found between TLR2 polymorphisms and myocardial infarction., findings show functional difference in TLR-2 responsiveness of monocytes from atopic dermatitis (AD) patients with TLR-2 R753Q mutation compared with wild type AD patients; TLR-2 may be essential in pathogenesis & maintenance of AD, The lipoproteins from U. parvum were found to activate NF-kappaB through TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6., The TLR2- and TLR4-stimulating activity of supragingival plaque is associated with clinical parameters for gingivitis and periodontitis., scaffold protein MyD88 as the link coupling TLR2,4 to PKCepsilon recruitment, phosphorylation, and downstream signaling., These results suggest that LTA signaling preferentially occurs at the plasma membrane, is independent of internalization, and is facilitated by CD36 and CD14 as coreceptors for TLR2., the results show that MG149, a triacylated lipoprotein from M. genitalium, activates NF-kappaB through TLR1 and TLR2., Pam3CSK4 and LPS induced TLR2 and TLR4 expression at mRNA and protein levels are inhibited by candesartan both in vitro and in vivo, vitronectin and integrin beta(3) contribute to the initiation of TLR2 responses, dectin-1 synergizes with both TLR2 and TLR4 pathways for the production of TNF-alpha in human primary PBMCs and in monocyte-derived macrophages., Oxidized phospholipid inhibition of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is restricted to TLR2 and TLR4, expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 transcripts was significantly lower in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic hepatitis B virus-infected patients, suggest a potential role for SAA in inflammatory diseases through activation of TLR2, Data suggest that TLR2/NF-kappa B signaling, particularly on mTHP-1 cells, mediates IL-8 secretion associated with extracellular B. burgdorferi., HSV-1 induces TLR2-dependent activation of IL-15 gene expression, which requires the recruitment of both MyD88 and TIRAP/Mal and the activation of IRAK1 and TRAF6 leading to NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus., These data suggest that BCG, by inducing simultaneous activation of NK and antigen-presenting cells via their 'shared' TLR2, can promote efficient bidirectional NK-dendritic cell interactions necessary for subsequent priming of T(h)1 responses., results suggest that the guanine-thymine repeat microsatellite polymorphisms in intron II of the human TLR2 gene contribute to the development of nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease, in a Korean population., Arg753Gln polymorphism may not be associated with aggressive or chronic periodontitis in the Chinese population. Arp677Trp polymorphism seemed to be rather high in the Chinese population [with or without periodontitis], In innate immune responses to Acinetobacter baumannii OmpA, the surface expression of Toll-like receptor 2 and the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were prominently observed in HEp-2 cells., defensin beta 2 production is mediated by TLR2 and TLR4 activation and involves a c-Fos-mediated, protein kinase C-dependent signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 response declines rapidly after arterial trauma in patients undergoing vascular surgery, While the TLR-2 +2258 (G>A) and MMP-9 -1562 (C>T) SNPs failed to present any significant association with pre-eclampsia, there was a marked trend for an association between the IL-4 -590 (C>T) SNP and pre-eclampsia (chi(2)= 5.87, P = 0.055), these experiments directly link the initial inflammatory response induced by Encephalitozoon spp. to TLR2 stimulation in human macrophages., TLR2 and TLR4 was significantly upregulated by Burkholderia cenocepacia infection in lung epithelial cells., Through cooperation of TLR1 and TLR2 signaling, TLR5 is stored intracellularly in neutrophils and is up-regulated in a protein synthesis-independent manner., HaCaT cells, NHEK, and epidermis all expressed TLR 1-10 mRNA with different intensity. TLR 4 protein was detected on the surfaces of HaCaT cells and NHEK, while the expression of TLR 2 protein was few., steroid-induced TLR2 together with Propionibacterium acnes existing as normal resident flora plays an important role in the exacerbation of acne vulgaris as well as in possible induction of corticosteroid-induced acne or in that of rosacea-like dermatitis, We found no evidence that the gene polymorphism of TLR2 (p = 1.000) and overall gene polymorphism in any of the genes (p = 0.752) correlate with periodontitis., Inflammatory stimuli induce a high TLR2 expression in endothelial cells, which in turn enables the cells to strongly respond to lipopeptides., Binding to CXCR4 induces cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, which in turn inhibits TLR2-mediated proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses to the pathogen, sarcoidosis patients are characterized by higher expression of TLR2 and TLR4., Myeloid differentiation primary response gene (MyD88)-dependent TLR2 signaling pathway mediates lipoteichoic acid-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression in human cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells., stearoyl-arachidonoyl form of phosphatidylserine disrupted the association of both TLR4 and TLR2 with their respective membrane partners that are required for signaling, TLR2 (toll-like receptor 2) and TLR4 (toll-like receptor 2) mRNA expression were significantly elevated in children with protracted bacterial bronchitis when compared to the control group, bacterial induction of HBD-3 via TLR-2 and -4 in bone, Data show that TLR2 expression is 12% lower on CD16(+dim) monocytes after acute exercise in humans., TLR2 mediates SAA-induced G-CSF expression, Genetic variants of TLR-2 were associated with acute reactive arthritis following infection with S. enteritidis., A role for human eosinophils as direct effectors in TLR2-mediated innate immunity against mycobacteria and confer to these cells potent cytotoxic functions through defensin and eosinophil cationic protein production., In the presence of HBeAg, HBV down-regulates the expressions of TLR2 on CD14+ cells from peripheral blood, and there is no correlation between HBV-DNA and TLR2., Toll-like receptors 2 highly expressed on human melanoma cells., TLR2 polymorphisms do not play an important role in the development of BD., This study explored whether Klebsiella pneumoniae upregulates the expression of TLRs in human airway epithelial cells., These data implicate polysaccharide intercellular adhesin as an important immunogenic component of the S. epidermidis biofilm that can regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine production from human astrocytes, in part, via TLR2., Toll-like receptor 2, 4, and 9 overexpression is associated with neutrophil dysfunction in alcoholic hepatitis., Characteristic patterns in the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on monocytes and granulocytes were found in venous blood of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass., This study demonstrates that TLR2 signaling mediates the morphine-induced apoptosis, and beta-arrestin 2 is a negative regulator in morphine-induced, TLR2-mediated apoptosis., These data show that TLR2 and NALP2 mediate the induction of human beta-defensins by F. nucleatum in gingival epithelial cells, human platelets express functional TLR2 capable of recognizing bacterial components and activating the platelet thrombotic and/or inflammatory pathways, no known non-synonymous SNP of TLR2 has been identified in the Japanese leprosy patients., Alcohol upregulates TLR2 message and protein in the airway epithelium. This leads to exaggerated inflammation in response to environmental stimuli that would normally be well tolerated in airway epithelial cells., associated with the enhancement of internalization of the Alzheimer disease-associated amyloid beta peptide (Abeta42) by the microglia, polymorphism is associated with lepromatous leprosy; TLR2Arg677Trp variation impairs its ability to activate NF-kappaB in response to M. leprae and M. tuberculosis, HSV-1-infected monocytes exhibit downregulated TLR-2 and TLR-4., Results showed that exogenous farnesol promoted epithelial cell defense against C. albicans infection through the involvement of TLR2, IL-6, and human beta-defensin 2., Purified human herpesvirus type 4-encoded deoxyuridinetriphosphatase (dUTPase) activates human nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B through TLR2, and requires the recruitment of adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation gene 88 (MyD88) but not CD14., Our findings do not support a role for polymorphisms in the TLR2 gene in the pathogenesis of CRS., Our results demonstrate that TLR2, TLR4 and Dectin-1 actively sense, internalize and respond in an innate way to Mycobacterium ulcerans in human epidermal keratinocytes., S. aureus SitC lipoprotein is triacylated and that the ABC transporter substrate-binding lipoproteins of Gram-positive bacteria function as native ligands for TLR2., The results demonstrate that Campylobacter jejuni surface polysaccharides induce IL-6 secretion from intestinal epithelial cells via TLR-2 in a MyD88-independent manner., TLR2 is a critical receptor responsible for NF-kappaB signaling activity and highly invasive capacity of MDA-MB-231 cells., Both T1D and allergic asthma were significantly associated with the TLR2 rs3804100 T allele and further associated with the haplotype including this SNP, possibly representing a susceptibility locus common for the two diseases, Tendon tissue can be stimulated to increase TLR2 gene expression by addition of catabolic factors TNFalpha or IL-1beta., Binding and Cellular Activation Studies Reveal That Toll-like Receptor 2 Can Differentially Recognize Peptidoglycan from Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria., associated with atopic disease in farmers' children but not in children unexposed to a farming environment, infection of cells expressing toll-like receptors TLR2/6 with mycoplasma M. arginini leaded to suppression of apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, taxol)., Greater expression of TLR2 and TLR4 and greater pro-inflammatory and pro-osteogenic responses to TLR2 and TLR4 agonists in AVICs than PVICs are associated with osteogenic phenotypic changes, C. albicans-native phospholipomannan may contribute to the inflammatory responses of cutaneous candidiasis in the TLR2-NF-kappaB and p38MAPK signalling pathway dependent manner., The studies provide the first demonstration of a significant role for mannose receptor, synergistic with TLR2, in activating a proinflammatory response to P. aeruginosa infection., The rare but functionally relevant mutation R753Q in TLR2 may significantly affect common conditions such as atopic sensitization in the general population., TLR2 and TLR3 signaling leads to ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) activity at distinct cellular compartments., TLR1/2 and TLR2/6 agonists dramatically enhanced both HIV susceptibility and replication in immature monocyte-derived LCs, microsatellite polymorphism in intron 2 of the TLR2 gene is associated with susceptibility to acute pancreatitis and its severity in Japan, Data demonstrate that gingival keratinocytes recognize and discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative commensal extracts, in part through TLR2, to activate different signaling pathways of the innate immune host response., Up-regulation of TLR-2 by HSP60 may play a critical role in promoting bone loss in the estrogen-deficient state., Similar frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL genetic polymorphisms in populations with different histories of malaria exposure suggest that these innate immune pathways have not been under strong selective pressure by malaria, expression of TLR2, but not TLR4, on synovial fluid macrophages strongly correlated with the level of gp96 in the synovial fluid, plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. (review), Results suggest that there is no association of the TLR2 polymorphisms Arg677Trp and Arg753Gln with either the onset or the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease., Our findings show an impaired TLR-2 expression and functional differences of TLR-2-mediated effects on macrophages of atopic dermatitis patients compared to healthy controls., TLR2 mediates augmented cPLA(2) activation and subsequent leukotriene biosynthesis., both TLR2 and NOD1 may be involved in innate immune sensing of H. muridarum by epithelial cells, Transforming growth factor-beta1 inhibited TLR2 expression and attenuated odontoblast responses, suggesting the balance between TLR-mediated inflammation and TGF-beta1 anti-inflammatory activity plays an important role in pulpal inflammation., Toll-like receptors-2 and -4 are induced in synovial membranes in septic arthritis., In type 1 diabetes, monocytes secrete and synthetize increased amounts of IP-10 via the TLR2 andf TLR4 pathway by activation of NF-kappaB., gingivalis fimbriae activate two distinct TLR2 pathways mediating proinflammatory or proadhesive effects., soluble truncated form of TLR2 is part of the amniotic fluid innate immune system and participates in regulating the inflammatory response to microbial pathogens, TLR2 is significantly elevated in type 1 diabetes, and this, in concert with hyperglycaemia, accounts for the increase of TLR4 activity, underscoring the proinflammatory state of type 1 diabetes., Wolbachia lipoprotein stimulates innate and adaptive immunity through Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 to induce disease manifestations of filariasis, These data demonstrate that TLR2 can initiate renal inflammation during progressive renal injury and that the absence of TLR2 does not affect the development of chronic renal injury and fibrosis., The expression level of TLR2/4 in mononuclear cells increases significantly in the peri-operative period of OLT, and it may be a high risk factor for occurrence of postoperative orthotopic liver transplantion., the IL-1beta and VDR activation pathways have roles in human TLR2/1-induced antimicrobial responses, A TIR domain variant of MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)/TIRAP results in loss of MyD88 binding and reduced TLR2/TLR4 signaling., In silico analysis predicted that miR-105 had complementarity for TLR-2 mRNA., TLR2 Arg 753Gln polymorphisms showed no effect on chlamydial growth., B. fragilis preparations showed a significant signalling specificity for TLR2 but not for TLR4., Study highlighted the involvement of TLR 2 (-196 to -174 del) and TLR 4 (Thr399Ile) gene polymorphisms in cervical cancer susceptibility., The capacity of soluble, engineered human TLR2 (sTLR2) to modulate acute inflammatory parameters does not compromise the ability of mice to clear sTLR2-treated staphylococcal infection., Analyses of the cytokine production profile of macrophages isolated from knockout mice deficient in TLRs or in MyD88 and TRIF revealed a critical role for TLR2, TLR6 and MyD88 in the production of IFNbeta-independent chemokines., TLR2 gene polymorphism may be a protective factor in pediatric renal transplantation patients in relation to chronic allograft nephropathy., These data indicate that direct interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis TLR2 ligands and CD4(+) T cells facilitated local CD4(+) T cell immune responses in patients with tuberculous pleurisy., Toll-like receptors 2and 4 and myeloid cells-1 are expressed in human myometrium and may play a role in the mechanism of labor at term, Mal specifically connects TLR2/6 to PI3K activation, PIP(3) generation and macrophage polarization., the novel role for Mal in facilitating the direct recruitment of TRAF6 to the plasma membrane, which is necessary for TLR2- and TLR4-induced transactivation of NF-kappaB and regulation of the subsequent pro-inflammatory response., rough variants of M. abscessus stimulate the human macrophage innate immune response through TLR2, while smooth variants do not, TLR-2 polymorphisms are not increased in Henoch Schonlein purpura patients with and without renal involvement., TLR2 and DC-SIGNR1 differentially regulate SOCS1 expression during M. tb infection., Expression of costimulatory molecules CD80/CD86 increases with TLR2 or TLR4 activation sequences. Our results reveal that TLR2/TLR4 activation may determine disease pathogenesis and prognosis, data indicate that TLR2 promoter SNP is relevant for the phenotype of severe atopic dermatitis, We show for the first time that lipophosphoglycan (LPG) stimulated cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is also mediated via Toll-like receptor (TLR2)., TLR2 may be involved in peptidoglycan-induced IL-6 expression and release in human synovial fibroblasts., TLR2 up-regulation and activation on tolerogenic dendritic cells may contribute to a negative feedback of inflammation and/or tolerance induction., Toll-like receptor 2 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 promote central nervous system neuroinflammation in progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis., TLR2 gene Arg753Gln polymorphism is not associated with Behcet disease nor with rheumatic heart disease., Isolated Behcet disease neutrophils do not overexpress TLR2 neither overreact to lipoteichoic acid., Report association of SLC11A1 with tuberculosis and interactions with NOS2A and TLR2 in African-Americans and Caucasians., Cultured human melanocytes express functional toll-like receptors 2-4, 7 and 9., Activation of TLR2, TLR3 or TLR5 induces the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in human epidermal keratinocytes., Our study suggests that the TLR2 gene polymorphisms might be susceptible to the development of allergic rhinitis., High TLR2 expression level on monocytes may be an independent risk factor for atherogenesis., TLR-2 is involved at least in part, in the stimulation of neutrophil phagocytic and fungicidal capacities induced by post-exercise physiological concentrations of Hsp72, Findings in three independent population samples indicate that variations in TLR2 and TLR9 might play important roles in determining susceptibility to TB., in a Tunisian population single nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR2 (toll-like receptor 2) and TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4) genes were not significantly associated with susceptibility to Behcets disease, Alkane structure, polymeric in nature, bind and activate the TLR1/2 signaling pathway, whereas nanometer and micrometer size particles range are phagocyted by local myeloid lineage cells., Schistosoma mansoni antigens exert potent regulatory effects on both dendritic cells and B cells through TLR2 regulation conducted via different signaling pathways in infected multiple sclerosis patients., Data report that R753Q polymorphism paralyzes TLR2-mediated immune signaling in cells exposed to cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B., Data show that activation of TLR2 in purified human beta-cells and islets stimulated the expression of proinflammatory factors, and IL-1RI activity increased the TLR2 response in human islets., Data show that knockdown of NOD2 and TLR2 by siRNA significantly reduced PGN-mediated chemokine production, suggesting that both NOD2 and TLR2 are required for maximal response., Report differential effects of cytokines and corticosteroids on toll-like receptor 2 expression and activity in human airway epithelia., TLR2 found on adult renal progenitor cells might be responsible for their activation in the kidney, orchestrating the activation of crucial signaling networks necessary for renal repair., experiments demonstrate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is critical for the TLR2 downstream effects of glucocorticoids (GC); PI3K-GR interaction may contribute to the effects of glucocorticoid receptor on the TLR2 pro-inflammatory signalling cascade, Results demonstrate a decrease of TLRs and dectin-1 expression mainly on monocytes as opposed to neutrophils, as soon as 30 minutes after Paracoccidioides brasiliensis stimulation., shift in T cell responses was inherent to the inability of TLR2-stimulated DCs to produce IL-12p70 and was dependent on the production of IL-1 and IL-6., TLR2 was identified to be involved in the recognition of the parasite regardless of the parasite genotype in human intestinal epithelial cells infected with T. gondii, Transgenic TLR2 engagement of antigen-presenting cells promotes a high frequency of effector and memory CD4 T cells in primary and secondary immune responses; innate signals may set long-term functional capacities of T cells early during an infection., TLR2 activation is essential to induce a Th1 shift in human PBMCs, but not mouse cells, by plant stanols and plant sterols, In human atherosclerosis, TLR-2 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (MyD88) play a predominant role in NF-kappaB activation and in the production of inflammatory mediators and matrix-degrading enzymes., Data demonstrate that PKC-alpha is induced by several MyD88-dependent TLR/IL-1R ligands and regulates cytokine expression in human and murine DC., TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 were expressed by infiltrating cells of perimysium in dermatomyositis, whereas they were expressed by infiltrating cells of endomysium in polymyositis, TLR2 and iNOS mRNA levels in hepatopulmonary syndrome patients were significantly higher than those in control group., Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 have roles in pulmonary inflammation and injury induced by pneumolysin, T. denticola suppressed the expression of HBD-3 by inhibiting the TLR2 axis in gingival epithelial cells, Data revealed that TLR2 and TLR4 SNPS were rare in the southeastern Chinese population and were not associated with susceptibility to TB., a dynamic model for TLR2-mediated recognition of ligands, in which TLR2 fluctuates between a conformation that is suitable for binding of the fatty acyl moieties of the ligands and a conformation that favors formation of a signal-inducing ternary complex, no significant differences in individual TLR2 genotype frequencies in the susceptibility for C. trachomatis infections between the C. trachomatis-positive group and controls., Toll-like receptor 2-mediated peptidoglycan uptake by immature intestinal epithelial cells from apical side and exosome-associated transcellular transcytosis., TLR2/1 agonist-induced platelet aggregation and secretion depends on a P2X1-mediated Ca2+ mobilisation, production of TxA2 and ADP receptor activation, No significant role of the TLR2 gene in periodontitis was found., These results indicate that Streptococcus suis lipoproteins activate TLR2/6 but not TLR1/2 and that the clinically different serotypes 2 and 9 display differential release of TLR ligand when cell wall integrity is compromised., results clearly identified a TLR2/6-dependent induction of angiogenesis by the bacterial lipopeptide MALP-2, which is mediated by GM-CSF, TLR2 polymorphisms may not play an important role in normal tension glaucoma pathogenesis in the Japanese population., no statistically significant changes in TLR2 expression after exercise, Data show that TLR2 and TLR4 expression and their ligands, signaling, and functional activation are increased in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes and contribute to the proinflammatory state., For TLR2 single nucleotide polymorphisms, there was a significant association with more frequent wheeze (more than three attacks in the past 12 months), but not with ashma, allergic rhinitis or eczema., R753Q SNP impairs TLR2-mediated immune recognition of HCV core and NS3 proteins. This biologic defect may account for the predisposition of patients to develop allograft failure after liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis C., Overexpression of TLR2 failed to prevent the induction of bacterial lipoprotein-induced tolerance., found that peritoneal macrophages of MHC class II knock-out mice show a decreased responsiveness to TLR2 and TLR4 stimuli compared to macrophages of wild-type mice, Studies show substantial decreases in older compared with young individuals in cytokine production in response to TLR1/2, TLR6, TLR3, TLR5, and TLR8, TLR7 and TLR9 in DCs., no association between 753Q Toll-like receptor 2 variant and nasal polyposis, (i) FSL-1 is internalized into macrophages via a clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway, (ii) the FSL-1 uptake by macrophages occurs irrespective of the presence of TLR2, and (iii) CD14 and CD36 are responsible for the internalization of FSL-1., newly identified an association between the haplotype [A-G-(insertion)-T] and susceptibility to pulmonary TB (p = 0.006, false discovery rate q = 0.072), Overrepresentation of heterozygous CT genotype and mutated T allele of C8993T polymorphism in TLR-4 gene in the control group may indicate that, possibly, it plays a protective role against PROM, Exposure to Neisseria gonorrheae increases human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection of primary resting CD4-positive T cells, and TLR2 (and its agonists) are involved in this HIV-enhancing effect at the step of nuclear import., TLR2 and TLR4 expression and signaling are increased in Type 1 diabetics with microvascular complications as compared with levels in Type 1 diabetics without microvascular complications., Infection with Legionella pneumophila markedly increased beta-defensin-2 production, and the response was attenuated in Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR5 transient knockdown cells., TLR2 cooperates with MyD88, PI3K, and Rac1 in lipoteichoic acid-induced cPLA2/COX-2-dependent airway inflammatory responses, These results suggest that 15d-PGJ(2) suppresses TLR2 expression and that it up-regulates the production of IL-8 by inhibiting the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in primary keratinocytes., These results demonstrate that V. vulnificus capsular polysaccharide is involved in the induction of IL-8 production of human intestinal epithelial cells via a TLR2/NF-kappaB-dependent pathway., Toll-like receptor 4 D299G polymorphism could influence not only the predisposition to bacterial infections but also the evolution of the disease in cirrhotic patients., Polymorphisms in TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 that recognize bacterial and viral pathogens are associated with bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplantation., susceptibility to chronic periodontitis was not associated with the functional effective GT repeat microsatellite polymorphism, Higher mRNA expression of TLR2 were detected in gingival tissue from chronic periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls., The S/M genotype of the microsatellite polymorphism was more frequent in TB patients than in healthy controls., TLR2 is an endocytic receptor for hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 3 in dendritic cells., Human TLR10 cooperates with TLR2 in the sensing of microbes and fungi but possesses a signaling function distinct from that of other TLR2 subfamily members., toll-like receptor 2 and 4 polymorphisms and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its soluble receptors may have a role in obesity in children, These findings suggest that monomeric HCV core protein but not intact infectious particles are sensed by TLR2., Data show that biglycan (BGN) induces of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) in aortic valve interstitial cells via stimulation of Toll-like receptor 2, so increased BGN in stenotic valves contributes to the production of PLTP via TLR 2., IL-8 and IL-10 production involved TLR2 and mainly TLR4 modulation in human neutrophils challenged with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Mal is a substrate for IRAK1 and IRAK4 with phosphorylation promoting ubiquitination and degradation of Mal, which may serve to negatively regulate signaling by TLR2 and TLR4, these results suggest that TLR2, TLR4, and Tregs correlate closely with chronic HCV infection., role of TLR2 in responses of primary blood leukocytes to live SE and in clearance of SE bacteremia, These data This raise the intriguing possibility that recognition of Borrelia spirochetes is exerted by TLR2 in combination with NOD2 and that both receptors are necessary for an effective induction of cytokines by Borrelia species., The Arg753Gln TLR2 polymorphism occurred in 2 out of 38 severe sepsis patients., Inflammatory profiling of specific CSE-dysregulated proteins, rFimA and rMfa1, was determined by quantifying cytokine induction in primary human innate and OBA-9 cells., Results showed that TLR2 was functionally expressed in YD-10B cells, but did not influence cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis., potential use for normal commensal bacterium S. epidermidis to activate TLR2 signaling and induce antimicrobial peptide expression, thus enabling the skin to mount an enhanced response to pathogens, Data show that blocking TLR2, TLR4 or CD14 resulted in a approximately 60%-70% decrease in mmLDL-induced TNF-alpha secretion., Our results indicate the modulation of RhoA on TLR-2-mediated inflammatory signaling in RA providing novel evidence for anti-inflammatory effects of statins through influencing TLR-2 signaling via RhoA., Data show that TLR2 and TLR4 genes did not show copy number variation in both CD and control, and all samples presented with two copies., Patients with stable alcoholic chronic liver disease show an attenuation of TLR2-mediated innate immune response in peripheral blood monocytes., Low-penetrance variants in TLR genes may alter the susceptibility towards gallbladder cancer., Transfection experiments with human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells and antibody-mediated inhibition of TLR signalling in human macrophage-like (THP-1) cells suggested that TLR2 interacts with TLR1 to recognize curli amyloid fibrils., Substance P primes TLR2-mediated activation of human mast cells by up-regulating TLR expression and potentiating signalling pathways associated with TLR., The genotype containing TLR2-P631H SNP was significantly overrepresented in patients with tuberculosis when compared to contact controls, suggesting a small yet increased risk to disease., Highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells expressed high level of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in contrast to poorly metastatic breast cancer cells and homogenous untransformed breast cells., Gain- and loss-of-function experiments show that Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLR2) expression depends on TLR2 stimulation, as well as on nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) stimulation., Hyaluronan blocks oligodendrocyte progenitor maturation and remyelination through TLR2, The results of the study indicate that TLR2 -196 to -173 del, +597 T>C and +1350 T>C polymorphisms are associated with asymptomatic bancroftian filariasis in Thailand, Studies indicate that TLR1/2 heterodimer recognizes the envelope proteins of HCMV leading to the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines., SNP rs3804099 of TLR2 gene was significantly associated with higher sepsis morbidity rate and MOD scores in patients with major trauma., TLR2 is developmentally expressed from the early pseudoglandular stage of lung development to the canalicular stage., Direct binding of beta 2-glycoprotein I on the endothelial cell surface occurs through direct interaction with TLR2., This study further supports the observations that TLR2 expression was higher in placenta with infection which strengthened the role of TLR2 in the protection of preterm placenta against infection., Rickettsia akari triggers cell activation via TLR2 or TLR4, High TLR2 is associated with renal allograft rejection., Data suggest that upregulation of Toll-like receptor 2/4 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells may contribute to the development of postoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome following liver transplantation., in an Italian pediatric cohort, no evidence of correlation between TLR-2 or TLR-4 polymorphism and eczema and food allergy incidence and/or severity was found, TLR2 Arg677Trp and Arg753Glu, TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile and TLR9 1237T/C polymorphisms are not associated with IBD in Chinese Han patients., Variant alleles of TLR2 and TLR4 genes influence the susceptibility to adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on childhood asthma., HSV-1 immediate-early ICP0 protein reduces the TLR2-mediated inflammatory response to HSV 1 infection, A novel mechanism of lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced cytokine induction in human peripheral blood cells involves uptake of LTA and subsequent intracellular recognition driven by TLR2, TLR6, and CD14., Neither myeloid cell TLR-2 and TLR-4 expressions nor TLR-2 Arg753Gln, TLR-4 Asp299Gly, and Thr399Ile polymorphisms seem to affect the development of secondary amyloidosis in familial Mediterranean fever., TLR2 expression on PBM is an important event in acne pathogenesis and targeting this molecule might be a useful therapeutic goal in the future., pro-inflammatory and catabolic role of TLR-2 mediated by the NF-kappaB pathway in septic arthritis, A bout of strenuous aerobic exercise alters the surface expression of TLR2, TLR4 and HLA.DR on blood monocytes and some of their subtypes., MPB83 of M.bovis may act as a virulence factor through TLR2 mediated induction of MMP-9., PAUF induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and activates the IKK-b-mediated TPL2/MEK/ERK signaling pathway through TLR2., Data demonstrate that during bacterial infection, newborns amplify the TLR2-MyD88 pathway in G+ bacterial infection and the TLR4/MD2/MyD88 pathway in G- bacterial infection, implicating the innate immune pathway in response to bacterial infection., Reduced TLR2 expression of alveolar macrophages from patients with Lofgren's syndrome suggests a distinct innate immune response to postulated sarcoidosis pathogens in these patients., genetic polymorphism is associated with risk of asthma in a Chinese population, TLR2 and TLR4 SNPs appear to alter susceptibility to developing the maternal syndrome of preeclampsia., B cells can be directly activated viaTLR1/TLR2, TLR7, and TLR9 to induce secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and hematopoietic growth factors and suggest a role of B cells in immune response against microbial pathogenesis and immune homeostasis., evidence for a functional TLR-2/TLR-1 signalling profile in keratinocytes upon stimulation with Pam3Cys contributing to the defense against bacterial skin infections, The 196R allele of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 M196R as well as the 753Gln allele of TLR2 Arg753Gln are risk factors for acne vulgaris in Chinese Han patients., U937 macrophage responses to the TLR2 ligand, Pam3CSK4, are dependent upon integrin alpha3beta1., molecular patterns of carboxyalkylpyrroles are recognized by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), but not TLR4 or scavenger receptors on endothelial cells, leading to an angiogenic response that is independent of vascular endothelial growth factor, this study provides further insights into the role of ER stress in enhancing host bacterial response or in exaggerating the inflammatory condition via up-regulating TLR2 expression., Compared to normal livers, lower levels of TLR2/4 mRNA and TLR4 and pIKKalpha protein were found in primary biliary cirrhosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, indicating the maintenance of suppressed inflammation and immune tolerance in normal livers., results demonstrate a novel interaction between S. pneumoniae and TLR2, which results in platelet activation that is likely to contribute to the thrombotic complications of sepsis, TLR2 ligands induce CCR9 and CCR10 expression by circulating B-cells and increase their chemotaxis. TLR2 stimulation also induced J chain and IgA production demonstrating the induction of mucosal-like antibody secreting cells., TLR2 is capable of inducing not only IL-22 but also IL-13 and IL-5 secretion from human lymphoid tissue inducer -like innate lymphoid cells., results suggest that the TLR2 pathway has a relevant role in the recognition of gammaherpesvirus-68 and in the subsequent activation of the innate immune response, M. tuberculosis lipoproteins LprG and LpqH participate in the regulation of adaptive immunity by inducing cytokine secretion and costimulatory molecules and by directly regulating the activation of memory T lymphocytes via Toll-like receptors 1 and 2., Increased TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression on PBMCs and SFMCs may recognize microbial/endogenous ligands and up-regulate IL-6 and MMP-3 leading to disease exacerbation., Results indicate that Neisseria lactamica plays an important role in suppressing pathogen-induced inflammation in the nasopharyngeal mucosa, mediated through TLR-1/2 stimulation, by activating PPAR-gamma and inhibiting NF-kappabeta activity., Abnormal TLR2 function may explain enhanced inflammatory responses to environmental stimuli and can act as a critical element in the pathogenesis of rosacea., The TLR2 -196 to 174del polymorphism was not significantly associated with either H. pylori seropositivity or gastric atrophy., TLR2 -16934A>T polymorphism could be a genetic predictor of AD severity., TLR2 negatively regulates CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5 on blood monocytes by activating chemokine-dependent down-modulation and providing a molecular mechanism for inhibiting monocyte migration after pathogen recognition., study demonstrates an association of microsatellite polymorphisms in intron II of the human TLR2 gene with risk for LOAD in Han Chinese., The effect of TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 upregulation on adrenocortical cell steroidogenesis, is reported., data demonstrated that expression profiles of AIF-1 and TLR-2 correlated with biopsy-proven allograft rejection in both peripheral blood and local tissue, suggesting their potential as diagnostic biomarkers for early detection of allograft rejection, serovar Shermani detergent extract can induce fibronectin production through the TLR2-associated cascade, HEK cells stably transfected with TLR2 secrete significantly higher amounts of interleukin (IL)-8, with Panton-Valentine leukocidin-mediated cytokine synthesis being enhanced in the presence of CD14., Positive TLR2 expression in the microenvironment suggests activation of immune surveillance against the altered epithelium, whereas TLR2 expression by malignant keratinocytes may be indicative of resistance to apoptosis as a pro-survival mechanism., is the first report identifying candidate binding sites of monomer peptidoglycan and peptides on TLR-2., Innate immune recognition of meningococcal capsular polysaccharides by macrophages can occur via TLR2- and TLR4-MD-2 pathways., TLR2 and TLR4 expression is associated with poor outcome and higher inflammatory response in acute ischemic stroke., High TLR2 is associated with renal diseases., ligation of tubal TLR2 and activation of NFkappaB by C. trachomatis leads to increased tubal PROKR2, thereby predisposing the tubal microenvironment to ectopic implantation., low frequency electromagnetic field exposure does not modulate toll-like receptor TLR2 or TLR4 signaling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Results suggest that neutrophils are associated with the prognosis of patients with ischaemic stroke through the expression of their toll-like receptors (TLR) 4 but not TLR2., This review discusses the roles of TLR2-mediated inflammation in tumor progression and metastasis and the mechanisms through which it accomplishes these pathogenic functions., The effect of day care on sensitization and atopic wheezing may differ among children with different variants of the TLR2 gene., variants in TLR2 and TLR4 were associated with monocyte receptor levels of TLR2 and TLR4. This is the first study to look at associations between variants in the toll-like receptor family and toll-like receptor levels on monocytes, Our findings show increased expression of TLR2, TLR4, RAGE and HMGB1 in reactive glia in human ALS spinal cord, Arg753Gln polymorphism influences diseases progression in pediatric tuberculosis in Turkey, Phagosomal signaling involves a cooperative interaction between TLR2 and TLR8 in pro- and antiinflammatory cytokine responses, whereas TLR8 is solely responsible for IRF7-mediated induction of IFN-beta., relative contribution of TLR2 and TLR4 in cell activation by antiphospholipid antibodies, results implicate Prx1 as a tumor-derived inducer of inflammation, providing a mechanistic link between inflammation and TLR4 in prostate carcinogenesis, We identified genetic polymorphisms in the TLR2 gene as novel susceptibility factors for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites., Genetic variations of TLR2, TLR1, and TLR10 affect Treg marker gene expression in cord blood., Data demonstrate a key role for Mal in mediating TLR2 and TLR4 activation of CREB and induction of CREB-responsive genes including Il-10., TLR2 and TLR4 expression is increased in dendritic cells from HIV-1-coinfected patients with opportunistic infections., The results suggested that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis gp43 binds to human TLR2, TLR4, and mannose receptors, with TLR2 and mannose receptors having the strongest effect., Single nucleotide polymorphism in TLR2 is associated with measles vaccine immunity., TLR2 and Dectin-1 were expressed by endothelial cells in response to Aspergillus fumigatus stimulation., In patients with chronic cough, methylprednisolone enhances the expression of Toll-like receptor 2 on macrophages in induced sputum from patients, suggesting that TLR2 might play a regulatory role in airway inflammatory response., TLR2 polymorphisms are not significantly related to the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis in the Japanese population., Microbial components may activate basophils through TLR2 (especially for genetically predisposed infants) to release cytokines associated with an increased incidence of allergic diseases., The TLR2 Arg677Trp, Arg753Gln mutant alleles were not detected in any patient, suggesting that they are very rare in the Korean population. Our results do not permit any conclusion regarding their role in the development of liver cirrhosis., intrinsic TLR-2 expression and cytokine secretion upon TLR-2 stimulation with peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid and Pam3Cys in keratinocytes from patients with atopic dermatitis compared to healthy controls, A novel exopolysaccharide from the biofilm of Thermus aquaticus YT-1 induces the immune response through Toll-like receptor 2., Increased expression of toll-like receptor 2 is associated with gastric dysplasia., IMPDHII plays an important role in the negative regulation of TLR2 signaling by modulating PI3K activity., Ultraviolet light up-regulates the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and downstream signaling molecules MAPK, NF-kappaB/p65 and IRF-3 in human Langerhans cells., Pretreatment with PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2, significantly decreased LPS-induced TLR2 and SP-A mRNA expression, Studies indicate that the TLR2-ECD showing the position of the three subdomains, role of Toll like receptor (TLR)2 and selective early activation of the CREB pathway in the innate immune interactions between human DC and M. vaccae on DC-dependent T cell responses, Two SNPs in TLR2 may be associated with increased risk of CRS in Korean subjects., The frequency of the TLR2 -196 to -174 del allele was significantly higher in patients with HCV-associated HCC (22.5%) than in HCV-infected patients without HCC (15.6%, p = 0.016)., Expressions of TLR2, TLR4 and dectin-1 increased in HaCaT cells in response to Trichophyton rubrum exposure., Inhibition of TLR2 inhibited the the spontaneous migration ability of CD34(+) cells., TLR2 but not TLR4 was highly expressed in the cells of the spinous layer and infiltrating monocytes in oral lichen planus., TLR2 R753Q polymorphism may have a role in gram-positive bacterial infections after liver transplantation, Asthmatic macrophages showed an increase in TLR2 and TLR4 expression in response to to hyaluronan fragments., TLR2/+596 genotype may influence the association between ITGB3 single nucleotide polymrophisms and mold sensitization in adults with asthma., H. pylori triggered enhanced TLR-2 and TLR-5 expression and IL-8 and TNF-alpha cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells was induced in a cag pathogenicity island-dependent manner., The RhoA/ROCK signal pathway modulates the TLR-2-mediated secretion of chemokines in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes., This results of study suggested that TLR2 gene might not play a major role in the genetic predisposition to late-onset Alzheimer's disease in this population., TLR4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile alleles) as well as TLR2 (Arg753Gln allele) are not associated with risk of colorectal cancer., Notably, among myeloid differentiation transgene MyD88-dependent TLR, only stimulation via TLR1/2 consistently educates spleen dendritic cells with gut-homing imprinting capacity., Blocking platelet TLR2 and TLR4 with mAbs reduced the percentage of activated platelets and lowered the amount of thrombin generated in platelet-rich plasma., Altered Toll-like receptor 2-mediated endotoxin tolerance is related to diminished interferon beta production., Activation of the TLR2 transgene by its ligand (Pam3CSK4) prevents focal cerebral ischemic damage through a TLR2/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-dependent mechanism., TLR2-R753Q SNP may be a useful marker to identify patients with high risk to develop infections at ICU admission but should be validated in larger studies., mechanistic and functional insights into TLR2- and NOD receptor-mediated regulation of dendritic cell functions and unravels NOTCH1-PI3K as a signaling cohort for TLR2 and NOD receptors, inflammation-induced up-regulation is independent of differential methylation in the promoter, activated TLR2 and TLR4 reduce sperm motility, induce sperm apoptosis and significantly impair the potential for fertilization, TLR2 stimulation, in combination with TCR activation and costimulation, promotes the differentiation of distinct subsets of human naive and memory/effector Tregs into a Th17-like phenotype and their expansion., An association between endocarditis and variants of TLR2 was observed, but no association with other polymorphisms was found, This is the first study describing the expression of CD14 on, and TLR2 and 4 signalling in, primary human alveolar type (AT)II cells and ATI cells., Heat shock protein 10 of Chlamydophila pneumoniae induces proinflammatory cytokines through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in human monocytes THP-1, Mild-stretch MV increases lung expression of TLR2 and sensitizes the lung to bacterial TLR2 ligands; may account for the propensity of mechanically ventilated patients to develop acute lung injury in the context of airway bacterial colonization/infection, H. pylori activates calpain via TLR2 to disrupt gastric epithelial adherens junctions structure., 14-3-3 theta is a new and important regulatory protein in the TLR-2 and TLR-4 signaling suppressing the MyD88-dependent pathway, TIRAP and MyD88, which are known to be adaptor proteins for Toll-like receptor-2 and -4 (TLR2/4), bound to the phosphorylated RAGE and transduced a signal to downstream molecules, Variations of HBD-2 and TLR-2 gene expression in patients presenting with lichen ruber planus under effect of ultraviolet irradiation, infiltration of pathogens into the epidermis immediately enhanced tight junction function via TLR2 signaling, TLR-2, TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-9 were expressed in normal and preeclamptic placentas, in the trophoblast, at the vascular endothelium, and at placental villous stroma, although increased expression was detected in preeclampsia, found that TLR2 plays a critical role in the increase in Treg cells induced by Nef using TLR2-specific siRNA, Leishmania infection increased the expression of PKR and IFN-beta on induction of PKR-promoter activity. The observed effects required the engagement of TLR2., Increased mRNA expression of TLR2, MyD88, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in leukocytes of patients with childhood onset type 1 diabetes indicates the development of a TLR2-mediated pro-inflammatory process., Data show that TLR2 activation promotes angiogenesis, cell adhesion and invasion, effects that are in part mediated through the Tie2 signalling pathway, key mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of RA., TLR2, TLR4, and iNOS expression was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in C. trachomatis-positive women, than in controls., The TLR2 gene may play a role in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke., inhibition of signaling pathways of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 by ST2L, The TLR4/D299G, TLR4/T399I and TLR2/R753Q polymorphisms, were genotyped., A rare polymorphism in the gene for Toll-like receptor 2 is associated with systemic sclerosis phenotype and increases the production of inflammatory mediators., Increased TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression in patients with chronic cystic echinococcosis highly suggests the involvement of these Toll-like receptors in the recognition of E. granulosus pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)., Suggest that Gnia2 is involved in endothelial TLR pathways along a signaling cascade that is distinct from MyD88., Point mutations in TLR2 and TLR4 genes are associated with the presence of urogenital infections in the random population of the Poltava Region, Ukraine., After stimulation with agonists recognized by TLR1/2, IL-8 secretion by neonatal neutrophils (whether term or preterm) substantially exceeded that of adult neutrophils., C. butyricum activates TLR2-mediated MyD88-independent signaling pathway in human epithelial cells, TLR2 and TLR3 expression on cultured esophageal epithelial cells differs from TLR2 and TLR3 expression in esophageal biopsies, which is limited to immune cells during esophagitis., we propose that engagement of TLR2 is an important crossroad between encounter with bacteria and development of self-reactive diseases--{REVIEW}, The results showed that bradykinin stimulates Toll-like receptor 2 transcription and translation by activation of protein kinase C as well as proto-oncogene protein AKT., Data suggest that the -196 to -174 del/del genotype of Toll-like receptor 2 may increase risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease in a Northern Han Chinese population., TLR2 polymorphisms may play important roles in the process of H. pylori-related gastric carcinogenesis, a dominant role for TLR1/TLR2 heterodimers in the induction of the early inflammatory response by Borrelia spirochetes in humans, TLR2 agonist bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) significantly enhances proinflammatory cytokine release in response to monocyte or peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte stimulation by BLP., expression in renal tubules not increased in diabetic nephropathy, There is an association between nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization and genetic variation of MBL, TLR2 and TLR4 in young infants., study showed that coactivation of TLR4 and TLR2/6 coordinates an additive augmentation of IL-6 gene transcription via p38MAPK pathway in U937 mononuclear cells, Children with may have a distinct genotype and the TLR-2 single nucleotide polimorphism was prevalent in a subset of patients, TLR2 rs3804099 polymorphism is closely associated with susceptibility to gastric cancer., Systemic lupus erythematosus patients have altered IL-10 and TNF-alpha protein production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after activation of TLR-2, TLR-4, or TLR-9., The results showed that high levels of expression of TLR2 in patient with Guillain-Barre syndrome., Biglycan modulates cross-priming via the TLR2 and TLR4 pathways involving both MyD88 and TRIF adaptor pathways, triggering histocompatibility class II-mediated antigen presentation., TLR2 and TLR4 signaling may indirectly regulate hematopoiesis by modulating bone marrow-mesencymal stromal cells' functions., an important role for miR-19a/b in the regulation of IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinase 3 release by controlling TLR2 expression, fruit body of A. brasiliensis has some water-soluble TLR ligand complexes, and TLR2 on splenocytes strongly induces IL-6 production., TLR2 and TLR4 gene polymorphisms do not predispose to Acute anterior uveitis (AAU), undermining the implication of reported mutations in the selective perturbations of TLR expression and function evident in AAU., Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 is upregulated on peripheral blood monocytes of patients with psoriatic arthritiS., Monocytes from TB patients with cleaved caspase-9 and denaturalized cytochrome c are more susceptible to death via TLR2., Expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are markedly elevated in patients with late onset Alzheimer's disease., increased expression is associated with the biofilm formation in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, This study suggests that endothelial TLR2 may be an important regulator of neutrophil trafficking to sites of infection in general, and that direct activation of lung endothelial TLR2 may contribute to acute lung injury during sepsis., direct interaction between TLR2 and the aggregated 42-aa form of human Abeta (Abeta42); inhibition of TLR2 in microglia could be beneficial in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, TLR2 activation enhances HIV infection/nuclear import in resting CD4(+) T cells through both T cell activation-dependent and -independent mechanisms., demonstrate that respiratory epithelial cells respond to M. abscessus variants lacking GPL with expression of IL-8 and HbetaD2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this interaction is mediated through TLR2, homozygosity for TLR2 R753Q SNP is a marker for cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease risk, especially for tissue-invasive disease, after liver transplantation; this observation supports the critical role of TLR2 in the pathogenesis of CMV disease, No TLR2 polymorphisms were detected in Korean subjects., Findings suggest that TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88 or MAL/TIRAP genes are not involved as risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Colombian population., The study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of TLR2, implicated in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis., SNP1350T/C in TLR2 was less frequent in the acute myocardial infarction patients and in those with hypertension. Thus, SNP1350T/C in TLR2 might play a protective role against acute myocardial infarction and arterial hypertension., Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipase increases mononuclear cell IL-23, VEGF, TLR2/4 expression., Linkage disequilibrium regions of TLR2 do not show genetic associations with periodontitis in the North West European population, Women with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and histological chorioamniotis had higher amniotic fluid sTLR1, 2 and 6 levels., Plasmid-cured Chlamydia caviae activates TLR2-dependent signaling., the requirement of TLR2/MyD88/NF-kappaB pathway (first signal) and ROS/potassium efflux (second signal) for NLRP3/ASC inflammasome formation, leading to caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1beta release during RSV infection, TLR-dependent TRAF6-MKK3-p38 MAPK signaling pathway synergizes with PKCtheta;-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. CARMA1 plays a crucial role in mediating this synergistic effect via TRAF6., Sporothrix schenckii triggered an immune response through TLR2 and TLR4 pathways., Two synonymous SNPs in the exon of TLR2 were closely associated with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma decreased significantly in individuals carrying the heterozygous genotypes (C/T) of the rs3804099 and rs3804100, results suggested the low penetrance variant of TLR2 (-196 to -174 Del) to be at increased Prostate cancer risk in North Indian population, increased mRNA in hepatitis and cirrhosis, and decreased in hepatocarcinoma, TLR2 Delta22 polymorphism is associated with protection from cerebral malaria., The Phase II inflammation was responsible for vision-threatening opacity and was markedly suppressed by different means of inhibition of the HSPB4/TLR2/NF-kappaB axis., Toll-like receptor 2 expression was unchanged in the presence of hyaluronan in cord blood., study demonstrates a lack of association of TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms with asthma and allergic rhinitis but suggests significant association between these genetic variants and the disease severity, TLR2 (and several cytokines) were highly expressed in the salivary glands of primary Sjogren's syndrome patients but not in controls., TLR2 gene polymorphisms are associated with vitiligo susceptibility in Turkey., the presence of ligands for TLR2 of bacterial origin seems to be crucial for detoxication of luminal carcinogens by CYP1A1 in the intestine., All healthy controls and patients had wild-type allele for Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp TLR2 polymorphism., IL-17A is a critical factor in the increase in IL-8 expression resulting from TLR2- and TLR4-dependent activation in cystic fibrosis airway., NK cells stimulated by TLR2-activating HSV Ags can present Ag alone or augment the role of DCs in vitro and perhaps in herpetic lesions or draining lymph nodes., Data indicate that TLR2 -196 to -174 del and TLR4+896G may increase the risk of gastric cancer in a Brazilian population., The enhancement of IP-10 production upon stimulation with TLR2 ligands in cells replicating hepatitis C virus induced CD44 expression., Herpes simplex virus 1 glycoproteins gH/gL and gB bind Toll-like receptor 2 to activate NF-kappaB., These results suggest that Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans induces increased expression of TLR2, leading to phagocytosis and apoptosis of THP-1 cells via p38 activation and TNF-alpha production., TLR2 may influence the behaviour of the malignant clone in B-CLL., These observations identify Snapin as a novel endogenous TLR2 ligand in rheumatoid arthritis, and thus support a role for persistent TLR2 signalling in pathogenesis., No statistically significant difference were found between parkinson disease patients and control subsects for TR2-196 to174 del polymorphism genotype or alleles., Differential expression and functional regulation of TLR2 expression by dendritic cells from symptomatic and asymptomatic atopic donors may be important for the manifestation of allergic disease., findings show strong inhibitory effect of oxidized LDLs on TLR2 and TLR4 dependent production of interleukin-10, The -174 to -196del of TLR2 gene and Asp299Gly of TLR4 gene polymorphisms may confer an increased susceptibility to breast cancer development., Examined inflammation-inducing activity by lipoproteins of A. viscosus. Cytokine levels of oral epithelial cells and monocytoid cells in response to lipoproteins of A. viscosus were analyzed. Anti-Toll-like receptor 2 antibody blocked cytokine production., Our data indicate an involvement of periodontopathogens in increased plasma levels of soluble CD40L in periodontitis and therefore provide a novel link between periodontitis and increased risk for CVD., Data show that when added with Toll-like receptors TLR4 and TLR2 ligands, oxmLDL suppressed the expression and release of cytokines., Accordingly, the immune adjuvant activity of Fusobacterium nucleatum FomA is TLR2 dependent., Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptors 2, 4, and 9 are highly associated with hearing loss in survivors of bacterial meningitis., study demonstrated that MyD88-TIR directly binds to TLR2-TIR and two isolated sites in the MyD88-TIR mediate direct interactions with TLR2-TIR, Report induction of VEGF and MMP-9 expression by toll-like receptor 2/4 in human endothelial cells infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae., study newly identifies ERK5 as a key regulator of TLR2 signaling in EC and monocytes and indicates that there are fundamental differences in TLR signaling pathways between EC and monocytes, TLR2 augmentation on CD14+ monocytes might be an inflammatory marker for both human Kawasaki disease patients and LCWE-induced coronary arteritis mouse model, These observations support the notion that gp96 plays a role as an endogenous TLR-2 ligand in rheumatoid arthritis and identify the TLR-2 pathway as a therapeutic target., These data demonstrate that TOLLIP has an anti-inflammatory effect on TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in humans, sTLR2 in BM may be critical to infant health and prove beneficial in decreasing vertical HIV-1 transmission to infants., Data indicate that TLR2 and TLR4 ligands can downregulate CD36 on the surface of monocytes, guiding the protein to intracellular compartments., TLR2 silencing may worth further investigations for siRNA based gene therapy in treatment of hepatocarcinoma, By using chimeric recombinant PorB loop mutants in which surface-exposed loop residues have been switched between N. lactamica PorB and N. meningitidis PorB, this study identified residues that influence TLR2-dependent cell activation., This work thus shows a re-localization of TLR 1 and 2 expression sites with decreased grade of expression in lichen planu lesions., M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis (Mtb complex) could enhance susceptibility of CD4+ cells to HIV infection, NOD1 might function as an alternative costimulatory receptor in CD8 T cells, An association found between naturally occurring polymorphisms in the human gene for TLR2 and the severity and recurrent infections of HSV-2 genital lesions. (Review), L. interrogans secretes many hemolysins that function as powerful inducers of proinflammatory cytokines through both TLR2-and TLR4-dependent JNK and NF-kappaB pathways., SNPs in TLR2 and TLR4 are associated with the level and decline of lung function as well as with inflammatory cell numbers in induced sputum in COPD, In vitro, OmpA+ Escherichia coli infection selectively upregulates Ecgp96 and TLR2 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), whereas OmpA- E. coli upregulates TLR4 in these cells., Toll-like receptor 2, TLR4, and TLR9 mRNA transcripts and protein expression are increased in all subtypes of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies., Extracellular soluble biglycan induces the expression of BMP-2 and ALP in human aortic valve interstitial cells primarily via TLR2 and contributes to the proosteogenic effect of oxLDL., Data indicate that R753Q TLR2 showed impaired tyrosine phosphorylation, dimerization with TLR6 and MyD88 recruitment., TLR1, TLR2 and NOD2 were the main pattern recognition receptors responsible for recognition of B. fragilis, Functional Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms significantly alter the risk to have colorectal cancer., these data suggest that high glucose stimulates TNF-alpha and IL-1beta secretion via inducing TLR2 through PKC-alpha and PKC-delta in human gingival fibroblasts., Irritable bowel syndrome-Mixed subgroup patients display a significant up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 in the colonic mucosa., A high simvastatin dose or the combination of a low-dose simvastatin with ezetimibe reduce to a similar extent TLR2, TLR4 membrane expression and LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-1beta production in monocytes of hypercholesterolemic patients., Inactivation of mucA (the gene responsible for the mucoid phenotype) in PAO1 leads to p38alpha MAPK activation by both TLR2 and TLR5, as observed in the cystic fibrosis clinical mucoid isolate PACF508., show that STAT3 directly upregulates the epithelial expression of the inflammatory mediator Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 in gastric tumors, Increased protein expression of TLR2 was found on monocytes of HCV infected patients independent of fibrosis stage and co-infection with HIV., expression on monocytes up-regulated during the early period after a major abdominal surgical operation, In conclusion, our data suggests that TLR2 Arg677Trp or Arg753Gln, TLR4 Asp299Gly or Thr399Ile and TLR9-1237T/C polymorphisms and TLR9-1486T/C polymorphism may not be a marker in for susceptibility to type 2 diabetes or coronary artery disease., Amniotic fluid soluble Toll-like receptor 2 is a promising predictor of both microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and histological chorioamnionitis with high specificity in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes, The induction of TLR2-dependent interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-6 secretion in vitro., A mathematical model is proposed of CR3/TLR2 signaling in response to F.tularensis, and the model confirms that phagocytosis-associated changes in the cell membrane can inhibit ERK activity and predicts that Akt and Ras-GAP synergize to inhibit ERK., The allele frequencies of two SNPs(rs3804099 and rs3804100)of Toll-like receptor 2 is showed significant associations with location of papillary thyroid cancer., TLR2 polymorphism is presumably absent in the malaria endemic regions of India., This study analysis revealed up-regulation of CD14, CD18, CD45, TLR2, TLR4, CD74, C1q, C3, CCL2, and down-regulation of CD36, CX3CR1, CX3CL1 and CD200 in postmenopausal women, The results suggest that TLR2/4 expression in MDMs from active BD patients is significantly increased., TLR-2 receptor and its related inflammatory cytokines could be potential therapeutic targets in managing insulin resistance in rheumatoid arthritis patients, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activates distinct signaling pathways in human T cells and suggest that alterations in expression of TLR2 co-receptors may contribute to aberrant T cell responses., TLR2 activation enhances skin barrier in murine and human skin and is an important part of a wound repair response., Data suggest that elevated TLR2 expression in peripheral mononuclear cells, as well as higher fasting glucose and lower compensation for increased insulin resistance, may represent early metabolic disturbances in development of gestational diabetes., the type 1 pneumococcal pilus can activate cells via TLR2, and the ancillary pilus subunit RrgA is a key component of this activation, TLR4 gene Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile and TLR2 gene Arg753Gln, Arg677Trp polymorphisms may not be associated with IBD in the Zhuang population from the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China, TLR2 polymorphisms are protective of airway disease in individuals exposed to gram-positive organisms in the inhaled airborne dust., Compared to white women, African American women with clinically suspected pelvic inflammatory disease were more likely to carry variants in the TLR1, TLR2, and TIRAP genes., This study first confirms that fatty acids do not activate TLR2 and TLR4., Ultraviolet radiation also upregulated mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB/p65 expression via Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4, and upregulated interferon regulatory factor-3 expression, The relationship of polymorphisms TLR2 (rs5743708) and TLR4 (rs4986790) with increased production of specific IgE in patients with allergic diseases was observed., Two polymorphisms located in the TLR2 gene and two located in the TLR4 gene have been genotyped in 201 unrelated individuals from Saudi Arabia., Patients with favourable prognosis had more than 3-fold higher soluble TLR2 level in pleural fluid early., Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 were strongly expressed in chronic otitis media and middle ear cholesteatoma., N-butyrate massively induces PGE(2) production by increasing the expression of PTGS2 (COX-2) in monocytes following TLR4 and TLR2 activation and induces secretion of LTB(4) and thromboxane B(2)., Expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 in polymorphonuclear neutrophils and the TLR-induced activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was comparable in granulomatosis with polyangiitis and healthy controls., blood monocytes of preterm newborns display rapid increase in TLR2 and TLR4 expression during the first few months of life, whereas LPS-induced cytokine production functionality did not improve in parallel., Structural genetic variants of the receptors TLR2 and TLR4 do not substantially affect the risk of prosthetic joint infection, Results indicate that the induction of MCP-2/CCL8 by mycobacteria is dependent on the activation of TLR2/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway., Of the seven SNPs studied, the TLR2 T-16934A increased the risk, the TLR9 T-1486C SNPs may decrease the risk, and TLR4 variation seemed unrelated to outcome., Human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 independently deliver triacylated lipoproteins to Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) and TLR2 and enhance formation of the ternary signaling complex, C. concisus infection in HT-29 cells did not affect the expression of TLR2 and TLR5., Extracellular alpha-synuclein released from neuronal cells is an endogenous agonist for Toll-like receptor 2., Human herpesvirus 1 US3 is necessary and sufficient for inhibiting TLR2 signaling at or before the stage of TRAF6 ubiquitination., The genetic variant in TLR-2 (rs3804100, T1350C) may protect the host from severe urinary tract infections as acute lobar nephronia., calcium-binding cluster of LipL32 plays essential roles in presumably sustaining LipL32 conformation for its proper association with TLR2 to elicit inflammatory responses in human renal cells., Liver expression of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR7, which are more involved in the immune-pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C, was investigated., TLR2 activation can positively modulate FcgammaR, Colonies of bacteria were identified in the majority of lesions, and this correlated with the cellular expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in all lesions, Studied if SNPs in TLR 2, 4 and 5 affect susceptibility of L. pneumophila infection in a Han Chinese population by in vitro assay. 54 healthy subjects were genotyped for TLR SNPs. PBMCs from these subjects and stimulated with live L. pneumophila for 24 h., TLR2 down-regulates FcepsilonRI and its transcription factor PU.1 in human Langerhans cells., Combined TLR2/4-activated dendritic/tumor cell fusions induce augmented cytotoxic T lymphocytes., based on our ethnic Chinese case-control study and meta-analysis, TLR2 -196 to -174del, TLR4 Asp299Gly, TLR4 rs11536889 and CD14 -260 C/T polymorphisms appear to play an important role in the development of gastric cancer., While interaction of TLR2 with mycobacterial cell wall promotes activation of resting NK cells and IFN-gamma production, NKp44 interaction with its putative ligands could play a secondary role in maintaining cell activation, Lgr4/Gpr48 plays a critical role in modulating the TLR2/4 signaling pathway and represents a useful therapeutic approach of targeting Lgr4/Gpr48 in TLR2/4-associated septic shock and autoimmune diseases., Cell activation by Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum seem to require lipid raft function and formation of heterotypic receptor complexes comprising of TLR2 and TLR6 on the cell surface and TLR9 intracellularly., Hepatitis B virus increases LDLR and HMGCoAr expression, resulting in exacerbated cholesterol accumulation in HepG2 cells, which was mediated via the TLR2 pathway., pression and MMP-9 levels were significant independent contributors to the proportion of sputum neutrophils in COPD after adjustment for age, prior smoking, and the presence of airflow obstruction., Toll-like receptor-2 ligation did not enhance NLRP3 or caspase-1 expression., HMGB1 is crucial for DNA-containing ICs to induce anti-dsDNA Ab production; HMGB1 acts through the TLR2-mediated and MyD88-dependent miR-155/Ets-1 pathway., allele and genotype that includes longer (L) GT repeats in Intron2 of TLR2 gene with associated high IL-10 levels might act as a marker for susceptibility to leprosy., The 663leucine and 688aspragine residues outside of the BB loop are essential for the responsiveness of TLR2/2, TLR2/1 and TLR2/6, but the 681proline residue inside of the BB loop exhibits divergent roles in TLR2/2, TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 signal transduction., Maltoheptaose, isolated from wheatgrass oligosaccharides, activated monocytes via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) signaling., role of miR-146a in the TLR2 signaling, In Bcap-37 cells, S.aureus exposure could up-regulate the expression of TLR2 at both mRNA and protein levels, increase the production of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, and stimulate the expression of NF-kappaB., TLR2 gene polymorphisms might not be related to the increased risk of schizophrenia in the Korean population. we demonstrated a significant association between TLR2 gene polymorphisms and clinical symptoms especially poor concentration in schizophrenia, Alpha-nac is a potent inducer of a Th1 response via IL12 nad TLR2., NF-kB cytoplasmatic expression and its nuclear translocation are associated with an increased TLR-2 expression., Disordered Toll-like receptor 2 responses in the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis., The expression of CD11b, TLR4 and TLR2 is increased in monocyte-derived macrophages in IQ memory-discrepant individuals., These data define a mechanism through which AP-2alpha acetylation and increased promoter access induce the expression of the TLR2 gene., melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 and interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene 56 positively regulate the LPS-induced expression of a chemokine CXCL10, TLR2-mediated activation may play a role in HIV infection-associated B-cell activation, potentially contributing to the genesis of AIDS-NHL., methylation is associated with periodontitis, These findings indicate that TLR2-centered signaling is deregulated in MDS, and that its targeting may have potential therapeutic benefit in MDS., Biologically relevant levels of mixed AFs elicited early immune modulation in human PBMCs. qRT-PCR results showed several folds increase of MyD88, TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 transcripts in PBMCs, interaction of Dectin-1 with TLR2 seemed to require that both receptors are from the same species stop, Although no association with oral cancer risk was detected for individual SNPs in TLR2 and CD14 genes, GMDR analyses revealed significant interaction among these genes for oral cancer occurrence., Mycobacterium tuberculosis recombinant DATIN interacted with TLR2 expressed by HEK293 cells., Polymorphism of TLR4 gene rather than of TLR2 gene associates with severe and complicated course of atopic dermatitis in children., data suggest that 597T/C polymorphism, but not Arg677Trp polymorphism, of the TLR-2 gene is a risk factor for susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in a sample of Iranian population., It plays a role in the inflammation-associated liver cancer development.(review), miR-1915 and miR-1225-5p regulated the expression of important markers of renal progenitors, such as CD133 and PAX2, and important genes involved in the repair mechanisms of adult renal progenitor cells, such as TLR2., analysis of the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in brain injury caused by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion [review], The regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 by miR-143 suppresses the invasion and migration of a subset of human colorectal carcinoma cells., expression of toll-like receptor-2 and cytokine profile are affected by vitamin D deficiency, TLR-2 polymorphisms may have some association with congenital CMV infection, although the mechanism underlying this effect remains to be clarified., A markedly higher expression at the mRNA and protein level of TLR2 was observed in active BD patients as compared with controls., elevated expression of unusual splice variants in Behcet's disease, Upregulation of TLR2 and TLR3 may be associated with the pathogenesis of wet age-related macular degeneration., findings suggest that hyaluronic acid fragments may have the potential to mediate Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and discogenic back pain through activation of the TLR2 signaling pathway in resident IVD cells., the mean relative gene expression and difference membrane expression of TLR2 in macrophages of patients with healing form of lesion were significantly higher than patients with non-healing form of lesion respectively, TLR2 Arg753Gln is single-nucleotide polymorphism that may modulate its activities, was assessed in scrub typhus patients and found related to disease susceptibility., These findings indicate that polymorphisms in TLR-2 may play a role, although modest, in cancer development., Results revealed that the Toll-like receptor 2(-196 to -174del) polymorphism may increase the susceptibility to tuberculosis in healthy population of Pakistan., TLR2 activation and secretion of IL-1alpha from keratinocytes may be initiating steps in comedogenesis and, therefore, critical to the pathophysiology of acne., Using a Caco-2 cell model the study showed that TLR2 and TFF3 inhibit the IL-1beta induced increase in permeability and release of proinflammatory cytokines, and that this effect is mediated by activation of PI3K/Akt signaling., These results suggest that the activation of TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 might affect intestinal inflammation., The analysis of TLR2 gene polymorphisms showed no significant association upon fungal keratitis susceptibilities of Chinese Han population., HSV2 is detected by a plethora of PRRs, G2258A polymorphism not associated with severity of bronchiolitis or risk of postbronchiolitis wheezing, VB-201 may counter inflammation where TLR-2 and/or CD14 complicity is essential, and is therefore beneficial for the treatment of atherosclerosis., Data show that Lactobacillus crispatus promotes epithelial cell defense against Candida albicans infection through the involvement of TLR2/4, IL-8 and human beta-defensin 2 and 3, suggesting this Lactobacillus as an anti-infective agent against C. albicans., TLR2 2258G allele may provide protective effects against PTB susceptibility, particularly among Asians, whereas TLR2 T597C polymorphism might not be associated with PTB susceptibility., multiple miRs are involved in the molecular regulation of TLR2-mediated responses in the trophoblast towards gram-positive bacterial components, Genetical variations in the innate immune system by polymorphisms in the TLR2 could be related with an increases susceptibility to severe invasive infections by S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis, Triggering the TLR2/1 complex with Pam3CSK4 initiates human platelet activation by engaging tyrosine kinases of the src family and Syk, the adaptor protein LAT, as well as the key mediator PLCgamma2., The toll-like receptor 2 is a direct target of miR-154 in colorectal cancer cells., This study provides evidence that the TLR2 gene is involved in the susceptibility to ocular Behcet's disease., Taken together, these results suggest that Rothia dentocariosa induces host TNF-alpha production by a TLR2-dependent mechanism., Data indicate that ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is negatively involved in the toll-like receptorS TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathway by the inhibition of TAK1 (MAP3K7) activity., Data show that IL-29 enhances Il-6 and Il-8 proinflammatory cytokines production in the synovial fibroblasts from rheumatoid arthritis via upregulation of Toll-like receptors TLR2, 3 and 4., The absence of TLR2 on cKit(+) bone marrow cells is associated with augmented potency to support angiogenic processes in vitro and in vivo., This study provides data on the baseline expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the largest cohort of children from birth to 18 years. There was no significant gender difference in TLR2 expression; however basal TLR4 expression was higher in boys., enhanced number of blood leucocytes, the expression of the receptors TLR-2, TLR-4 and dectin-1 on blood monocytes was significantly enhanced in exposed subjects., Wnt5a, TLR2 and TLR4 are elevated in advanced human atherosclerotic lesions., TLR2 and TLR4 have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. (Review), the activation of inflammatory cascades by RPR206252 is dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), the natural sensor of bacterial lipopeptides and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), Two common SNPs of the TLR2 and TLR4 genes--Arg753Gln and Asp299Gly--were associated with a shorter time-to-onset of severe sepsis or septic shock in patients admitted to the ICU, absence of TLR2 signalling abrogates infarct-sparing effects of HMGB1 blockade., There is an association of TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms with risk of cancer. (Meta-analysis), TLR dependent XBP-1 activation induces an autocrine loop in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes., MBL could directly bind to PMA-activated THP-1 cells in the presence of Ca(2+), and this binding decreased TLR2 and TLR4 expressions in C. albicans-induced THP-1 macrophages., These results suggest that TLR2/1 signaling and S1P cooperate in pro-inflammatory cytokine production and myofibroblast differentiation and promote cell migration of skin fibroblast, Toll-like receptor 9 signaling delays neutrophil apoptosis by increasing transcription of Mcl-1., Data suggest that binding of MAM to HLA-DR leads to a conformational change in MAM structure allowing its interaction with TLR2 and TLR4 and a better recognition by T cells., TLR2 is a new estrogen-regulated gene, In the genetic association analysis, polymorphisms in TLR1 (S248N and R80T), TLR2 (P631H), and TLR6 (P249S) were associated with an increased susceptibility to complicated skin and skin structure infections., Leishmania mexicana Lipophosphoglycan (LPG)binds TLR2 and TLR4 receptors in human macrophages, leading to ERK and MAP kinase phosphorylation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines., TLR2 signaling may mediate pro-inflammatory response in hemodialysis patients with acute coronary syndrome, Methylation of seven CpGs in the promoter region of TLR2 was significantly lower in type 2 diabetics compared to obese subjects and lean controls., Suggest platelets contribute to the effects of human cytomegalovirus in accelerating atherosclerosis in TLR2 dependent manner., anti-tuberculosis treatment modulates the immune response, inducing an increase in the expression of TLR2 and TLR4, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines to combat bacteria and reduce the inflammatory process, TLR2 gene variation is associated with thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus, particularly among African Americans and European Americans., Bifidobacterium species induce TLR2/6 activity, TLR2 agonists with potential to be included in novel tuberculosis vaccines are also discussed., TLR2 and its co-receptors, TLR1 and TLR6, contribute to the pathogenicity of aPLA; aPLA are internalized via clathrin- and CD14-dependent endocytosis; and endocytosis is required for NF-kappaB activation, Our study suggests that upregulation of TLR2 is involved in the induction of defense mechanism against human papillomavirus and molluscum contagiosum virus, TLR2 expression is shifted to lower layers, and TLR4 is shifted to upper layers in diseased skin with atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis and psoriasis compared to control skin, MiR-146a as a regulatory element in keratinocyte innate immunity, which prevents the production of inflammatory mediators under homeostatic conditions and serves as a potent negative feedback regulator after TLR2 stimulation., TLR2 and TLR4 interaction and a specific vitamin D receptor haplotype influence protection against pulmonary tuberculosis in Moroccan patients., TLR2 is required for the suppression of TLR4 signaling activation., TLR2 overexpression is associated with glioma., Suggest decreasing cell migration and exacerbation of inflammation via novel crosstalk between the ADRB2/TLR2 pathways in mesenchymal stem cells and keratinocytes., Differently, costimulation of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR7/8 enhances IL-1beta secretion but severely inhibits IL-1Ra production., the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 was dysregulated in kidneys of patients with AAV. The expression of TLR-4 in glomeruli was associated with severity of renal injury of patients with AAV., Data suggest that beta2->1-fructans (dietary carbohydrates that can act as protective/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents) are specific ligands for TLR2 and protect integrity of intestinal barrier from damage by directly binding to TLR2., TLR2 may participate in the progression and metastasis of human gastric carcinoma., High expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 9 and Th1/Th2 cytokines profile in obese asthmatic children., the wild-type TLR2 genotype was associated with an increased risk of CMV infection and that heterozygosity for TLR2 and TLR4 SNPs diminished the risk of CMV infection in adult patients. An association between CMV load and the TLR4 SNP was found., Data indicate that invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD) induces B cell apoptosis via interaction with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)., IRF6 also contributes to host defense by providing specificity to the regulation of inflammatory chemokine expression by TLR2 in epithelial cells., data suggest the potential role of TLR2 genetic variants in the pathogen-mediated susceptibility to BD, Attenuated TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 in middle ear mucosa contribute to susceptibility of chronic suppurative otitis media., TLR2 is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and noninflammatory acne lesions., No statistical difference in TLR2 genotype was found between B cell lymphoma patients and controls in Egyptians., The myocardium releases HSP27 after global ischemia, TLR2 (a G-->A mutation at position 2258), polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of both laboratory- and clinically-defined neurosyphilis., Porphyromonas gingivalis induces C5aR-TLR2 coassociation in neutrophils., This study demonstrates that ionizing radiation modulates ligand-responsive TLR expression through the JNK pathway, depending on differentiation state., Novel polymorphisms in TLR2, TLR4, MD-2, LBP, CD14 and TIRAP, genes encoding important molecules of the TLR signaling pathway, showed clear associations with H. pylori-related gastric cancer in Chinese., we demonstrated that TLR2-siRNA could effectively inhibit the growth, migration, and invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, Our results showed that the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 proteins in the patients group was significantly higher than that of healthy controls. TLR-2 but not TLR-4 was correlated with expanded disability status scale (EDSS)., TLR-mediated inflammatory response to neonatal pathogens is differentially regulated by different pathogens., Data indicate that the expression of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) decreases and that of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) protein increases in patients with chronic urticaria (CU)., Results indicate the relative contributions of toll-like receptors TLR4 and TLR2 activation by Shigella generalized modules for membrane antigens (GMMA)., Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency impairs microglial phagocytosis of degenerating axons., TLR-2 and TLR-4 play a role in mediating vascular abnormalities in patients with primary arterial antiphospholipid syndrome., TLR2- and TLR5-triggered integrin activation in leukocytes required enhanced Rap1 GTPase activity, which was mediated by Rac1 activation and NADPH oxidase-2-dependent reactive oxygen species production., Lactoferrin may suppress the Epstein-Barr virus-induced inflammatory response through interfering with the activation of TLR2 and TLR9., These results suggest that the activity of dialyzable leukocyte extracts could be attributed to TLR-2 activation on monocytes and to the induction of a pro-inflammatory environment., Elevated expression of TLR2 is a key requisite for IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha mediated caspase 8 up-regulation, data suggest that leukocyte responses to bacterial lipoproteins are required for TLR2- and IL-1R-associated kinase-4-mediated inflammatory responses to S. pneumoniae., TLR-4 might play a more important role than TLR-2 in atherogenesis, especially in acute coronary syndrome., Activation of TLR2 in airway remodeling results in induction of the expression of TGF-alpha, EREG, and AREG mRNA among the EGFR ligand family, and also activates EGFR signaling., We conclude that rs3804100 of TLR2 predisposes to microscopic polyangiitis in northern Han Chinese., findings provide the first evidence that FSL-1 induces TLR-2-dependent MMP-9 gene expression which requires the recruitment of MyD88 and leads to activation of MEK1/2 /ERK 1/2, MEK5/ERK5, JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB/AP-1, changes in the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 genes do not appear to be involved in triggering familial Mediterranean fever attacks, Increased risk of influenza for people with Arg753Gln TLR-2 genotype, Analysis of mRNA expression revealed significantly elevated levels of mRNA encoding TLR2 (P = 0.0006) and TLR4 (P = 0.0084) in pretreatment splenic aspirate samples from patients with visceral leishmaniasis, compared to post-treatment samples, but no change in expression of TLR9 (P = 0.43), Elevated concentration of TLR-2 in ECC group compared to caries free group and its decrease after treatment point to the participation of innate immune system and specially TLR-2 in the pathogenesis of early childhood caries., Data indicate that the miR-143 expression was low in hepatic carcinoma and its over-expression could down-regulate the expressions of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)., Data indicate that expression levels of toll-like receptors TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 were positively correlated, and bore close correlation with the disease activity index (DAI), colonoscopic and histologic grades and fecal microbial flora., The elevated expressions of TLR2/4 on dendritic cell surfaces in peripheral blood may synergistically promote the disease progression of chronic HBV infection., we report lack of association between both TLR 2 (-196 to -174 del) and TLR9 (2848 G>A) polymorphisms and cervical cancer development and suggest that TLR2 and TLR9 may not impact cervical cancer pathogenesis., beta3-integrin participates by signaling through Y residues located in the C-tail, known to be involved in signaling activity. alphavbeta3-integrin boosts the MYD88-dependent TLR2 signaling and IRAK4 phosphorylation, mRNA expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the patients with acute pancreatitis and showed a decrease in the examined parameters associated with lornoxicam treatment., Decreased TLR-2 expression was associated with the occurrence of SIRS and pneumonia, suggesting a role in the cause of postoperative inflammatory conditions., The value of soluble TLR2 and soluble TLR4 levels for discrimination between infections and non-infectious inflammatory diseases, as well as between viral and bacterial infections was analyzed., The role of TLR4 and TLR2 polymorphisms in the development and maintenance of chronic hepatitis C infection is reported., Polymorphisms of TLR2 or TLR4 are associated with the risk of developing sepsis and pneumonia in acute myeloid leukemia patients who received intensive induction chemotherapy as first-line treatment., Transmembrane oligomeric form of Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) triggers TLR2/TLR6-dependent proinflammatory responses in monocytes and macrophages., The TLR2 and TLR4 expression in healthy mouse and rat kidneys was analyzed and compared with human kidneys., MMP-2 polarizes T cells toward type 2 responses in vivo, in a TLR2-dependent manner., Prevailing endemic infections in the Indian subcontinent may have exerted a selection pressure resulting in TLR2 gene remaining monomorphic and the TLR9 adapting to a mutation for its increased expression., These findings suggest that the upregulation of TLR2 and TLR4 in the lower FRT may play a key role in the modulation of the innate immune and inflammatory mechanisms of the ectocervix during pregnancy, TLR2, TLR4 and CD86 gene polymorphisms are associated with Recurrent aphthous stomatitis., Polymorphism of TLR2 3' untranslated region is related to rheumatic heart disease by up-regulating TLR2 expression., our data demonstrated that TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Asp299Gly gene variants were not risk factors for asthma or its features in Iranian patients, the mechanisms involved in regulating the availability of soluble TLR2 ectodomain and cell surface receptors, Data suggest that down-regulation of TLR2 expression in foot ulcers in type 2 diabetes patients compared to foot ulcers in non-diabetic patients prevents wound healing; however, expression of TLR2 mRNA increases with severity of diabetic foot ulcers., Based on our results the common genetic variants of the TLR4 gene are not an important determinant of coronary artery disease, however, the TLR2-Arg753Arg genotype was associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease., expression is increased in fetal part of the placenta in Iranian women with preeclampsia, Complex interactions exist between TLR2 and NOD2 in human corneal epithelial cells inflammatory response against A. fumigatus infection., These results clarify the importance of TLR2/1 and FcgammaRII in platelet adhesion and activation, and strengthen the role of platelets as an active player in sensing bacterial infections., MAMs MUC1 and MUC16 contribute to the maintenance of immune homeostasis at the ocular surface by limiting TLR-mediated innate immune responses., TLR2 acts as a central regulator of xenobiotic defense, Helicobacter bizzozeronii lipopolysaccharides is shown to activate the TLR2 in a dose and strain dependent manner in the in vitro HEK-293 cells model expressing TLR2, but not the cells expressing TLR4., OSA patients had increased TLR2/6 co-expressions on blood immune cells, which were related to their immune cell counts and could be reversed with CPAP treatment. In vitro IHR could induce TLR2/6 co-upregulation., G2258A genotype associated with elevated risk of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin osteitis following infant vaccination, Hyperglycemia induces TLR-2 and TLR-4 activation and downstream signaling mediating increased inflammation possibly via reactive oxygen species and could contribute to diabetic retinopathy., Rv2660c was able to stimulate human macrophages to provoke the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by interacting with TLR2 signaling, High mRNA expression of TLR2 is associated with acute myeloid leukemia., Constitutive IL-19 expression was present in both PBMCs and SFMCs and the secretion of IL-19 was increased by TLR-2 and TLR-4 ligands., HMGB1 plays an important role in LTA-mediated inflammation by binding to and transferring LTA to CD14, which is subsequently transferred to TLR2 to induce an inflammatory response., Odontogenic phlegmon is associated with polymorphic variant 896A/G of gene TLR4, but not with 2258G/A of gene TLR2., selective engagement of dendritic cell-SIGN resulting in intracellular persistence in myeloid dendritic cells; however TLR2 activation can overcome autophagy evasion and pathogen persistence in dendritic cells, Galectin-3 knockdown inhibited TLR-2, -3 and -4-induced IL-6 secretion, but not TLR-2, -3 and -4-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-3 or CC chemokine ligand-5 secretion., Data suggest that both Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4 participate in the modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide production in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients., TLR2- and TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses have a role in platelets and platelet inhibition and are affected by ticagrelor, A novel mechanism for inducing CXCL10 production directly from melanoma cells, with TLR2/6 agonists +IFNgamma., Data suggest that the TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR1 Ile602Ser SNPs influence the risk of developing leptospirosis and its severity., The negative effects of childhood sexual abuse on age at onset of ar disorder may be amplified in TLR2 rs3804099 risk genotype carriers through immune-mediated pathways., no association between genetic polymorphism the hyper-IgE syndrome phenotype, Data show that TLR2 is a functional receptor expressed in human HNSCC that plays a direct pro-tumorigenic role., TLR 2, 4, 5, 7 and 9 appear to reflect certain clinicopathological variables and prognostic markers of MCC tumors, data provide proof of principle that targeting the BB loop pocket is an effective approach for identification of TLR2 signaling inhibitors., The use of lornoxicam at the onset of acute pancreatitis decreased TLR2 and TLR4 expression and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, thereby reducing the risk of systemic complications and mortality., TLR2-MyD88 signaling pathway may take part in the overexpression of miR-146a in monocytes stimulated with HCV core protein, Cytosolic phospholipase A2 modulates TLR2 signaling in synoviocytes., The SNP Arg753Gln was not associated with juvenile spondyloarthritis or juvenile idiopathic arthritis., The tumor-suppressive function of Hic1 in colon is related to its inhibitory action on proproliferative signaling mediated by the Tlr2 receptor present on tumor cells., Data suggest that toll-like receptors, both TLR2 and TLR4, play roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications such as diabetic nephropathy. [EDITORIAL; review-like article], TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in the pathogenesis of the Guillain-Barre syndrome., Data suggest that TLR2 is down-regulated by microRNA-UL112-3p from human Cytomegalovirus; microRNA-UL112-3p also down-regulates TLR2-induced post-translational activation of IRAK1 (interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase 1) signaling., expression and activity of TLR2 and 4 in peripheral blood monocytes as well as B cells in in type-2 diabetic subjects; surface expression of TLR2 and 4 was significantly reduced in B cells of the newly diagnosed type-2 diabetic subjects and was associated with decreased cellular activation and cytokine secretion, Activation of MyD88-dependent TLR1/2 signaling by misfolded alpha-synuclein, a protein linked to neurodegenerative disorders., In chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, patients with severe epithelial damage had a significantly higher expression of TLR2 than patients with mild epithelial damage. Was also related to neutrophil infiltration., Down-Regulation of miR-101 Contributes to Rheumatic Heart Disease Through Up-Regulating TLR2., Polymorphisms within TLR2 are not associated with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Asians., Incidence of Arg753Gln polymorphism was higher in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media. Middle ear expression of TLR2 was increased in suppurative OM patients compared to controls., TLR2 activation induces migrational and invasive mechanisms, which are critically involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, This study showed that keratinocyte nicotinic acetylcholine receptors activation dampens TLR2-mediated migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine and antimicrobial peptide production., Increased expression of TLR2 contributes to immune reactivity and promotes IL-17A and IL-17F expression through histone modifications in systemic lupus erythematosus., Pellino-1 ablation in THP-1 cells impairs induction of MyD88, and TRIF-dependent cytokine genes in response to TLR4 and TLR2 activation., TLR2 has a role in the synergistic effect of M. tuberculosis and HIV-1, and their antigens Rv3416 and Nef, respectively, in inhibiting apoptosis of macrophages, TLR2-196 to -174del polymorphism increases TLR2 mRNA expression and is associated with higher CRC risk, indicating an important role in CRC genetic susceptibility., The results obtained may be indicative of an important role of TLR2 and TLR4 in the development of endometrioid ectopia and should be considered while treating infertility in women with endometriosis., females carrying 22 base-pair deletion in the promoter region of their TLR2 gene had two times increased risk of breast cancer when they also carry proline allele at codon 72 of their TP53 gene., Asthmatic children showed an increase in dendritic cell TLR2 levels post Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection., A translational study confirmed that TLR2 is up-regulated in airway epithelium of those with alcohol use disorders., Our meta-analysis provides evidence that the TLR2 gene Arg753Gln polymorphism is a risk factor to TB, especially in Asian populations, Dengue virus NS1 protein is the viral protein responsible for the activation of TLR2 and TLR6 during Dengue virus infection, TLR3 and TLR4 But not TLR2 are Involved in Vogt-Koyanagi- Harada Disease by Triggering Proinflammatory Cytokines Production Through Promoting the Production of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species, Whole-body vibration improves the anti-inflammatory status in elderly subjects through toll-like receptor 2 and 4 signaling pathways., We indeed show that they activate TLR2 and the downstream NF-kappaB signalling pathway, which leads to the synthesis of pro-IL-1b and NLRP3, but also to the secretion of many pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-a., Serum amyloid A1alpha induces paracrine IL-8/CXCL8 via TLR2 and directly synergizes with this chemokine via CXCR2 and formyl peptide receptor 2 to recruit neutrophils., Alpha-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Suppresses TLR2-Mediated Functional Responses through IRAK-M in Normal Human Keratinocytes, Pellino-3 is involved in endotoxin tolerance and functions as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 2/4 signaling., Associations between non-missense polymorphisms located in the regulatory regions of TLR4 and TLR2 genes and the risk of T2DM in a southern Chinese population. [meta-analysis], MTBRa activates TLR2/ERK signalings to induce TNF-alpha and elicit MMP-1 and MMP-9 in human PMCs, which are associated with effusion volume and pleural fibrosis and may contribute to pathogenesis of TBP., The role of TLR-2 in systemic lupus erythematosus and periodontal disease (review), Altogether, our experiments suggest that histone induces TF expression in ECs via cell surface receptors TLR4 and TLR2, simultaneously depending on the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1., In the present study, no association of TLR2 polymorphisms with end stage renal disease patients on peritoneal dialysis was observed., TLR2 and TLR4 gene expression is upregulated when total cholesterol (TC) levels are increased, Triglyceride (TG) levels are increased, or TC and TG are increased., TLR-2 overexpression led to enhanced matrix metalloproteinase production in chondrocytes., This study shows that both TLR2 and TLR9 genes and single nucleotide polymorphism combinations do influence the clinical course of Chlamydia infections., expression pattern of TLR2 and TLR9 does not vary greatly from normal to precancerous lesions, Data show that sterile alpha- and armadillo-motif-containing protein (SARM) modulates MyD88 protein-mediated Toll-like receptors (TLRs) activation through BB-loop dependent interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) TIR-TIR interactions., a direct effect of the TLR2 Arg753Gln polymorphism on sepsis risk, especially in Europeans(Meta-Analysis), Meta-analysis/Review, Argon treatment was accompanied with a significant reduction of TLR2 and TLR4 receptor density and protein expression., Median levels of TLR2 mRNA in alveolar echinococcosis and cystic echinococcosis groups were significantly elevated as compared with that in healthy control group, PRG4 binds to TLR2 and TLR4 and this binding mediates a novel anti-inflammatory role for PRG4, Data suggest that activation of TLR2 (here, using TLR2 ligand peptidoglycan) directly increases NGF gene expression and protein levels in cells isolated from intervertebral discs (nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus) obtained from tissue donors., significantly higher levels of mRNA expression for TNF-alpha, IL5, IL-17A and IL-22 were observed in TLR2 activated PBMCs of AD patients than those of healthy control, TLR2 participates in the signaling of Burkholderia pseudomallei lipopolysaccharide., TLR2 and 5 polymorphisms (rs5743708, rs3804099 and rs5744105) may not serve as the susceptible gene for sepsis in newborn infants., This study demonstrates that T597C polymorphism of TLR2 is a risk factor for susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis rather than to tuberculous meningitis, Result suggests that the TLR2 -196 to -174 del polymorphism is an additional risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease., TLR2 expression (and TLR9) is increased in monocyte subsets of active rheumatoid arthritis patients., Taken together, these observations suggest that activation of human mast cells by LL-37 could be modified by TLR2 ligands and the function of human mast cells could be switched from allergic reactions to innate immune response., In periodontitis, TLR2 gene hyperexpression was accompanied by the reduction of expression of anti-microbial peptide HBD-2, as well as in an increase of production of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta by epithelial cells of periodontium mucosa., study represents the first analysis demonstrating that harbouring polymorphisms of Dectin-1 (rs7309123) or TLR2 (rs5743708) represents an independent risk factor of developing IFD in patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy., Association of infectious pathology of upper respiratory tract and development of periodontitis diseases with markers in DEFB1 (-44G/C) and TLR2 Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp genes was determined., these results suggest that targeting the COX-2/PGE2 pathway together with TLR/MyD88 signaling, which would suppress the inflammatory microenvironment and maintenance of stemness, could be an effective preventive or therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer,
OMIM_DISEASE Colorectal cancer, susceptibility to, Leprosy, susceptibility to, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, susceptibility to,
SP_COMMENT function:Cooperates with LY96 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipoproteins and other microbial cell wall components. Cooperates with TLR1 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipoproteins or lipopeptides. Acts via MYD88 and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. May also promote apoptosis in response to lipoproteins. Recognizes mycoplasmal macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2kD (MALP-2), soluble tuberculosis factor (STF), phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) and B.burgdorferi outer surface protein A lipoprotein (OspA-L) cooperatively with TLR6., polymorphism:Genetic variations in TLR2 are associated with suceptibility to leprosy [MIM:246300]. Leprosy is a chronic disease associated with depressed cellular (but not humoral) immunity, the bacterium requires a lower temperature than 37 degrees Celsius and thrives particularly in peripheral Schwann cells and macrophages. The Trp-677 polymorphism in the intracellular domain of TLR2 has a role in susceptibility to lepromatous leprosy. Wild-type TLR2 mediates CD14-enhanced Mycobacterium leprae-dependent activation of NFKB1, but TLR2 containing the Trp-677 polymorphism did not. The impaired function of the Trp-677 polymorphism provides a molecular mechanism for the poor cellular immune response associated with lepromatous leprosy., PTM:Glycosylation of Asn-442 is critical for secretion of the N-terminal ectodomain of TLR2., similarity:Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family., similarity:Contains 1 TIR domain., similarity:Contains 14 LRR (leucine-rich) repeats., subunit:Interacts with LY96, TLR1 and TLR6 (via extracellular domain). Binds MYD88 (via TIR domain). Interacts with TICAM1. Ligand binding induces the formation of a heterodimer with TLR1., tissue specificity:Highly expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes, in particular in monocytes, in bone marrow, lymph node and in spleen. Also detected in lung and in fetal liver. Levels are low in other tissues.,