Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 2.1
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery
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transforming growth factor beta 2(TGFB2) transforming growth factor beta 2(TGFB2) Related Genes Homo sapiens
CHROMOSOME 1,
CYTOBAND 1q41,
ENSEMBL_GENE_ID ENSG00000092969,
GENERIF_SUMMARY TGFB2 induces MMP-2 expression and suppresses TIMP-2 expression. It promotes invasion of cultured glioma cells in a dose-dependent way., The main source of myofibroblast-like cells and ECM production in the liver is the perisinusoidal stellate cell, which responds to injury with a pleiotypic change termed activation. Activation is orchestrated by cytokines, like tgfb2, no correlation between the concentration of either isoform of TGFbeta in milk and the corresponding TGFbeta in plasma, a transcriptional target for Akt/protein kinase B via forkhead transcription factor., TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 isoforms are produced by chondrosarcomas and could have a potential role as autocrine growth stimulators in these neoplasms, present in diabetic foot ulcer, Involvement of transforming growth factor-beta2 in catagen induction during the human hair cycle., investigated TGF-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 latency-associated peptides (LAP)expression in sound and carious human teeth, Immunohistochemical double-staining of human renal sections revealed that most Tgfb2-positive cells in control glomeruli were podocytes with few Tgfb2-positive mesangial cells., TGF-beta2 expression in peritoneal fibroblasts was increased by hypoxia plus TGF-beta1, but decreased by TGF-beta1 alone., Glucocorticoids significantly inhibited TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 production and reduced expression of the up-regulated TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 mRNA induced by exogenous TGF-beta1, -beta2, or -beta3, Data report the location and level of interleukin (IL)-8 and TGF-beta2 expression in the fimbrial compartment of fallopian tubes and IL-10 expression in the endometrium of women with pyoinflammatory adnexal diseases., All three TGF-beta isoforms have fibrogenic effects on renal cells. TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 effects may be partially mediated by TGF-beta1. Blockade of all isoforms together may yield best therapeutic effect in reducing renal fibrosis., Biological dressing effect of cultured epidermal sheets(CESs) is mediated by EGF family, TGF-beta, and VEGF., In the confluent state, TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 stimulated the cells to progress to the S-phase of the cell cycle through platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) chain production and protein kinase C., increase of serum immunoglobulin A in newborns during 1 month of life was well correlated with levels of both transforming growth factor-beta1 and transforming growth factor-beta2, Repression of promoter activity by HPV type 16 E6 and E7 proteins., PSA-mediated activation of latent TGFbeta2 may be an important mechanism for autocrine TGFbeta regulation in the prostate and may potentially contribute to the formation of osteoblastic lesions in bone metastatic prostate cancer., Recombinant TGF-beta 2 passes through the mouse blood-brain barrier after peripheral injection and is widely distributed throughout the brain, with highest concentrations in the hypothalamus and nerves and lowest in the cerebral hemispheres., upregulation of the potent catagen inducer, transforming growth factor beta2 (TGFbeta2) by BDNF in hair follicles, Human TGF-beta2 but not human TGF-beta1, or -beta3 promotes cardiac myocyte differentiation from mouse ES cells., TGF-beta 2 may promote endometrial tissue repair through the inhibition of the proliferation, expansion, and migration of endometrial stromal cells, and through stimulation of contraction of the collagen gel matrix by these cells., TGF-beta-dependent nuclear accumulation of Smad2 is caused exclusively by selective nuclear trapping of phosphorylated, complexed Smad2, The expression of TGF-beta2 mRNA was higher in cortex cataract than in nuclear cataract., In conclusion, increased TGF-beta2 transcription in response to serum stimulation in KFs appears to be mediated by the p38 MAPK pathway., TGF-beta2 is secreted in response to injury, significantly alters the bulk optical properties of the extracellular matrix, and its tight regulation may be required for normal collagen homeostasis., The mRNA expressions of TGFbeta1 in hMSCs increased with the length of cell culture., ombined effects of TGF-beta2 and connective tissue growth factor appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases, The results presented in this paper provide evidence for the involvement of an oxidative process in the apoptosis elicited by TGF-beta(2) in HLECs., BMP-2, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3 are involved in bone formation in heterotopic ossifications., No evidence for association with susceptibility or progression of MS, but have demonstrated a trend towards association of the 5' region of the gene with susceptibility to PD., TGF-beta2 triggers the malignant phenotype of high-grade gliomas by induction of migration, and that this effect is, at least in part, mediated by versican V0/V1., These results suggest that FGF-2 suppresses the hMSCs cellular senescence dependent on the length of culture through down-regulation of TGF-beta2 expression., Am-80-induced cell-type non-specific growth inhibition is mediated by TGF-beta2, where the total mass of RARalpha could be an important regulatory factor in hematologic malignant cells, TGF-beta(2) may therefore be involved in the development of childhood atopic asthma by means of functional genetic polymorphism., The highest levels of active TGF-beta2 were found in keratoconus eyes., TGF-beta2 promoted human lens epithelial cell adhesion and migration in vitro. Integrin beta1 and integrin-mediated signaling are necessary for TGF-beta2-promoted adhesion and migration in human lens epithelial cells., TGF-beta2 and -beta3 are differentially expressed during the menstrual cycle and regulated by progesterone in epithelial vs stromal cells., The early induction of TGF-beta1 at the point of SCI suggests a role in the acute inflammatory response and formation of the glial scar, while the later induction of TGF-beta2 may indicate a role in the maintenance of the scar., TGFbeta2 and TbetaRII have roles in the antiestrogenic activity of tamoxifen metabolites in breast cancer, TGF-beta 2 is closely related to cellular differentiation in human developing teeth, TGF-beta 2 was detected since the bud stage of the salivary gland. Its expression was observed in ductal cells and increased along gland differentiation., TGF-beta(2) is a potent growth factor for lens epithelial cell(LEC) epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT); TGF-beta(2)-induced EMT in LECs is mediated by the downregulation of connexin 43, which is regulated through the PI3K/Akt pathway, The endometria from women with idiopathic infertility TGFbeta2 expression was 2.8 fold higher than in endometria from control group and 2.1 fold higher in endometrial samples from women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage compared to the control group., IL-13 may contribute to subepithelial fibrosis in asthma by stimulating biologically significant TGF-beta2 secretion from the airway epithelium., may affect the growth and differentiation of dental pulp cells via an autocrine fashion by activation of the transforming growth factor beta receptor protein kinase/receptor regulated Smad proteins signal transduction pathways, in gingival crevicular fluid and peri-implant crevicular fluid did not change significantly after a period of de novo plaque accumulation, Taken together, these in vitro and in vivo results indicate that glioma-derived factors may induce MMPs and downregulate endothelial tight junction protein and, thus, play a key role in glioma-induced impairment of the blood-brain barrier., study found different expression of the TGF-beta1, -2 and -3 isoforms in the human corneal epithelium; such differential expression of TGF-betas suggests that each of them may play a specific role in corneal tissue, the TGF-beta1-2-3/Smad3 pathway has a role in mediating ovarian oncogenesis by enhancing metastatic potential, Genes more highly expressed in BRCA1-associated tumors included stathmin, osteopontin, TGFbeta2 and Jagged 1, A dominant increase in TGF-beta2 expression in cord tissue was seen in Dupuytren's disease., BMP4 blocked the TGF-beta2 induction of extracellular matrix proteins in optic nerve head cells; the BMP antagonist gremlin reversed this inhibition, TGF-beta cytokines may be involved in postsurgical adhesion formation, High-affinity binding of TGF-beta1/3 to TGF-betaRII is primarily due to hydrogen bonding between Arg25 and 94 of TGF-beta1/3, and Glu119 and Asp32 of TbetaR-II. Arg25 and 94 are substituted by Lys in TGF-beta2, which binds with low affinity to TbetaR-II., Report expression of decorin in esophageal cancer in relation to the expression of three isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1, -beta2, and -beta3) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity., Expression levels of Tgfb2 in circulating lymphocytes are not sufficiently specific to diagnose transitory postsurgical complications such as symptomatic infection after liver transplantation., These results suggest an important role for TGF-beta(2) in hair follicle morphogenesis., The TGF-beta2 signal pathway participates in the apoptotic signal transfer and might be an initiator of cellular apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells., Variations of the stress distribution in cancellous bone correlate with the variation of the concentrations of TGF-beta2 and IGF-I in bone matrix., PRDX6 attenuates oxidative stress- and TGFbeta-induced abnormalities of human trabecular meshwork cells., Ladybird homeobox 1 (LBX1), a developmentally regulated homeobox gene, directs expression of the known EMT inducers ZEB1, ZEB2, Snail1, and transforming growth factor beta2 (TGFB2)., Our data provide evidence that TGF-beta signaling patterns vary by age and pathologic features of prognostic significance including ER expression., Data show that TNF-alpha induces the formation of fibrotic foci by cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells through activation of transforming growth factor-TGF-beta signaling in a manner dependent on hyaluronan-CD44-moesin interaction., high prechemotherapy serum levels associated with improved survival in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3 mRNAs were detected in both normal and pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK) corneas., Carbachol can promote and atropine can inhibit the expression and secretion of TGF-beta2 in human retinal pigment epithelium cells., results represent the first report on CM genetic risk factors in Angolan children and suggest the novel hypothesis that genetic variants of the TGFB2 and HMOX1 genes may contribute to confer a specific risk of developing the CM syndrome, A variant in the fibrillin-3 gene is associated with TGF-beta and inhibin B levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome., TGF-beta2 suppressed macrophage cytokine production in the developing intestine and protected against inflammatory mucosal injury., elevated levels of TGF-b2 within the anterior segment contribute to the development of glaucoma; the increased risk for developing glaucoma as one ages may in part be related to the rise of this cytokine, The TGF-beta1 mediated secretion of endothelin-1 and TGF-beta2 is mediated by Rho kinase activation in hepatic stellate cells., autocrine stimulation of myeloid progenitors by Tgfbeta2 as one mechanism by which HoxA10 expands this population., Data suggest that glioma stem cells are likely to be the major tumor source of immunosuppressive cytokines such as TGF-beta2 and IL-10 and thereby play a crucial role in determining glioma malignancy., Aqueous humor regulates dendritic cell maturation and function by the combined actions of cortisol and TGF-beta2, a pathway that is likely to contribute to the maintenance of immune privilege in the eye., Study revealed a correlation between the localization of transforming growth factor-beta2 and the development of intraocular hyaloid vascular network, its regression, formation of the vitreous body, and development of definite retinal vessels., quantitative increase in promoter methylation levels of TGFbeta2 is associated with prostate cancer progression, BMP-2 and TGFbeta2 shared pathways regulate endocardial cell transformation, TGFbeta subtypes (1, 2 and 3) affect terminal differentiation of in vitro cultured hBMSCs differently, Degranulation of skin mast cells can be an important mechanism of TGFbeta secretion in systemic sclerosis., Data show that TGF-beta pathways operate during ovarian fetal development, and fibrillin 3 is highly expressed at a critical stage early in developing human and bovine fetal ovaries., differential expression pattern of TGFbeta2 in the lens and retina is correlated with the cell type and differentiation state., The present paper showed that TGF-beta2 stimulates endothelial-mesenchymal transition through multiple signalling pathways., Gremlin employs canonical TGFbeta2/Smad signaling to induce extracellular matrix protein genes and proteins in cultured human trabecular meshwork cells., The present study reveals that TGFbeta2 and NGF are associated with idiopathic epiretinal membranes, suggesting a novel compensatory mechanism so far never proposed., Transforming growth factor-beta2 increases extracellular matrix proteins in optic nerve head cells via activation of the Smad signaling pathway., A total of 853 proteins were quantified. TGFbeta treatment significantly altered the abundance of 47 proteins, 40 of which have not previously been associated with TGFbeta signaling in the eye., Myxomatous mitral valves are characterized by reduced levels of MT1/2 accompanied by an up-regulation of TGF-beta2., The aim of the study was to determine temporal TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 gene expression profiles in the anterior lens capsule of paediatric patients with posttraumatic cataract., The genotypic and allelic frequencies of transforming growth factor beta 2 gene rs6658835 were associated with VSD (P< 0.05), but not with ASD or PDA (P> 0.05)., identified transforming growth factor-beta2 secreted by normal kidney and ADPKD cells as an inhibitor of cystogenesis in 3D culture system using ADPKD cells from kidneys, RFX1 reduces cell proliferation through inhibiting the TGFbeta2-ERK signaling pathway. RFX1 blocks TGFbeta2 expression through its direct action on TGFbeta2 transcription., data permit us to suggest an important role of TbetaRII expression in the maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype, which is altered with age, and bring new insights in our understanding of chondrogenesis process., TGF-beta2 is abundant in seminal plasma as a key agent in seminal plasma that signals induction of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in cervical cells., No significant associations were identified between FOXC1, TGFbeta2, and BMP4 alleles and haplotypes and primary open-angle glaucoma., the microenvironment at the verge between inflammation (IL-1beta) and tissue remodeling (TGFbeta2) can strongly promote the process of EndMT., report heterozygous mutations or deletions in the gene encoding the TGF-beta2 ligand for a phenotype within the Loeys-Dietz syndrome spectrum, haploinsufficiency for TGFB2 predisposes to thoracic aortic disease, suggesting that the initial pathway driving disease is decreased cellular TGF-beta2 levels leading to a secondary increase in TGF-beta2 production in the diseased aorta, Transcriptional profiling of human glioblastoma vessels indicates a key role of VEGF-A and TGFbeta2 in vascular abnormalization., TGF beta-2 inhibits the expression of the clock genes Period (Per)1, Per2, and Rev-erb-alpha, and of the clock-controlled genes D-site albumin promoter binding protein (Dbp) and thyrotroph embryonic factor (Tef ), TGF-beta may contribute to aneurysm formation by promoting the generation of myofibroblasts that mediate damage to the arterial wall through recruitment of pro-inflammatory cells., TGFbetaRIIb expression is a regulatory mechanism for TGFbeta2 signal transduction., TGFbeta2 protein and localization of mutations are identified in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm and/or dissection., TGF-beta decreases baseline and IL-13-stimulated mucin production by primary human bronchial epithelial cells., TGF-beta(2) reduces proliferation but stimulates migration of cultured corneal endothelial cells via p38MAPK phosphorylation., SDC-2 modulates TGFbeta2 transcriptional regulation via Smad2 signaling to facilitate fibrosarcoma cell adhesion., the suppression of TGF-b1 induced TGF-b3 upregulation, and the suppression of TGF-b2 induced another unexpected downregulation of both TGF-b1 and TGF-b3., TGFbeta2 increased NFkappaB reporter activity in control cells, but betaglycan expression suppressed both basal and TGFbeta2-stimulated NFkappaB activity., Mutation or removal of the G-quadruplex sequence from the 5' UTR of the gene diminished the level of expression of this gene at the translational level., Data show expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, BMP-4, and BMP-7 was increased in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and vasohibin-1, VEGF-A, and vVEGF-C expression in pancreatic cancer cells was upregulated by TAMs., Endothelial cells may play a role in the induction and maintenance of EMT in tumor cells by constitutively releasing TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta2, MMP-2 and -9 are involved in the translocation of MRTF-A in lens epithelial cellsduring TGFbeta-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition., These data do not confirm a crucial role of TGF beta1 and TGF beta2 release in the development of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, germline mutation of the TGFbeta2 gene is not a common cause of CTD in humans and that the TGFbeta2 expression level may be less critical in humans than in animals for the pathogenesis of CTD., Serum TGFB2 was elevated in patients with classic prolapse as compared with the control group and the non-classic mitral valve prolapse group., HD3alpha directly interacts with HDAC3 and Akt1 and selectively activates transforming growth factor beta2 (TGFbeta2) secretion and cleavage., TGFB2 is a rarely mutated gene in patients with syndromic TAAD, and the clinical features of our TGFB2 mutation-positive individuals fit in the scheme of LDS, rather than MFS-related disorders., Data indicate that glioma cell migration is mediated by Thrombospondin-1 (THBS-1) and TGF-beta2., The expression of TGFB1 and TGFB2 increase significantly in benign prostatic hyperplasia treated with 5-alpha reductase inhibitor., Inhibition of miR-21 has no effect on thrombospondin (TSP)-1-stimulated expression of TGFbeta2., Compared to controls, plasma levels of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 were significantly lower in patients with recurrent VTE (p < 0.05), whereas no difference was found for TGF-beta3., rs900 TGF-beta2 is a marker of differential gender susceptibility in sporadic thoracic aortic aneurysm, TGF-beta2, CTGF and gremlin are all involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition and extracellular matrix synthesis via activation of Smad signaling pathway in lens epithelial cells., Data suggest that Muller cells release TGF-beta2, inhibiting the proliferation of retinal endothelial cells via activation of Smad2/Smad3 and attenuation of ERK signaling, glycated collagen in the cardiac interstitium triggers an autocrine TGF-beta2 signaling pathway that stimulates alpha11 integrin expression through Smad2/3 binding elements in the alpha11 integrin promoter, TGF- beta 2 is likely to be acting as a critical factor in axial elongation and development of myopia., Consumption of animal protein and parturition characteristics may affect TGF-beta levels in breast milk, and may explain differences in these levels in breast milk between countries., TGFB2 is located in genes previously associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility., A new gene mutation was identified in TGFB2 involved in non-syndromic aortic disease., Oxidative stress is able to induce conversion of endothelial cells into myofibroblasts via TGF-beta secretion., Active CREB1 promotes a malignant TGFbeta2 autocrine loop in glioblastoma., ALDH1 and TGFbeta2 play important roles in the development of breast cancer., NFkappaB/TGFbeta2 promotes, and betaglycan impedes, the early stages of granulosa cell tumor metastasis, when tumor cells first invade the peritoneum, Data confirm that mutations in TGFB2 gene do not always lead to aggressive vascular phenotypes and that articular and skeletal signs are prevalent., TGF-beta2 induced MYOC expression and secretion in human primary cultured trabecular meshwork cells, However, activation of the gp130 cell surface receptor is both necessary and sufficient for downregulation of TGF-beta2 in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-infected cells., these data shed light on previously unrecognized roles of Mkx in tendinopathy, tenogenesis, and tendon repair as well as in regulating the TGFbeta pathway., TGF-beta2 secretion from retinal pigmented epithelium decreases with polarization and becomes apically oriented, Data suggest that the intrinsic transforming growth factor beta 2-triggered stromal cell-derived factor-1-C-X-C chemokine receptor-4 signaling is crucial for drug resistance in bone marrow (BM)-slow-cycling disseminated tumor cells (DTCs)., our results suggest that HOXB7 promotes tumor progression in a cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous manner through activation of the TGFbeta signaling pathway, there is a borderline significant association between higher mean TGF-beta2 levels in breast milk and more severe pathologic diagnoses, Here, we show that increased TGF-beta2 signaling through ALK5 plays a role in hypoxia-induced redifferentiation of chondrocytes., There was no association between TGF-beta gene polymorphisms and juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus in an Iranian cohort., TGF-beta2 therefore promotes the adhesion and invasiveness of virulent macrophages by modulating COX2, EP4, and PKIG transcription to initiate a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-driven autostimulatory loop that augments PKA and EPAC activities., Data indicate that TGF-beta2 (TGFB2) and TGF beta type III receptor (TGFBR3) are target genes of miR-193b in chondrogenesis., TGFbeta1 and TGFbeta2 appeared to play a significant role in physiological and pathological conditions in the fetus., High expression of TGFB2 is associated with melanoma., MicroRNA-153 inhibits osteosarcoma cells proliferation and invasion by targeting TGF-beta2, These results suggest that miR-200a suppresses RCC development via directly targeting TGFB2, indicating that miR-200a may present a novel target for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in renal cell carcinoma, knockdown of TMEM45A also inhibited cell adhesion as well as cell invasion. More importantly, suppression of TMEM45A notably downregulated the expression of TGF-b1, TGF-b2, RhoA and ROCK2., Comparison of the aqueous humor TGF-beta2 level between patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and controls provides direct evidence for the role of TGF-beta2 in the etiology of OAG. (meta-analysis), these results revealed no correlation between the normalized expression of TGF-beta2, TGF-betaRI, or TGF-betaRII and EDSS scores, High levels of furin, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta2 may be the reason of proceeding decidualization, placentation, and prevention from abortion, in spite of terminating the fetal life., elevated TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 expression triggers invasion and migration by triple-negative breast cancer cells through the EMT process, Our study uncovers the PITX2-induced expression of TGFB1/2/3 as well as INHBA genes (p < 0.01) followed by SMAD2/3-dependent TGF-b signalling pathway in ovarian cancer cells, TGFbeta2 is a key growth promoter of CD44(hi) cells that survived chemotherapy and also is a growth inhibitor of cells that survived hypoxia., TGF-beta2 induces Grb2 to recruit PI3-K to TGF-RII that activates JNK/AP-1-signaling and augments invasiveness of Theileria-transformed macrophages., TGFbeta signaling via both SMAD2/7 and PARD6/SMURF1 pathways plays a role in trophoblast growth and differentiation., In conclusion, each of the DPP-4 inhibitors may have unique drug-specific effects.,
OMIM_DISEASE Loeys-Dietz syndrome 4,
SP_COMMENT disease:A chromosomal aberration involving TGFB2 is found in a family with Peters anomaly [MIM:604229]. Translocation t(1;7)(q41;p21) with HDAC9. Peters anomaly consists of a central corneal leukoma, absence of the posterior corneal stroma and Descemet membrane, and a variable degree of iris and lenticular attachments to the central aspect of the posterior cornea., function:TGF-beta 2 has suppressive effects on interleukin-2 dependent T-cell growth., online information:TGF beta-2 entry, similarity:Belongs to the TGF-beta family., subunit:Homodimer; disulfide-linked.,