Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 2.1
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
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mitogen-activated protein kinase 1(MAPK1) mitogen-activated protein kinase 1(MAPK1) Related Genes Homo sapiens
CYTOBAND 22q11.2, 22q11.2|22q11.21,
GENERIF_SUMMARY MEK1 interacts with and phosphorylates ERK2. This interaction is mediated via a conserved N-terminal docking site in MEK1. Note that this interaction was demonstrated using rat ERK2., MEK2 interacts with ERK2. This interaction is mediated via a conserved N-terminal docking site in MEK2. Note that this interaction was demonstrated using rat ERK2., Angiogenin induces transient phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells., Unregulated activation of STAT-5, ERK1/2 and c-Fos may contribute to the phenotypic transformation from myelodysplastic syndrome to acute leukaemia. Impaired ERK1/2 signalling pathways were activated only by GM-CSF but not by Epo., C-terminal halves of ERK2 and ERK3DeltaC are primarily responsible for subcellular localization in resting cells; and the N-terminal folding domain of ERK2 is required for its activation in cells, interaction with MEK1, and accumulation in the nucleus, suggests that upon activation Ras becomes associated with IRAK, Traf-6, and TAK-1, possibly aiding the assembly of this multiprotein signaling complex required for p38 MAPK activation by IL-1, Based on a MEK1-derived peptide, we developed inhibitors of ERK activation in vitro and in vivo., Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1 and ERK2) activation is required for GP Ibalpha-dependent endothelial cell migration., residues located at different positions are important for discriminating between ERK and p38 MAPKs, Cooperativity between the Ras-ERK and Rho-Rho kinase pathways in urokinase-type plasminogen activator-stimulated cell migration, ERK and p38 MAP kinase pathways cooperate in mediating cytokine-induced proliferation of OCI-AML5 cell line, mediates regulation of p73 by c-Abl, ERK1/2 activation is a regulator of progesterone synthesis in hGL cells, p42/44MAPK regulates baseline permeability and cGMP-induced hyperpermeability in endothelial cells, Glucocorticoids synergistically enhance nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced Toll-like receptor 2 expression via a negative cross-talk with p38 MAP kinase., Hepatitis C virus core protein expression activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), role of activation in TFF-peptide-stimulated bronchial epithelial cell migration and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced interleukin-6 and IL-8 secretion, ML-1-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production is mediated through the activation of ERK1/2, ERK negatively regulates the epidermal growth factor-mediated interaction of Gab1 and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, The functional role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and c-Jun induction in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced human 12(S)-lipoxygenase gene expression, role of activation in IGFBP-5 stimulation of growth and IGF-I secretion in intestinal smooth muscle, Activation of p38 MAP-kinase and caldesmon phosphorylation are essential for urokinase-induced human smooth muscle cell migration., Activation of the p42 MAPK pathway contributes to the underlying mechanism of IL-12 suppression by soluble CD40 ligand., mediates activation of neutrophils by lipopolysaccharide, Down-regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 activity during differentiation of the intestinal cell line HT-29., Mechanism of 17-beta-estradiol-induced Erk1/2 activation in breast cancer cells. A role for HER2 AND PKC-delta, eNOS expression might be regulated by PI-3K and the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, Results show that oncogenic ras provokes premature senescence by sequentially activating the MEK-ERK and MKK3/6-p38 pathways in normal, primary cells., Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid modulate MAP kinase enzyme activity in human T-cells, ERK2 activity and dual-phosphorylation were undetectable in expanding and self-renewing hematopoietic progenitors (HP). Adding IL-3, inducing maturation and cell death in HP, led to sustained high levels of ERK2 activity and dual-phosphorylation., The signaling pathway triggered by both 8-iso-PGFalpha and low concentrations of U46619 to induce platelet adhesion and shape change implicates Syk, the p38 MAP kinase, and actin polymerization., role in stabilizing p21(Cip1) by phosphorylation, p38MAPK is activated by phosphorylated ATF6 and induces HSPA5 binding, NBMPR-sensitive equilibrative nucleoside transporters are targets for p38 MAPK inhibitors, the NOx-induced cell proliferation via activation of p38 might contribute to lung tissue damage caused by NOx, Provant Wound Closure System induces activation of p44/42 MAP kinase in normal cultured human fibroblasts, p38 MAP kinase regulation of AP-2 binding in TGF-beta1-stimulated chondrogenesis of human trabecular bone-derived cells, ERK activation by cAMP does not require RAP1, Role of ERK2 in BRCA1-induced apoptosis, Formation of an hER alpha-COUP-TFI complex enhances hER alpha AF-1 through Ser118 phosphorylation by ERK2., p38 MAP kinase activation appears to be an important upstream signaling event associated with increased endothelial permeability and vascular endothelial cadherin redistribution, The alpha-MSH-induced differentiation of COLO 853 human melanoma cells proceeds via a p38 MAP kinase-mediated pathway and is associated with decreased pRB phosphorylation and accumulation of cells in the G(1) phase., p38 MAPK is a pivotal regulator of basophil function downstream of PI 3-K activation and calcium mobilization., Physiological levels of interleukin-18 stimulate multiple neutrophil functions through p38 MAP kinase activation., These results show that p38 MAPK provides a costimulatory signal for IL-4-induced gene responses by directly stimulating the transcriptional activation of STAT6., Control of mycobacterial replication in human macrophages, ITGB1 activated by ERK1/2, p38 MAPK after hypoxia, description of the signaling of JNK and p38 MAPK in apoptosis after stimulation by antioxidants, connective tissue growth factor induced fibronectin production, cell migration, and cytoskeletal rearrangement are associated with recruitment of Src and phosphorylation of p42/44 MAPK and protein kinase B, A new ERK2 binding protein, Naf1, attenuates the EGF/ERK2 nuclear signaling., Data show that arsenic trioxide induces activation of the small G-protein Rac1 and the alpha and beta isoforms of the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in several leukemia cell lines., glucocorticoids synergistically enhance NTHi-induced TLR2 expression via specific up-regulation of the MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) that, in turn, leads to dephosphorylation and inactivation of p38 MAPK, EPO induces long-lasting phosphorylation of MAPK p42/44 in vascular endothelial cells, activating signal pathways increasing the thrombogenicity of their extracellular matrices., role in stimulus-induced platelet activating factor synthesis by regulating individual enzymes of the remodeling pathway in neutrophils, Data suggest that mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) participates in a negative-feedback loop which regulates p38 function and that dexamethasone may inhibit proinflammatory gene expression in part by inducing MKP-1 expression., Inhibition of p38 MAPK inhibits IL-6 and VEGF secretion in bone marrow stromal cells triggered by adherence of multiple myeloma cells., expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK2, and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer, p38 is activated by various kinds of stresses and regulates TEL transcription factor, LMP1 inhibits transforming growth factor-beta 1-mediated induction of MAPK/p21 in Epstein-barr virus infected gastric epithelial cell line GT38, Release of proteinase 3 and human neutrophil elastase can result in their entry into endothelial cells coincident with the activation of proapoptotic-signaling events through ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK., report the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2 (p44 and p42 MAP kinase) through the human serotonin receptors 5-HT(4(b)) and 5-HT(7(a)), results suggest that activation of p38 MAPK, either directly or via lipoxygenase activation, participates in aldosterone's stimulatory effects of ANG II in adrenal cells., Ubiquitylation of MEKK1 inhibits its phosphorylation of MKK1 and MKK4 and activation of the ERK1/2 and JNK pathways, activation by Pro33 polymorphism of integrin beta3, hypertonic stress increases T cell interleukin-2 expression through a mechanism that involves ATP release, P2 receptor, and p38 MAPK activation, MEK2 and p38 in IFN-gamma-mediated signal transduction and induction of C/EBP beta expression and activity associated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in colon epithelial cells., Activation of p38 and inactivation of ERK are involved in CsA-induced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells., Decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B and erk1/erk2 in neutrophils from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, Data show that p-MEK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 are present in neurons in the initial stages of neurofibrillary degeneration in Alzheimer's disease, before deposition of beta-amyloid., IL-2 decreased the expression of ERK2, whereas polysaccharide K did not., Persistent activation of ERK1/2 by lead acetate increases nucleotide excision repair synthesis and confers anti-cytotoxicity and anti-mutagenicity., Activation of p38 MAPK by double-stranded RNA in biliary epithelial cells., Helicobacter pylori-induced ERK2 activation, especially by the cagA(+) strain, may play a protective role against gastric epithelial cell apoptosis partially through maintenance of bcl-2 gene expression, inhibition amplifies ajoene-induced cell death in human promyeloleukemic cells, pp90RSK- and protein kinase C-dependent pathway regulates p42/44MAPK-induced LDL receptor transcription in HepG2 cells., a randomized double-blind study to determine the role of p38 MAPK in the procoagulant response to lipopolysaccharide, The protein tyrosine phosphatase HePTP regulates nuclear translocation of of this protein., Western blot demonstrated that phosphorylation of ERK is dramatically induced (11.6-fold ) by TPA during 15 min to 1 h and significantly induced (2.5-fold) by Saikosaponin alpha at 30 min., EDD, elk1, rsk1 protein, tpr protein, are identified as novel ERK2 substrates., p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases play distinct roles in the activation of dendritic cells by two representative haptens, NiCl2 and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene., acute hyperglycemia-mediated mononuclear cell activation is dependent on activation of ras, p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and subsequent NF-kappaB activation, Physiological concentration of insulin causes modest but sustained activation of p38 MAPK pathway in human skeletal muscle. Effect of exercise on p38 phosphorylation lasts 3 h. Role in increased insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle after exercise., data provides first evidence of a new role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase on the translational machinery, HDL induced a potent signal through a Ras/MAPK pathway mediated by a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein coupled receptor to the angiogenic phenotype in HCECs., stretch of airway smooth muscle causes production of interleukin-8 by activating CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and activator protein-1 transcription factor through activation of extracellular regulated kinase-1 and 2 and p38 kinase signaling pathways, EGF & ionizing radiation up-regulate the DNA repair genes XRCC1 & ERCC1 in DU145 & LNCaP prostate carcinoma, showing a complex control of DNA repair activation that may be more generally dependent on MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling than previously noted., p38 and ERK1/2 have roles in coordinating cellular migration and proliferation in epithelial wound healing, TAO (thousand-and-one amino acid) protein kinases mediate signaling from carbachol to this enzyme and ternary complex factors., MKP-1 degradation is mediated via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, thus facilitating long-term activation of ERK1/2 against cytotoxicity, The 1,25(OH)(2)D3-responsive element in cystatin A gene is identical to TRE, T2 (-272 to -278). Suppression of Raf-1/MEK1/ERK1,2 signaling pathway increases cystatin A expression of normal human keratinocytes., antiproliferative effect of the heme oxygenase-1 pathway in airway smooth muscle in vitro and in vivo through a bilirubin-mediated redox modulation of phosphorylation of ERK1/2, IL1beta and TNFalpha activation of MSK1 and CREB and cAMP-response element signaling cascades occurs via ERK/p38 MAP kinases and are crucial aspects of the intracellular mechanisms that mediate MUC5AC gene expression, altered property of decidualized cells is thought to be caused by attenuation of interleukin-1 beta-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, ERK and p38 MAPK were constitutively active in all cases of the B-cell tumor studied, Eosinophils induced neurite retraction via two distinct pathways, Lipopolysaccharide-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 production by monocytes is regulated by p38 MAP kinase mainly through a PGE2-dependent pathway., p38 delta is the major p38 isoform driving suprabasal hINV gene expression and that p38 delta directly regulates ERK1/2 activity via formation of a p38 delta-ERK1/2 complex, ERK1/2 signaling is regulated by B-raf in melanocytes, trophoblast cells cause activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in endometrial epithelial cells and induce apoptosis and displacement of endometrial epithelial cells, Neutrophil elastase-induced PGE2 release involved activation of p44/42, but not p38, MAP kinases., Amyloid beta-protein expression and secretion are regulated via activation of ERK1/2 by HGF in cells transfected with APP751., Constitutive induction of p-Erk1/2 accompanied by reduced activities of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A and MKP3 due to reactive oxygen species during cellular senescence., p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling regulate steady-state levels of COX-2 expression, p38 MAPK additionally affects stability of COX-2 mRNA in cytokine-stimulated human airway myocytes, P38 MAPK is important for uPA expression in gastric tumor cells by enhancing the promoter activity of uPA, p38 MAP kinase modulates Smad-dependent changes in human prostate cell adhesion. Smad3 is phosphorylated by p38 MAP kinase in vitro., constitutively activated in choroidal melanoma cell lines, independent of Ras, and regulated by B-RafV599E, ERK-1/ERK-2 active in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Activation is associated with more aggressive tumor behavior and higher proliferative activity. Deregulation contributes to mucoepidermoid carcinoma phenotype. Target for anticancer drugs., Basal p38 MAPK phosphorylation is increased in skeletal muscle from Type 2 diabetic patients. Aberrant p38 MAPK signalling might contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance., results indicate that activation of PKC is responsible for GnRH-induced phosphorylation of both ERK1/2 and Pyk2, and that Pyk2 activation does not contribute to GnRH signaling, The beta1-integrin-ligand disengagement resulted in capillary disruption and stimulated p38 MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity., Alterations in MAPK pathways in part regulate peripheral microvascular dysfunction after CPB in humans., p38 MAPK activation could play a relevant role in the exacerbated platelet activation associated with oxidative stress as found in diabetes, IGF-I signals osteoblast mitogenesis and survival through parallel, partly overlapping intracellular pathways involving PI-3 kinase, p42/44 MAPKs, and G beta gamma subunits., activation of p38 MAPK caused a decrease in EEA1 colocalization with phagosomes, arresting maturation into the phagolysosome, p38 activity is regulated in neoplasms by Akt., the P2X1-ERK2-Myosin Light Chain Kinase axis contributes to collagen-induced platelet activation by enhancing platelet degranulation, JNK and p38 MAPK have roles in UVA-induced signaling pathways leading to AP-1 activation and c-Fos expression, activation of Sphingosine kinase 1 results directly from phosphorylation of Ser225, and evidence shows that the activating kinase is ERK1/2 or a close relative, Jak2 is required for Ang II-induced ERK2 inactivation via induction of MKP-1 gene expression., results suggest that ERK may play important roles in the control of microvilli structure and possibly, in brush border-associated responses in differentiated intestinal epithelial cells., phosphorylation of PPARgamma was mediated through the ciglitazone-induced activation of Erk1/2, nNOS can differentially regulate the ERK signal transduction pathway in a manner dependent on the presence of l-arginine and the production of NO*., Both pyrophosphate-resembling (p-) and nitrogen-containing (n-) bisphosphonates induce activation of p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro., Treatment of insulin receptor-overexpressing cells with insulin or vanadyl sulfate resulted in a time-dependent transient increase in phosphorylation and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2., Elevated levels of phosphorylated ERK 1/2 were detected in monocytes after 2 h of NANase treatment, persisting for 2 additional hours. Desialylation of cell surface glycoconjugates also led to increased production of IL-6, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta., CPPD crystal associated inflammatory response is regulated through the activation of p38 kinase to sub-apoptotic levels., Phospho-ERK immunoreactivity was often associated with mitochondrial proteins (MnSOD, 60 kDa and 110 kDa mitochondrial antigens), and some vesicular-appearing phospho-ERK granules appeared to envelop enlarged mitochondria., JCV-induced signal activates the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1 and ERK2 when JC virus is binding to human glial cells, Stress-related signaling pathways in epithelial cells are modulated by hypoxia and confer protection from reoxygenation, since hypoxia and chemical inhibition of p38mapk and MEK1/2 similarly increase cytolysis resulting from O2-., p42MAPK has a role in glucose-enhanced interleukin-6-induced VEGF165 expression, A novel regulatory network RAFTK/Pyk2, Src and p38 appears to be critical for VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration., p38 MAP kinase has a role in platelet activation by von Willebrand factor, Activation of p38 is necessary but not sufficient for toll-like receptor synergizing with IFN-gamma in regulating Tap-1 expression in macrophages, ERK1/2 activation with calcium requires Galphai2 coupling and dynamin-independent receptor internalization, results suggest that physiological levels of beta-arrestin1 may act as "dominant-negative" inhibitors of beta-arrestin2-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation, epidermal p44/42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are activated by acute cutaneous barrier disruption, Virtually all TNF-alpha-inducible genes were dependent on I kappa B kinase 2 (IKK2)/NF-kappa B activation, whereas a minor number was additionally modulated by p38; genes suppressed by IKK2/NF-kappa B were newly identified, Data show that respiratory syncytial virus stimulates sphingosine kinase activity in lung epithelial cells, leading to activation of antiapoptotic sphingosine 1-phosphate and subsequently activation of Akt and extracellular signal-related kinase., extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 are activated by cyclic AMP, p38(MAPK) regulates BSEP trafficking from Golgi to canalicular membrane, and Golgi may serve as BSEP pool in certain forms of cholestasis or when p38(MAPK) activity is inhibited. Activation of p38(MAPK) can recruit Golgi-associated BSEP., p38 MAPK is critical for discoidin domain receptor 1b-mediated, increased NF-kappa B trans-activity during differentiation of human monocytes into macrophages., p38 MAP kinase has an important role in regulating MMM-9 release from eosinophils and regulating fMLP-induced MMP-9 release, RSV attachment to A549 cells activates both ERK-1 and ERK-2 pathways within 5 min. Inhibition of ERK pathways significantly decreases RSV infection, demonstrating that the activation of the ERK-1/2 is required in RSV-induced early gene expression., p38 is activated by ultraviolet rays mediated by Gbetagamma in a Cdc42-dependent way, ERK2 is regulated by IQGAP1, ERK1 and ERK2 have roles in functional activation of estrogen receptor alpha in human tumor cells by leptin, ERK1/2 is activated in non-small-cell lung cancer and associated with advanced tumours, examination of expression of p53, p21, and phosphorylated p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells, ERK may contribute to non-caspase-dependent pathways of injury after ER stress in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells., p38MAPK has a role in controlling p21WAF1 regulation on vascular smooth muscle cells along with transcription factor Sp1, mechanical pressure-induces phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in epithelial cells via Src and protein kinase C, p38 pathway activation selectively induces cell death in K-ras-mutated human colon cancer cells by mechanisms involving the suppression of vitamin D receptor activity, The signal transduction pathway of VEGF transcription in HepG(2) cells may be through PI3K pathway, but not through p42/p44 MAPK pathway., some protease inhibitors might act as stress and induced TF expression with direct phosphorylation of JNK and p38, followed by phosphorylation and activation of AP-1 in monocytic cells, Acute vasoconstrictor effects of insulin in skeletal muscle arterioles are mediated by activation of ERK1/2 in endothelium. This effect antagonizes insulin-induced, PI3-kinase-dependent vasodilatation in skeletal muscle arterioles., Lipoteichoic acid-stimulated p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation is mediated through a TLR2 receptor and involves tyrosine kinase, PLC, PKC, Ca(2+), MEK, and PI 3-kinase., sustained activation of p44/42 MAPK perhaps forms the stimulatory signal induced by low TGF-beta1, whereas activation of p38 forms the inhibitory pathway, insulin stimulates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and translocation to plasma membrane in HSMCs via phosphorylation of the alpha-subunits by ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase., ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK have roles in suppressing apoptosis of colon cancer cells via cyclic AMP, The character of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 activation, transient or sustained, acts as a signal integrator to quantify the strength of T cell receptor engagement and direct the cellular response., The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is necessary for CD40L to condition dendritic cells to become competent antigen presenters to T cells, to induce strong allogeneic responses, and to expand virus-specific memory CD8+ T cell responses., Agonist-mediated metalloproteinase activation in C9 cells led to shedding of heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) and stimulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, phosphorylation of p6(gag) protein by virus-associated ERK-2 is involved in the budding stage of HIV-1 life cycle, ERK1/2 is important for ER cytoplasmic localization in breast cancer cells, I kappa B-NF kappa B participates on ERK2-mediated survival mechanisms, ERK2 binds to vinexin and is activated by epidermal growth factor and cell adhesion, augmented p38 activation of CD14 monocytes associated with suppressed p38 activation of CD8 lymphocytes was found in SARS patients., Activation of FAK and ERK1/2 by MCSP appear to involve independent mechanisms., ERK1 and ERK2 play a major role in ovarian cancer pathogenesis and down-regulation of this master signaling pathway is highly effective for the inhibition of ovarian tumor growth., ERK 1/2- and p38 MAPK-modulated TIMP-2 expression regulates MT1-MMP activity and control TGF-beta1-induced pericellular collagenolysis, role of ERK in the cytotoxicity mediated upon activation of the D1 dopamine receptor., These results suggest that bFGF can negatively modulate p38 and positively modulate ERK1/2 to antagonize activin A-mediated growth inhibition and Hb synthesis in K562 cells., p38 MAPK and Bcl-XL expression play critical roles in the survival of UVA-irradiated HaCaT cells, p38 MAPK mediates gamma-irradiation-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, Activated by Trypanosoma cruzi infections in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, Cystathionine gamma-lyase has a role in regulating cell proliferation via a H2S-dependent modulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and p21Cip/WAK-1, Data show how the ability of receptors such as angiotensin type 1A to interact with beta-arrestin 2 determines both the mechanism of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 activation as well as the physiological consequences of this activation., Data suggest that the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 signaling pathway may be substantially involved in interferon-alpha-mediated anti-hepatitis C virus activity., Erk2 links extracellular signaling to centrosome dynamics by Nek2A, SNT-2 negatively regulates ERK2 signaling activated via EGF stimulation through direct binding to ERK2, mechanotransduction induced by hydrostatic loading especially activated ERK2; accumulation of Hsp70 was independent of ERK2 phosphorylation, nuclear accumulation of active ERK1/2 is a discrete regulated step that can direct the function of the kinase in response to specific stimuli, Resistin induces HASMC proliferation through both ERK 1/2 and Akt signaling pathways., Interleukins 2 and 15 regulate Ets1 expression via ERK1/2 and MNK1 in human natural killer cells, The blockage of TLR-4 activation by EGCG resulted in inactivation of extracellular signal response kinase 1/2 and of nuclear factor-kappaB, the downstream molecules of TLR-4 signaling induced by H. pylori, IL-6 release from monocytes under hyperglycemia appears to be mediated via upregulation of PKC, through p38MAPK and NF-kappaB, Data suggest that Rit is involved in a novel pathway of neuronal development and regeneration by coupling specific trophic factor signals to sustained activation of the B-Raf/ERK and p38 MAP kinase cascades., a novel Ras-independent ERK1/2 activation system in which p110gamma/Raf-1/MEK1/2 and PKA/B-Raf/MEK1/2 cooperate to activate ERK1/2., Protein phosphatase 2A activity associated with Golgi membranes during the G2/M phase may regulate phosphorylation of ERK2., ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 signaling is stimulated by radiation and can promote cell cycle progression in human colon cancer cells, Results indicate that polymyxin B induces a partial maturation of human dendritic cells through increased adhesion and activation of the IkappaB-alpha/NF-kappaB pathway, and that increased ERK1/2 activation inhibits maturation., p38 MAPK plays a role in mediating hypoxia-induced increase in VEGF biosynthesis in human endothelial cells., the protective effect of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate on anchorage-independent survival of melanoma cells is partly mediated by MEK-independent activation of ERK1/2 and inactivation of downstream pro-apoptotic effector proteins, MMP-1 expression is maintained at a low level by Cdc42 via a repression of the Rac1 and ERK1/2 pathways when cell/extracellular-matrix interactions via integrins induce cytoskeleton organization, ERK1/2 signaling has a critical role in the regulation of BRCA1 function on controlling the G2/M checkpoint responses, Contributes to insulin signalling upstream of nitric-oxide-dependent cyclic GMP production., OSBP was found to function as a cholesterol-binding scaffolding protein coordinating the activity of two phosphatases to control the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, RAS-MEK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway can sensitize cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by up-regulating DR4 and DR5, DDSP (dehydroepiandrosterone-enhanced dual specificity protein phosphatase) negatively regulates the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. [DDSP], Although E. histolytica strongly induced activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in neutrophils, the activation of ERK1/2, not p38 MAPK, was closely associated with ROS-mediated apoptosis, ERK1/2 mediated GRK2 protection could be a general phenomenon as proteasome inhibition increased G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 expression in two other cell lines, HEK293 and NIH3T3, EGFR-dependent ERK1/2 activity in keratinocytes takes part to a homeostatic mechanism regulating inflammatory responses, ERK2 and p38 have complementary effects in the control of platelet adhesion to collagen in a shear stress-dependent manner, In cholesteatoma, co-expression of p21 and pERK1/2 was prominent, whereas in retro-auricular skin there was hardly any co-expression., activation by leptin is associated with gastric cancer cell proliferation, These data support ROS production and p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation being involved in a common strain-induced signaling pathway., Induction of c-jun depends on activation of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by an Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent mechanism., GIT1 has a role as a scaffold for ERK1/2 activation in focal adhesions, a linear pathway for Nef-induced FasL expression that encompasses p38 and AP-1 has been elucidated. Furthermore, chemical inhibition of the p38 pathway attenuates HIV-1-mediated bystander killing of CD8 cells in vitro, intracellular M. leprae activates Erk1/2 directly by p56Lck by means of a PKCepsilon-dependent and MEK-independent signaling pathway, Flow activates ERK1/2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase via a pathway involving PECAM1, SHP2, and Tie2., late sustained ERK1/2 activation plays a role in coxsackievirus B3 replication; virus infection affected several host genes through ERK1/2 activation, Spatially separate docking sites on ERK2 regulate distinct signaling events in vivo., in primary fibroblasts stabilization of Ras protein by ROS and ERK1/2 amplifies the response of the cells to growth factors and in systemic sclerosis represents a critical factor in the onset and progression of the disease, ERK activation and p21 and N-cadherin upregulation are required for genistein-induced neuronal differentiation, Results highlight the centrosome as a site to organize phosphorylation of Cep55 by Erk2/Cdk1 and Plk1, enabling it to relocate to the midbody to function in mitotic exit and cytokinesis., findings suggest the ERK/MAPK and PI3K pathways may regulate VEGF expression in part through regulating the action of these repressor proteins, LPS induced inflammatory response of the epithelial cells in nasal mucosa can cause the enhancement of p38MAPK activity., activation of focal adhesion kinase is involved with the aggressive capability in pancreatic cancer through Ras/ERK signaling pathway, PP2A ABalphaC and ABdeltaC holoenzymes function as positive regulators of Raf1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling by targeting Raf1, A3 receptor stimulation activates p44/p42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, which are required for A3-induced increase of HIF-1alpha and Ang-2, x-ray crystallographic structure of the human ERK2 complexed with a pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridazine derivative, ERK/PLD2 pathway contributes to fMLP-mediated oxidant production, Study is the first to report ERK2 substitution mutation in a human cancer cell line which resulted in constitutive phosphorylation., overexpression of SphK1 up-regulated MMP1 protein, MMP1 mRNA, and MMP1 promoter activity, and this action of SphK1 required activation of the ERK1/2-Ets1 and NF-kappaB pathways, GSK-3, acting through PKCdelta, is a negative regulator of ERK1/2, the beta2 adrenergic receptor has a role in beta-arrestin-dependent, G protein-independent ERK1/2 activation, Results describe the opposite effect of ERK1/2 and JNK on p53-independent p21WAF1/CIP1 activation involved in the arsenic trioxide-induced human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cellular cytotoxicity., Transient expression of centaurin-alpha1 in COS-7 cells results in specific activation of ERKs., in gastric epithelial cells, H. pylori up-regulates MMP-1 in a type IV secretion system-dependent manner via JNK and ERK1/2, a novel signaling pathway involving MKK-2 and ERK1/2 may down-regulate the activity of PABP and eIF4E by controlling their phosphorylation and compensates for the effect of excess cellular PABP, HSD-3.8 (SPAG1), interacts with G-protein beta 1 subunit and activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, Prostacyclin receptor up-regulates the expression of angiogenic genes in human endometrium via cross talk with epidermal growth factor Receptor and the extracellular signaling receptor kinase 1/2 pathway., Data show that p38 MAPK is necessary for HGF sensitization of ovarian cancer cells to low-doses of CDDP and PTX and might be sufficient to overcome activation of survival pathways., These results indicate that PI3K plays different roles in the activation of Ras/ERK1/2 signaling by insulin and EGF, and that insulin-stimulated, but not EGF-stimulated, ERK1/2 and Akt signalings diverge at PI3K., IR-induced ERK1/2 activation involves EGFR through a Src-dependent pathway that is distinct from EGFR ligand activation, beta-arrestin and G proteins activate parathyroid hormone receptor-stimulated ERK1/2 pathways, These findings reveal that prolonged ERK1-2/MAPK stimulation results in FADD-independent caspase 8 activation and cell death., dynamin has roles in the IL-5 signaling pathway and in receptor endocytosis and termination of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, intracellular generation of NO* by nNOS leads to S-nitrosylation of H-Ras, which interferes with Raf-1 activation and propagation of signalling through ERK1/2, seminal plasma and PGE(2) can promote the expression of tumorigenic and angiogenic factors, in cervical adenocarcinoma cells via the EP4 receptor, EGFR, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, Report shows that adenosine downregulation of DPPIV of colon cancer cells is mediated by an increase in protein tyrosine phosphatase activity that leads to a decrease in the tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase that links to the decline in DPPIV., As such, caveolae and caveolin-1 coordinate PDGF receptor signaling, leading to myocyte proliferation, and inhibit constitutive activity of p42/p44 MAPK to sustain cell quiescence., HSP25 and HSP70i activate HSF1 and have roles in inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, data show that the HTLV-1 MA protein may be phosphorylated by cellular ERK-2 kinase and indicate that phosphorylation of L-domain-containing proteins may be a common post-translational modification required for appropriate retroviruses budding, TNFalpha-signaling pathway mediating ERK inhibition suggesta a role for Lnk in the interplay between PI3K and ERK triggered by TNFalpha in vascular endothelial cells., ERK1/2 is activated by a chimeric neurokinin 1 receptor-beta-arrestin1 fusion protein, Rho kinase, myosin-II, and p42/44 MAPK are potentially important players in different aspects of bile canalicular lumen morphogenesis., results strongly suggest the existence of a bidirectional molecular connection alpha(v)beta(3)-ERK1/ERK2 MAPK that would regulate breast cancer cells survival and proliferation, LRRC4 plays a major role in suppressing U251 cell proliferation by regulating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/Akt/NF-kappaBp65, STAT3, and JNK2/c-Jun pathways., ERK5 and ERK1/2 differ in their mechanisms of gene regulation, and ERK5 may control hypoxia-responsive genes by a mechanism independent of HIF-1alpha expression control, The authors examined downstream signaling targets to study the BMP-Smad and BMP-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in FOP., Data show that inorganic phosphate controls cell growth by activating ERK1/2 cascades and by facilitating the translocation of Mnk1 from cytosol into nucleus through an Akt-mediated MEK pathway., the presence of dsRNA during viral infections and subsequent activation of p38 MAPK is a potential molecular pathway for viral induction of hemorrhagic fevers, These results imply that ERK2 may be important for the differentiation of tubular-type cholangiocarcinoma(CCA)., Expression and activation of ERK2 in the human endometrium was increased particularly during the secretory phase. May be induced by ovarian steroid hormones., CCN2 was critically involved in osteolytic metastasis and was induced by PKA- and PKC-dependent activation of ERK1/2 signaling by PTHrP., Results show that activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, ERKs 1 and 2, and p38 MAP kinase is critical for Hs683 glioma cell migration induced by GDNF., Results suggest that Dok-4, through activation of the Rap1-ERK1/2 pathway, regulates GDNF-mediated neurite outgrowth during neuronal development., TGF-beta1 regulates COX-2 expression in human mesangial cells through the activation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and PI3K., Results describe the roles of MEK1/ERK and AKT/PKB pathways on the effects of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and M-CSF on tumor progression of lung cancer., DAZ cannot bind simultaneously to DAZAP1 and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), and suggest that the phosphorylation-induced dissociation of DAZ and DAZAP1 may allow the former to stimulate translation by interacting with PABP., Reduction of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase phosphorylation is associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx., Wip1 overexpression abrogates the homeostatic balance maintained through the p38-p53-Wip1 pathway, and contributes to malignant progression by inactivating wild-type p53 and p38 MAPK as well as decreasing p16 protein levels in human breast tissues., In 293T cells, Vaccinia Virus apparently utilizes its M2L protein to interfere with a step (s) that would otherwise enable ERK2 phosphorylation and the consequential activation of an NF-kappaBeta response., heterotrimeric G protein-dependent ERK1/2 activation is mediated by IGF-1 and IGF-2 by transactivating sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors, activations of ERK1/2 promotes basal dopamine cell survival and protects dopamine cells from oxidative stress, phosphorylation of Ser-641/643 by MAPK promotes the nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha by blocking its CRM1-dependent nuclear export, The results point to an absolute requirement of enhancer-promoter communication for maintaining the active state of the HNF-4 gene and provide evidence for a molecular bookmarking mechanism., C-reactive protein (CRP) activates the MAP-K pathway of renal distal tubular cells (DTC). CRP upregulated RANTES expression of DTC in a significant and dose-dependent manner., ERK1/2 critically regulates 5-LO activity in the absence of additional downstream targets in the survival signalling preventing peroxynitrite toxicity., These data indicate that the muscle-type nAChR, rather than the alpha7 type, is highly expressed in NSCLC and leads to downstream activation of the p44/42 MAPK pathway, RAS/MEK/ERK signal transduction cascade may provide a potential therapeutic approach in lymphomas and related malignancies that exhibit high levels of MCT-1 protein., In conclusion, we report that the transcription factor Sp1 involved in the p38MAPK-mediated control of p21WAF1 regulation on VSMC in response to BITC has now been identified., ERK1/2 activity is required in early G2 for a timely entry into mitosis but that it does not directly regulate cell cycle progression from late G2 through mitosis in normal or transformed mammalian cells., Inhibition of overactive ras-MEK-ERK pathway in HepG2 cells can correct the defect in VLDL assembly leading to the secretion of VLDL-sized particles, similar to primary hepatocytes, implicating the MEK-ERK cascade in VLDL assembly in the HepG2 model., phosphorylation is a mechanism for regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1/2, Akt, and ERK1/2, apoptosis induced by cannabinoid receptor CB1 and CB2 agonists leads to activation of ERK1/2 leading to G1 cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer cells, ERK2 uses two weak docking interactions to specifically assemble the complex, perhaps in doing so denying Ser-26 access to the active site, inhibition of ITD/Flt3 activity did not prevent the phosphorylation of ERK, STAT5 or Akt in some primary AML cells. In parallel, in these cells, Flt3 and ERK or Akt cooperate to regulate cell survival, These results suggest the existence of an ERK1/2-driven negative feed-back regulation of ERK5 signaling in epidermal growth factor-stimulated HK-2 cells, which is mediated by MKP-3, DUSP5 and/or MKP-1., Leptin and TGF-beta1 synergistically augmented activation of signalling components of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), STAT3 and Smad but did not modulate the expression of LEPR-B., activation of ERK1/2 in colorectal cancer may indicate aggressive tumor behavior and may constitute an independent prognostic factor; data suggest that mutations of the k-ras oncogene may induce activation of ERK1/2, L-phenylalanine and other amino acids enhance the Ca2+o-sensitivity of calcium-channel stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation., results firmly establish that angiotensin II activates p44/42 MAPK through protein kinase C epsilon in H295R cells, Directed trafficking of plasma membrane epidermal growth factor receptor is an essential element of signal transduction leading to p42/p44 MAP kinase activation., These experiments demonstrate that D(2) receptor (short splice variant, D(2S)R) stimulation increases DAT cell surface expression. Furthermore, they show that the increase in DAT function is ERK1/2-dependent but PI3K-independent., These results suggest that the formation of SUMO-1 foci is regulated by the MEK-ERK pathway and may induce apoptosis., Our results suggest that the Hedgehog and ERK1/2 pathways are important for CCA cell proliferation., These data imply that PARP activation following exposure to ionizing radiation is enhanced through EGFR-ERK signaling., These results implicate IR-induced ERK1/2 activation as an important regulator of G2/M checkpoint response to IR in MCF-7 cells., These results strongly suggest that hypoxia-induced apoptosis is regulated through signal transduction in which inactivation of ERK1/2 leads to activation of p38, which then triggers caspase cascade as an execution mechanism of apoptosis., These results suggest that in human tracheal smooth muscle cells, activation of p42/p44 MAPK, p38, and JNK pathways, at least in part, mediated through NF-kappaB, is essential for lipopolysaccharide-induced VCAM-1 gene expression., CDA1 induces p53- and MEK/ERK1/2 MAPK-dependent expression of p21 by acting through the p53 responsive element in the p21 promoter and this contributes to its antiproliferative activity, Increased expression of stress-activated kinases and IKK and their phosphorylated forms in omental fat occurs in obesity., These data demonstrate that IGF-I induces COX-2 expression in human ovarian cancer cells, which is mediated by three parallel signaling cascades--PI3K, MAPK, and PKC pathways that differentially regulate COX-2 expression., phosphorylated-ERK1/2 expression was an independent predictor of complete remission achievement in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia, In A2780 cell line, ERK1/2 interacts with Cdc25C in interphase and phosphorylates Cdc25C in mitosis. Inhibition of ERK activation partially inhibits T48 phosphorylation, Cdc25C activation, and mitotic induction., Results indicated that p-ERK1/2 expression was an independent prognostic indicator for overall survival., The results suggest that multiple cellular signaling pathways can reactivate the virus in a genetically homogeneous cell population. Further analysis revealed that the Raf/MEK/ERK/Ets-1 pathway mediates Ras-induced reactivation., receptor and nonreceptor PTKs have roles in modulating H2O2-induced ERK1/2 and PKB signaling [review], PI3K/Akt activity strongly correlated with proliferation and invasion and p44/42 MAPK was correlated with only invasion., High D-glucose increases L-arginine transport and eNOS expression following TbetaRII activation by TGF-beta1 involving p42/44(mapk) and Smad2 in HUVEC., Fak/Src signaling to the PI3-K/Akt-1 and MEK/Erk pathways undergoes a differentiation state-specific uncoupling in enterocytes., KGF triggers negative feedback between ERK1/2 and AKT pathways to regulate cell proliferation/differention., These results demonstrate that 9-cis-Retinoic acid transduces the signal through p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 for CCR1 and CCR2 up-regulation., Lipid raft cholesterol regulates apoptotic cell death in prostate cancer cells through EGFR-mediated Akt and ERK pathways., cyclin D2 expression in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells is regulated by ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation triggered by Thr280 phosphorylation by GSK3beta or p38, which is induced by inhibition of the PI3K pathway, This review discusses the mechanisms by which activated ERK1/ERK2 regulate growth and cell cycle progression of somatic cells., Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was observed in MMT-induced apoptosis in PC-3M cells., These results suggest the existence of an activation threshold of the ERK1/2 pathway setting by Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent mechanisms, which appears to be the critical factor controlling cell survival or death decision under trophic factor withdrawal., Activation and phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and AKT pathways are involved in cervical adenocarcinoma metastases to pelvic lymph nodes., Spry2 plays a role as tumor suppressor in NSCLC by antagonizing receptor tyrosine kinase-induced signaling at different levels., Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 phosphorylates RORalpha4 in vitro, GSTP1 contributes to doxorubicin and cisplatin resistance in osteosarcoma, which may be mediated in part by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, administration of IL-6 could activate receptor gp80/gp130 signaling pathways including downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and STAT3 phosphorylation in EPCs., activation of the Erk1/2 by increasing calcium concentration in the incubation medium may compensate for the loss of Akt activation, ERK1/2-dependent dissociation of Bim(EL) from Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L) may play a role in regulating Bim(EL) degradation, inhibition of the p44/42-MAPK phosphorylation by high-dose acetaminophen could abolish the doxorubicin-induced cell death pathway, The results of the present study suggest that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), the receptor LPA(1), ERK2 and p38alpha are important regulators for prostate cancer cell invasion and thus could play a significant role in the development of metastasis., These results point to a pivotal role for p38 MAPK pathway during GTP-mediated erythroid differentiation of K562 cells., Results suggest that CTGF plays a crucial role in migratory/invasive processes in human breast cancer by a mechanism involving activation of the integrin-alphavbeta3-ERK1/2-S100A4 pathway., phosphorylation is inhibited by RBP4 in diabetic adipocytes, These results suggest that inactivation of p44/42 MAPK enhances T(3)-induced GLUT5 gene expression in Caco-2 cells through increasing TRalpha-1 transactivity and binding activity to the GLUT5-TRE, probably due to de-phosphorylation of TRalpha-1., Short waves increase proliferation in human chondrocytes through activation of the ERK pathway., STI571 influence through inducing urokinase-type plasminogen activator and interleukin-8, in which the induction of early growth response-1 expression and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation might be involved., ERK1/2 is involved in monitoring actin dysfunction to control the onset of mitosis, suggesting the presence of an actin checkpoint at the G(2)/M transition in primary mammalian cells., The results show that Hcy activated both ERK(1/2)/p38MAPK pathway and NF-kappaB-DNA-binding activity., These observations raise the possibility that the GITRL-mediated inflammatory activation of macrophages is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases., Leptin induces CRP expression in HCAECs via activation of the leptin receptor, increased ROS production, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, that endogenous IGF-1 and IGF-2 receptors can independently initiate ERK1/2 signaling and point to a potential physiologic role for IGF-2 receptors in the cellular response to IGF-2, ERK2-mediated C-terminal serine phosphorylation of p300 was a key event in the regulation of EGF-induced keratin 16 expression., Connexin43 expression can be influenced by Ang II and IGF-1 through ERK and p38 pathways and may contribute to the pathogenesis of vein graft disease following coronary artery bypass grafting., The positive feedback loop between TOPK and ERK2 increases tumorigenesis properties of HCT116 colorectal cancer cells, and TOPK-regulated signaling may serve as a potential therapeutic target in colorectal cancer, There was a significant positive linear association between ERK1/2 activity and uPA protein expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma., PKA and VEGFR2 converge at the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway to protect serum starved neuronal cells from a caspase-dependent cell death., IL-17 is a potent inducer of CRP expression via p38 MAPK and ERK1/2-dependent NF-kappaB and C/EBPbeta activation., analysis of an ERK2-catalyzed reaction that predicts initial reaction velocities under varying concentrations of ATP and substrate, These results suggest that SKAP55 modulates signal transduction from the T cell antigen receptor to Ras by binding to RasGRP1., ERK expression in patients with IE was significantly increased compared with the controls. This suggested a probable role of ERK in the pathogenesis of IE., WNK2 is involved in the modulation of growth factor-induced cancer cell proliferation through the MEK1/ERK1/2 pathway., expression levels of pSTAT3, pAkt, and ERK1/2 were significantly higher in squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease or basal cell carinoma than in actinic keratosis or vowenoid papulosis, These results are evidence that the Sprouty2 mechanism of ERK inhibition is independent of Grb2 binding., ERK2 can regulate TPPP activity via the phosphorylation of Thr(14) and/or Ser(18) in its unfolded N-terminal tail, neuropeptide Y has a role in prostate neoplasm growth through MAP kinase/ERK 1/2 activation [review], ERK1/2 signaling may be involved in the regulation of FA oxidation independently of its effects on FA uptake., These results establish that unlike HBx, MHBs(t) enhances TRAIL-induced hepatocyte apoptosis through a novel mechanism that involves ERK2., Identify novel links between the physiological state of the cell, the activation of MEK/ERK1/2 signaling, and the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of AMPK., Hence, our data provide the first evidence that LIV-1 mRNA is overexpressed in cervical cancer in situ and is involved in invasion of cervical cancer cells through targeting MAPK-mediated Snail and Slug expression., ERK1/2 functions as an alternative pathway in BMP-4 signaling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Capillary sprouting induced by BMP-4 is dependent on ERK phosphorylation., These findings provide evidence that mutations in fibronectin, induce anoikis in human squamous cell carcinoma cells by modulating integrin alpha v-mediated phosphorylation of FAK and ERK., In human proximal tubular cells ERK1/2 signaling represents an important component of oncostatin M inhibitory effect on N-cadherin expression., Streptococcus intermedius histon-like DNA binding protein (Si-HLP) stimulation induced the activation of cell signal transduction pathways, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)., Cbl is not required for ERK1/2-dependent Bim(EL) turnover in fibroblasts and epithelial cells., A pathway comprising PKCs>Raf-1>MEK-1>ERK-1/-2 mediates the effect of gastrin on the CgA promoter, and strongly suggests that enhanced phosphorylation of Sp1 and CREB is crucial for CgA transactivation through the G protein-coupled CCK-B/gastrin receptor., RU486 attenuates the activation of ERK1/2, decreases the expression of COX-2, and affects PGE2 production by inhibiting hCG-induced COX-2 expression., IL-17 induces MMP-1 in human cardiac fibroblasts directly via p38 MAPK- and ERK-dependent AP-1, NF-kappaB, and C/EBP-beta activation., Activated protein C may provide cytoprotective activity by activating the ERK pathway, which upregulates EGR-1 thereby suppressing the expression of TRAIL by PAR-1/S1p1 dependent but EPCR independent mechanism., These observations suggest that within in vivo-like conditions Src may have a leading role in the induction of sustained ERK1/2 activation through the Src/Ras/Raf pathway., study demonstrates that the ERK1/2 MAP kinase is markedly activated in ystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelial cells after prolonged oxidative stress and causes an increase in both the production of IL-8 and the expression of CXCR1/2 receptors, IL-15 but not IL-21 caused an increased phosphorylation of Shc and ERK1/2., Shp2E76K induces cytokine-independent survival of TF-1 cells by a novel mechanism involving up-regulation of Bcl-XL through the Erk1/2 pathway., IFNalpha-induced apoptosis requires activation of ERK1/2, PKCdelta, and JNK downstream of PI3K and mTOR, and it can occur in a nucleus-independent manner, thus demonstrating that IFNalpha induces apoptosis in the absence of de novo transcription., Our study found a direct relationship between the increasing grade of the dysplastic cervical lesions and the intensity of ERK2 staining, thus implying a role of ERK2 as an early event in cervical carcinogenesis., By selectively modulating the downstream effects of Spry2, Tesk1 may thus serve as a molecular determinant of the signaling outcome., Leptin may promote the proliferation of endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells by activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway., These results indicate that MMP-9 inhibition induces apoptosis due to altered beta1-integrin expression in medulloblastoma and ERK activation plays an active role and functions upstream of NF-kappaB activation to initiate the apoptotic signal., Data show that activation and nuclear translocation of ERK1/2 require Cyclophilin A., These results suggest that coupling of Grb2 to Gab1 mediates the hepatocyte growth factor-induced strong activation of the ERK pathway, which is required for the inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation., beta-arrestin2 supported protein kinase C-independent ERK1/2 activation by the AT1a rceptor, molecular mechanisms leading to glutamate-induced proliferation by determining ERK1/2 and CREB phoshporylation in chick RPE cells in primary culture and the human-derived RPE cell line ARPE-19, AngII activated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), but not p38 or c-Jun NH2-terminal MAP kinases. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation reduced the AngII-induced VEGF synthesis., it was shown that recognition of C. albicans filaments by neutrophils is mediated via the MEK/ERK cascade and independent of JNK or p38 activation., Taurine was shown to increase cell proliferation and generate an increase in [Mg2+]i accompanied by ERK 1/2 activation in human osteoblast cells., Calcitonin decreases ERK1/2 phosphorylation in cancer cells showing constitutive phosphorylated ERK1/2., Chorionic gonadotropin promotes trophoblast invasion and migration through activation of ERK and AKT signaling involving their downstream effector MMP-2., The production of GRO-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8 was shown to account for the ability of the HeLa cell culture medium to stimulate the migration of monocytes/macrophages, suggesting a key role for p38 MAPK and ERK1/ERK2., The expression of STAT3 and p38 was positively correlated with the degree of dysplasia in sporadic colorectal tubular adenoma., Insulin-like growth factor type-I receptor-dependent phosphorylation of ERK3 can be induced by picropodophyllin., Altered osteoblast proliferation in human osteoporosis may result from dysregulation of IGF-I receptor signaling, including constitutive activation of the IRS-2/Erk signaling pathway., Rho kinase and ERK1/2 play more important roles than RhoA in PGE(2)-mediated migration stimulation of first-trimester trophoblasts., Mutational analysis of ERK2 reveals a (157)TTCD(160) motif required for recognition of caspase-9 that acts independently of the putative common docking domain, attenuation of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway is essential for andrographolide-mediated inhibition of v-Src transformation, These results clearly indicate that CCDC134 is a novel member of the secretory family and down-regulates the Raf-1/MEK/ERK and JNK/ SAPK pathways., substance P receptor mediates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a calcium-dependent manner, RSVL activates the kinase-G system to counteract HP-induced ERK1/2 activation and coronary arterial proliferation, AEA is able to decrease differentiating gene expression by increasing DNA methylation in human keratinocytes, through a p38, and to a lesser extent p42/44, mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway triggered by CB1R., OSBP is able to sense both membrane cholesterol and oxidized sterols and link this information to the ERK1/2 signaling pathway., extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2(ERK2) regulates mitochondrial membrane potential in humans lens epithelial cells, a novel, stimulus-specific, and phosphatase-specific mechanism of ERK2 regulation in the nucleus by DUSP1, -2, and -4., indicate the involvement of focal adhesion kinase-dependent activation of ERK in Toll like receptor-mediated eosinophil stimulation, processing of pre-TNF alpha in LPS-stimulated macrophages is regulated by TPL2-mediated activation of ERK1 and ERK2, [Review] ERK2 activity generated by cytokines, free radicals or other inflammatory factors after stroke may worsen ischemic damage, whereas the ERK1/2 activity produced by exogenous growth factors, estrogen, and preconditioning favors neuroprotection., Concordant overexpression of p-FAK and p-ERK1/2 in extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is associated with the grade of malignancy of EMPD., Prorenin and renin-induced ERK 1/2 activation are independent of angiotensin II. The signal transduction is different from that evoked by angiotensin II., G2/M cell cycle arrest is induced by genistein via stable activation of ERK1/2 pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of CIITA down-regulates CIITA activity by priming it for nuclear export, thus providing a means for cells to tightly regulate the extent of antigen presentation., Overexpression of MSLN resulted in sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and suppression of Bim., Data show that diallyl sulfide induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells, and that caspase-3, NF-kappaB, and ERK-2 are involved., The formation of an ERK.GSK3beta complex retained pERK1/2 in the cytoplasm., These data suggest that TNF-induces autophagy through ERK1/2 and that inhibition of autophagy increases cellular sensitivity to TNF., Data suggest that TPA stimulates reactive oxygen species generation as a second messenger to activate Erk1/2 via a redox-mediated inhibition of Erk1/2-directed phosphatase in ML-1 cells., Prostaglandin E1 inhibits IL-6-induced MCP-1 expression by interfering specifically in IL-6-dependent ERK1/2., Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling to Erk1/2 and STATs control the intensity of the epithelial inflammatory responses to rhinovirus infection., even upon over-expression DUSP6 fails to inactivate ERK5, confirming that it is indeed an ERK1/2-specific DUSP, CRP increases VEGF-A expression in monocytic cells via a PI3-kinase and ERK 1/2 signaling dependent pathway, results show that IL-15 can improve the function of NK cells via up-regulating NKG2D expression, and also augmenting the expression of cytotoxic effector molecules and the phosphorylation of STAT1 and ERK1/2, which may also contribute the NK lysis, Phosphorylated ERK1/2 was present in almost all tumours and p-ERK1/2 may be a prognostic marker at the invasive front of oral squamous cell carcinomas., Probiotic-secretory proteins protect the intestinal epithelium from hydrogen peroxide-induced insult by a PKC beta1/epsilon- and ERK1/2-dependent mechanism., Results highlight the importance of a high intracellular Zn(2+) content and the VHR/ZAP-70/ERK1,2-associated pathways in the modulation of LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth., Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevented ERK2 phosphorylation in endothelial cells to influence angiogenesis., ERK1/2 as an important signaling mediator for the inhibitory effect of THP-1-MacCM on TG accumulation during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis., the capacity of IMP to inhibit signal propagation through Raf to MEK is a consequence of disrupting KSR1 homooligomerization and B-Raf/c-Raf hetero-oligomerization, Data show that in airway smooth muscle cells from asthmatics, the presence of a strong proliferative stimulus (10% FBS) reduces ERK activation resulting in a shift to the PI 3-kinase pathway., Preeclampsia is associated with decreased activation of ERK1/2 in invasive trophoblasts in vivo., Pyk2/ERK 1/2 mediate Sp1- and c-Myc-dependent induction of telomerase activity by epidermal growth factor, increased expression of ERK1 and activated p38 can predict poor human sperm quality, Ablation of ERK2 gene expression (but not ERK1) by RNA interference significantly reduced proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells., These results suggest that induction of OspF is enhanced during Shigella invasion of dendritic cells and decreases the phosphorylation level of Erk1/2., when HARE binds HA, that leads to activation of ERK1/2, important mediators of intracellular signal transduction., Results suggest that repetitive deformation stimulates intestinal epithelial motility across fibronectin in a manner that requires both Src activation and a novel Src-independent FAK-Tyr 925-dependent pathway that activates ERK., These data demonstrate the role of Cx43 in the proliferation and migration of human saphenous vein smooth muscle cells and angiotensin II-induced Cx43 expression via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)-AP-1 signaling pathway., activation of ERK1/2 is implicated in the pathobiology of glioblastoma., c-FLIPL promotes the motility of HeLa cells by activating FAK and ERK, and increasing MMP-9 expression., Data suggest that PLD2 is an early player upstream of the Ras-ERK1/2-IL-2 pathway in T-cells via phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol production., the induction of inflammatory genes by farnesol is mediated by the activation of the NF-kappaB pathway and involves MEK1/2-ERK1/2-MSK1-dependent phosphorylation of p65/RelA(Ser(276)), inflammatory levels of NO inhibit epithelial cell migration, because of suppression of ERK1/2 signaling, and activation of HIF-1alpha and p53, with potential consequences for epithelial repair and remodeling during airway inflammation, human 14-3-3gamma binds to the ERK1/2 molecular scaffold KSR1, which is mediated by the C-terminal stretch of 14-3-3gamma, Sphingosine kinases and sphingosine-1-phosphate are critical for transforming growth factor beta-induced ERK1 and ERK2 activation and promotion of migration and invasion of esophageal cancer cells, ATP activated MAPKs through the P2Y2 purinoceptor/PLC/PKC/ERK signaling pathway and induced translocation of ERK1/2 into the nucleus., distinct phosphorylation of PKCdelta on tyrosines 64 and 187 specifically activates the Erk1/2 pathway by the down-regulation of MKP-1, resulting in the persistent phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and cell apoptosis, The ERK-RSK1 activation by growth factors delays G2/M transition and this might be required to maintain genomic integrity during growth factor stimulation., the MET proto-oncogene and the downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) are regulated by MicroRNA miR-199a*, These findings, together with observations that si-hBVR blocked activation of ERK and Elk1 by IGF1 and prevented formation of ternary complex between MEK/ERK/hBVR, define the critical role of hBVR in ERK signaling and nuclear functions of the kinase., Lumican induces cell migration by activating ERK 1/2 signaling and ERK 1/2 stimulates expression of integrin beta1., We demonstrate a role for PI3-K, p42/44 MAPK and p38 MAPK in the stimulation of cytotrophoblast cell motility by EGF., these data demonstrate a novel mitochondrial role for ERK in maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in human alveolar macrophages., B-Raf-initiated inactivation of Bad and Bim only partly contributes to the anti-apoptotic activities of this oncogene and that other points within the cell death machinery are also targeted by deregulated ERK signaling, These data support a role for ERK1/2 in a postattachment step, although the precise mechanism remains under investigation., The absence of cytoplasmic ERK activation in poor prognosis T1-2 melanomas may be associated with activation of some other uncharacterized pathway leading to tumor progression and adverse outcome., ErbB2 inhibition leads to a persistent phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which negatively regulates the downstream signaling and cell growth, Inhibition of chemotaxis by PPAR-gamma ligands correlated with decreases in extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 activation, actin polymerization, and adherence to a fibrinogen substrate., These findings suggest that siRNA-mediated downregulation of MAPK1 could be an attractive strategy for cancer therapy., Abnormally high levels of ERK1/2 activity may be involved in endometriosis, possibly by stimulating endometrial cell survival., Inhibition of ERK1/2 and activation of p38 are involved in diallyl disulfide induced apoptosis of leukemia HL-60 cells., The human angiotensin AT(1) receptor supports G protein-independent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation and cellular proliferation., ERK1/2 phosphorylation and c-Jun expression were significantly lowered in gastric cancer compared with the non-cancer adjacent tissues., The increase in COX2 expression and the activation of Erk1/2 regulated by Cot are essential for the induction of cell migration., the Gab1-SHP2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway comprises an inhibitory axis for IGF-I-dependent myogenic differentiation., Erk protein is implicated in human medulloblastoma., an important interaction between BRCA1 and ERK1/2 in the regulation of cellular response after IR-induced DNA damage in MCF-7 cells., data indicate that mitochondrial localization of ERK2 activity is sufficient to recapitulate the effects of 6-OHDA on mitophagy and autophagic cell death, Only the GERD patients without Barrett's esophagus demonstrated an acid-induced increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation., ERK1/2-mediated Ser-177 phosphorylation has a role in modulating HDV antigenomic RNA replication, possibly through RNAPII regulation, These results identify a novel signaling pathway involving Jak2-dependent Gab2 phosphorylation leading to Erk1/2 activation and cell proliferation in response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor., In vascular smooth muscle cells shedding of membrane-bound epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor ligands and activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases Pyk2 and Src contributed to the thrombin-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation., Histamine-induced Egr-1 expression is dependent on the activation of the H1 receptor, and rapidly and transiently activates PKCdelta, ERK1/2, p38 kinase, and JNK prior to Egr-1 induction., E2, a sex hormone, stimulates MUC5B gene overexpression by interaction with estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and by acting through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)., Serum induction initially stimulates MKL1 nuclear localization due to a decrease in G-actin levels, but MKL1 is then downregulated by nuclear export due to ERK1/2 phosphorylation., germinating but not resting conidia of A. fumigatus results in interleukin (IL)-8 synthesis that is controlled by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2. MyD88 pathway is activated by A. fumigatus and leads to NF-kappaB activation, Myosin light-chain kinase contributes to the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells through cross-talk with activated ERK1/2., DIDS-sensitive Cl- channels play a key role in the Low-density lipoprotein-induced cell proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells via the activation of Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt and the upregulation of Egr-1., The state of activation of components of mTOR, Ras/Raf kinase/ERK, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signal transduction pathways, as well as cell cycle protein analyte correlates in gastric adenocarcinoma cases, was examined., MAPK-containing signaling complexes are positioned on sensitive promoters with their protein substrates to modulate transcription in situ in response to incoming signals, A 3 amino acid domain (SPS) that is phosphorylated upon stimulation to induce nuclear translocation of ERK2, is identified., Crystal structures for inhibitor-kinase complexes in which the inhibitor has different binding orientations and hydrogen-bonding patterns with extracellular-signal regulated kinase 2 and insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, are reported., regulation of ERK1/2 by MKP-3 is countered by the complex regulation of MKP-3 by ERK1/2., pneumolysin selectively induced expression of MKP1 via a TLR4-dependent MyD88-TRAF6-ERK pathway, which inhibited the PAK4-JNK signaling pathway,leading to up-regulation of MUC5AC mucin production, short-term inhibition of p42/p44 MAPK activity by depletion of kinase with small interfering RNA caused target gene-specific reductions in AR activity, JAK/STAT3 and ERK1/2 signaling activation is involved in leptin-mediated proliferation of renal cell carcinoma Caki-2 cells, Results describe the cellular localization of phosphorylated ERK1/2 (P-ERK) in a series of normal human colon samples removed from newborns and in patients with intestinal obstruction such as Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR), stenosis and atresia., CysLTs induce MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta production mediated by ERK via binding to the CysLT(1) receptor in human monocytes/macrophages., ERK2 CD domain mutation from a human cancer cell line enhanced anchorage-independent cell growth and abnormality in Drosophila., IL-17F may be involved in psoriasis via, in part, the activation of ERK1/2 and the induction of IL-8 in keratinocytes, These results indicate that intron 1 of DUSP6 plays a crucial role in transcriptional regulation of DUSP6 in a feedback loop manner responding to MAPK1 via ETS2 in human cells., activation mediates the antiapoptotic signaling of melatonin in UVB-stressed human monocytic U937 cells, HMGB1 induced the activation of p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and Akt., the craniofacial and cardiac outflow tract defects observed in patients with a distal 22q11.2 micro-deletion are explained by deficiencies in neural crest autonomous ERK2 signaling., TC1 was involved in the mitogen-activated ERK1/2 signaling pathway and positively regulated G(1)- to S-phase transition of the cell cycle., The goal of the study was to delineate the specificity of RGS proteins modulating induced ERK phosphorylation., these results indicate the importance of C. burnetii modulation of host signaling and demonstrate a critical role for Akt and Erk1/2 in successful intracellular parasitism and maintenance of host cell viability., the molecular interactions of arrestin2 and arrestin3 and their individual domains with the components of the two MAPK cascades, ASK1-MKK4-JNK3 and c-Raf-1-MEK1-ERK2, ERK1/2 activation leads to breast cancer cell proliferation and migration via the downstream effectors beta-catenin, cyclin D1, and survivin., Fast regulation of AP-1 activity through interaction of lamin A/C, ERK1/2, and c-Fos at the nuclear envelope., EGF induces uPAR expression via ERK-1/2, AP-1, and NF-kappaB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates cell invasiveness in human gastric cancer AGS cells, Proliferative effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the gastric cancer cell line are associated with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation., Specific phosphorylation events on ERK1/2 integrate differing upstream signals to induce cardiac hypertrophy., PGE2 greatly induced HCC cell adhesion, migration, and invasion by activating FAK/paxillin/Erk pathway, elevated expression of activated ERK1/2 may play a role in lung metastasis of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma, Sphingosine-1-phosphate inhibits high glucose-mediated ERK1/2 action in endothelium through induction of MAP kinase phosphatase-3., Data show that there are both promoter-specific and cell stage-specific roles for the ERK1/2 signaling pathway on 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated CYP24 gene induction in enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells., Evidence suggesting that SPHK enhances migration of ML-1 cells by an autocrine mechanism and that the S1P-evoked migration is dependent on protein kinase C alpha, ERK1/2, and SPHK., Erlotinib and gefitinib inhibited EGFR and ERK1/2 phosphorylation/activation in all GBMs, irrespective of the antiproliferative response observed., extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 are activated by silibinin, which suppresses growth of human prostate carcinoma PC-3 orthotopic xenograft, results demonstrate a critical role for hypoxia-induced p38 MAP kinase pathway in androgen-independent androgen receptor activation in prostate cancer cells, PRL-3 up-regulates pERK and Rho expression and activity in lung cancer, Aldosterone induces collagen synthesis via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 in renal proximal tubules., CIRP enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, and treatment with an MEK inhibitor decreased the proliferation caused by CIRP., MEK1/2 phosphorylates ERK1/2, which phosphorylates Sp1 and AP-1 that in turn bind to their respective binding sites to regulate the expression of human VIL2 in ESCC cells., Data suggest that GnRH-mediated ERK1/2 responses are dependent on protein neosynthesis and docking-domain-dependent binding, but for GnRH activation, this does not reflect dependence on nuclear-inducible DUSPs., B(1)R-induced proliferative effects depend on the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor and subsequent ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases phosphorylation, Increased PRL1 expression results in activation of Src and ERK1/2, which stimulates MMP2 and MMP9 production, leading to increased cell migration and invasion., Data suggest that mechanical signals are transmitted into the nucleus by ERK/JNK signaling pathways and then stimulate collagen type I expression through AP-1 activation in force-exposed human periodontal ligament fibroblasts., Data suggest that periodontal ligament fibroblasts are better at osteoclast induction than gingival fibroblasts, and that centrifugal force inhibited osteoclastogenesis of periodontal fibroblasts through osteoprotegerin production and ERK1/2 activation., Data suggest that beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) acts via ERK1/2 and PI3K, as blocking of the PI3K/Akt pathway revealed its requirement in mediating the promotive effects of HMB on muscle cell differentiation and fusion., The data suggest a model in which the expression of 16E5 from the major E1--E4-E5 mRNA promotes T57 phosphorylation of E1--E4 by ERK and keratin binding., The ability of human granule cells to respond to extracellular acidification by generating Ca(2+) signals and ERK activation is state-dependent, being lost upon differentiation., Upregulation of COX-2 expression suggested its role as a mediator in chronic rhinosinusitis. ERK and p38MAPK pathways were involved in signaling COX-2 through NF-kappaB pathway., ICBP90 might be a pivotal target for the ERK1/2 signaling pathway to control the proliferation of Jurkat T cells., Examine role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase for endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in coronary artery disease., ERK2 activation transduces mitogenic signals, at least in part, by downregulating the cell cycle inhibitory protein p21(Cip1)., GDF-9 activated Rb protein (a critical G(1) to S-phase regulator), ERK42/44, and Smad3, The JAK3/ERK pathway may play an important role in epidermal growth factor induced MMP-9 expression in SKBR3 cells., elevated pERK expression occurs in urothelial carcinoma in the absence of B-Raf mutations and is not correlated with FGFR3 over-expression, EP2 and EP4 receptor inhibition induces apoptosis of human endometriotic cells through suppression of ERK1/2, AKT, NFkappaB, and beta-catenin pathways and activation of intrinsic apoptotic mechanisms, Metformin decreases angiogenesis via NF-kappaB and Erk1/2/Erk5 pathways by increasing the antiangiogenic thrombospondin-1., Data show that in the liver of alveolar echinococcosis patients, ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK were activated and PCNA expression was increased, and that upon exposure to vesicle fluid, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was also activated in hepatocytes in vitro., siRNA to uPAR significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and stimulated apoptosis, to a greater extent than uPA siRNA., Increased expression of phosphorylated ERK2 is associated with gallbladder adenocarcinoma., SGK1 expression during liver regeneration is a part of a signaling pathway that is necessary for enhancing ERK signaling activation through modulating the MEK/ERK complex formation., PI-3 kinase activity is necessary for ERK1/2-induced disruption of mammary epithelial architecture, OPN enhances the migration of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-9 expression through the alphavbeta3 integrin, FAK, MEK, ERK and NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway., Results suggest that the activation of PKCdelta and ERK1/2 elicited by 4977 bp-deleted mtDNA-induced oxidative stress plays a role in the susceptibility of the mutant cells to apoptosis., Caveolin-1 and caveolae play a paradoxical role in regulating VEGF-induced ERK2/1 activation and in vitro angiogenesis, Data show that blockade of endothelial cell-derived IL-6, CXCL8, or EGF by gene silencing or neutralizing antibodies inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and ERK in tumor cells, respectively., DEP-1 inhibits the RAS pathway by direct dephosphorylation of ERK1/2 kinases, SDF-1alpha acts through CXCR4 to activate MEK and ERK, which in turn activates IKKalpha/beta and NF-kappaB, resulting in the activations of alphavbeta3 integrins and contributing the migration of human osteosarcoma cells., LFA-1 and CD2 synergize for the Erk1/2 activation in the Natural Killer (NK) cell immunological synapse, Data show that cholesteryl ester formation was dependent on protein kinase zeta/ extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (PKCzeta/ERK1/2) activation., Data show taht emodin at low doses did not affect ERK1/2 activation, mRNA, and Rad51 protein levels; however, it enhanced a gefitinib-induced decrease in phospho-ERK1/2 and Rad51 protein levels by enhancing Rad51 protein instability., Results suggest that a functional emerin-lamin A/C complex is required for cell spreading and proliferation, possibly acting through ERK1/2 signalling., Data show that overexpression of CAR in human epithelial cells leads to increased basal activation of p44/42 MAPK and of beta1 and beta3 integrins, and that this is required for efficient Ad5 infection., Endosomal endothelin-converting enzyme-1 is a regulator of beta-arrestin-dependent ERK signaling, Cilostazol protects endothelial cells against lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis through ERK1/2- and P38 MAPK-dependent pathways., Data provide evidence that MAPK/ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation regulates nucleo-cytoplasmic transport and cell growth arrest activity of RASSF2., Endothelin-1 acts primarily via the ETA receptors to induce phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in human aortic smooth muscle cells., Data show that IGFBP-3 is regulated by the PI3-kinase/AKT and MAPK/ERK1/2 pathways., Akt, activated downstream from ERK 1/2, was required for TGF-beta1-induced ZEBRA expression and enabled Smad3, a mediator of TGF-beta1 signaling, to be acetylated by direct interaction with the co-activator CREB-binding protein, OPN enhances angiogenesis directly through PI3K/AKT- and ERK-mediated pathways with VEGF acting as a positive feedback signal., Adiponectin-stimulated CXCL8 release in primary human hepatocytes is regulated by ERK1/ERK2, p38 MAPK, NF-kappaB, and STAT3 signaling pathways., mitochondrial respiration is essential for activation of ERK1/2 and caspase-3 in human eosinophils stimulated with H2O2., The chimeric compound BIM-23A760 is able to exert cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in pituitary tumors, these phenomena being mainly mediated by DR2D and involving ERK1/2 and p38 pathways activation., Results suggest that CRP may promote coagulation by enhancing the expression and activity of TF and reducing that of TFPI by activating NF-kappaB and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 via FcgammaR II., Data suggest that p42 ERK and p44 ERK activation are involved in RANTES/CCL5 pro-tumoral effects on Huh7 cells., Data show that sorafenib inhibited the raf/ MEK/ERK signal pathway, and downregulated cyclin D1 and Rb levels., The use of dynasore allowed to confirm the existence of a dynamin-sensitive element that regulates ERK1/2 activation., The results indicate that serum activates Akt and ERK pathways earlier than XIAP expression., ERK1/2 activation as the key pathway through which IL-6 regulates both mesenchymal stem cells proliferation and inhibition of differentiation., activation of ERK1c is mainly mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK kinase 1b (MEK1b), which is an alternatively spliced form of MEK1 that was previously considered an inactive kinase, Results demonstrated that the growth inhibition of HEC1A cells by GnRH-I or GnRH-II is involved in the activation of integrin-FAK and ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways., Data provide evidence that p38 Map kinase pathway is activated leading to increased upregulation of mixed lineage kinase 3, MKK3/6, MSK1, and Mapkapk2, upon treatment of BCR/ABL expressing cells with dasatinib., Data show that BME induces the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2., Radial spoke protein 3 is a mammalian protein kinase A-anchoring protein that binds ERK1/2., Results identified proteins that showed elevated levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase I carbonyls in inferior parietal lobule (IPL) from subjects with mild cognitive impairment., The inhibitory effect of ERK1/2 upon Cdx2 in colorectal cancer cells is in sharp contrast to its stimulatory effect upon Cdx2 expression in trophectoderm and trophoblast stem cells., abnormal expression of MKP-1 and p-ERK(1/2) probably assists in promoting the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma, S100A4 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 codependently induce vascular smooth muscle cell migration via phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase and chloride intracellular channel 4., p38 signaling is a novel pathway exploited by mycobacteria to affect the expression of CD1 antigen-presenting cells and avoid immune recognition., Results suggest that genistein could inhibit cell growth by inhibiting AKT phosphorylation, ERK1/2 activity and activating p38 MAPK., Data showed that 9 tumor samples had strong expression of P-Akt and 5/9 had P-MAPK, and none of them had EGFR expression., TGFbeta(1) activates EGFR via an H(2)O(2)-dependent mechanism, which subsequently leads to the activation of Erk(1/2)., A specific region (-688 to -611 bp) was discovered in the IRS2 promoter essential for basal promoter activity and oxidative stress induced transcription depending on ERK activation and SP1 and NFI binding in human hepatocytes., Tensile stress can activate the expression of p-ERK and p-STAT3 in alveolar epithelium A549 cells., analysis of a novel mode of modulation of SM gene transcription by ERK1/2 through a direct phosphorylation of myocardin, lithocholic acid induces uPAR expression via Erk-1/2 and AP-1 pathway and, in turn, stimulate invasiveness of human colon cancer cells., Data show that in hypoxic conditions or coexpressed with a constitutively active form of HIF-1alpha, c-Kit mutants activate the Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk pathway, stimulate proliferation and transform melanocytes., Study suggests that functions of ERK1/2 other than its "canonical" kinase activity are also involved in the pathway-mediated growth arrest signaling., Findings demonstrate that interactions between endogenous RSK1 and PKAc in intact cells regulate the ability of cAMP to activate PKA and identify a novel mechanism by which PKA activity is regulated by the Erk1/2 pathway., Detecting intracellular Erk1/2 phosphorylation and IL-2 and IFN-g production, study confirmed that multiple signals, including VLA-4 engagement, are necessary for maximal T-cell activation beyond that induced via the TCR and CD28., Data how that The differential expression of TrkA and TrkB with differentiation of retinoblastoma cells was mediated by extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation., Data show that mutated GPC3 lacking the GPI anchoring domain (sGPC3) significantly inhibited the in vivo growth, blocked Wnt signaling and Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in tumors., Data show that oncogenic level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation appears to be MEK1 and MEK2 dependent in basal condition., Data identify a novel signaling pathway in the endocrine L cell, whereby Cdc42 regulates actin remodeling, activation of the cannonical 1/2-ERK1/2 pathway and PAK1, and GLP-1 secretion in response to insulin., results suggest that ERK(1/2) and JNK are involved in CS-induced biphasic HO-1 expression by a specific regulation of Nrf2/Keap1-Bach1, Data show that LPS acts via ERK1/2/5 signaling pathways to decrease alphaENaC transcription, reducing channel abundance, activity, and transepithelial Na(+) transport in H441 airway epithelial cells., Results highlight PKCdelta as a potential target for therapy of breast cancers with high activity of the ERK1/2 pathway., In suicide brain, the interaction of MEK1 with ERK1 and ERK2 is increased along with decreased phosphorylation and catalytic activity of ERK1/2., SphK1 is involved in MUC5AC production induced by IL-13 upstream of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and independent of STAT6 phosphorylation., Data show that RNA silencing of choline kinase in HeLa cells completely abrogates the high concentration of phosphocholine, which in turn decreases phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidic acid and signaling through the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways., This study demonstrated that H. pylori LPS may be a pathogenic factor causing gastric tumors by enhancing cell proliferation and inflammation via the MAPK cascade in gastric epithelial cells., Novel nuclear nesprin-2 variants tether active extracellular signal-regulated MAPK1 and MAPK2 at promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies and act to regulate smooth muscle cell proliferation., ERK2 acts as a transcriptional repressor for interferon gamma-induced genes., ERK signaling is required for T-cell activation partly by inhibiting activation-induced proteolysis of Vav1., Results suggest that MAPKs are sensors of pressure overload and that extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in WBCs might be used as a novel surrogate biomarker of uncontrolled hypertension., interaction of RAGE and its ligand S100B after myocardial infarction may play a role in myocyte apoptosis by activating ERK1/2 and p53 signaling., Data show that melanoma cells expressing B-Raf(V600E) display a reduced C-Raf, ERK1/2 activation and IL-8 secretion responses in human intestinal epithelial cells infected with T. gondii were shown to be MyD88 dependent, colostrum treatment increases the levels of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins and the activated forms of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 in HaCaT cell line., Data show 5-HT can induce activation of two interrelated signaling pathways, Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt to induce proliferation, migration, and differentiation., results suggest that PRL-3's roles in motility, invasion, and metastasis in colon cancer are critically controlled by the integrin beta1-ERK1/2-MMP2 signaling, The EGFR-ERK-CK2-mediated phosphorylation of alpha-catenin promotes beta-catenin transactivation and tumor cell invasion., hypoxia switches glucose depletion-induced necrosis to apoptosis and ERK1/2 and PI3K-Akt exert anti-necrotic and pro-apoptotic activities in the cell death, respectively, Results are consistent with the hypothesis that ERK and mTOR signaling interact at multiple levels to regulate tumor growth in vivo, and support the testing of MEK plus mTOR inhibitor combinations in pancreatic cancer patients., Sorafenib inhibits ERK1/2 and MCL-1(L) phosphorylation levels resulting in caspase 3-independent cell death in malignant pleural mesothelioma, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate(PMA)downregulates onzin expression through PKCepsilon-ERK2 signaling pathway, which favors monocytic differentiation of leukemic cells., Data show that PF-2341066 reduced HGF-stimulated phosphorylation of c-Met in the tyrosine kinase domain as well as phosphorylation of the downstream signaling effectors, Akt and Erks., Report decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 following decreased expression of NKG2D in human K562 cells exposed to asbestos., LRRK2 was associated to a small but significant induction of SNCA, which was suppressed by treatment with the selective MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor U0126., These results refine the minimal sequence for ERK1/2-driven degradation and further define the functional importance of key regions within BIM(EL), highlighting the complexity of this pro-apoptotic protein., DSCs-expressed CD82 up-regulates the expression of TIMP1 in an autocrine manner and inhibits the invasiveness of human first-trimester trophoblast cells partly through the integrinbeta1/MAPK/MAPK3/1 signaling pathway, Data show that bile acid reflux present in patients with BE may increase reactive oxygen species production and cell proliferation via activation of PI-PLCgamma2, ERK2 MAP kinase, and NADPH oxidase NOX5-S, thereby contributing to the development of EA., Data demonstrate that macroautophagy and ERK1/2 phosphorylation serve as protective mechanisms to counteract the antiproliferative effect of proteasome inhibition., PGE(2)-induced CYP1B1 expression is mediated by ligand-independent activation of the ERalpha pathway as a result of the activation of ERK, Akt, and PKA in breast cancer cells., CKbeta8- and CKbeta8-1-induced activation of ERK1/2 is mediated by the G(i)/G(o) protein, PLC, and PKCdelta., Chondrosarcoma cell invasion is increased by hypoxia induced expression of CXCR4 and MMP1 and is mediated by HIF-1a and ERK., Results suggest that ERK1/2 signal pathways play an important role in the proliferation of SCC and that the inhibition of this signal pathway may be effective in the treatment of cutaneous SCC., Modulation of ERK may have therapeutic potential in the prevention of smoke-related lung injury., Results describe a cellular model of sustained ERK1/2 activation through Sprouty2, which may provide a mechanistic understanding of self-sustained biological processes in chronic illnesses such as asthma., the pathologic interaction of osteoarthritis chondrocytes and osteoblasts is mediated via the activation of ERK-1/2 phosphorylation and deactivation of p38 phosphorylation, resulting in hypertrophic differentiation, The Ras/ERK pathway at least in part contributes to the maintenance and the acquisition of stem-like hallmarks, although the extent of its contribution is varied in a cell type-specific manner., Data show that ERK1/2 activation is dissociated from nuclear entry, which is a rate limiting step in primary cells and in vivo., Pin1 regulates BPGAP1 function in Rho and Erk signalling, with active Mek2 serving as a novel regulatory scaffold that promotes crosstalk between RhoGAP, Pin1 and Erk in the regulation of cell migration., Data reveal that Pyk2 couples the activation mGluRs to the ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway even though it attenuates mGluR1-dependent G protein signaling., The effects of ADAM15 on endothelial hyperpermeability and neutrophil transmigration are mediated by intracellular signalling involving Src and ERK1/2 activation., Overexpression of Egr-1 is caused by mutation of p53 and appears to be initiated through activation of the MEK/ERK1/2 signaling cascade by mutant p53., Serum-free medium conditioned by apoptotic endothelial cell increases extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation and inhibits apoptosis., Binding of G-1 compound to GPR30 in PC-3 prostate cancer cells is followed by sustained activation of Erk1/2 and a c-jun/c-fos-dependent upregulation of p21, resulting in the arrest of PC-3 growth at the G(2) phase., This study demonstrated that IL-6 and high glucose synergistically stimulated MMP-1 expression in mononuclear phagocytes via ERK and JNK cascades and c-Jun upregulation., mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 has a role in non-small cell lung carcinomas, Cadmium effects on differentiated intestinal epithelium involve ERK1/2 and p38 cascades and possibly PLC-beta signaling pathways., ERK5 and ERK1/2 kinase cascades play opposing roles in regulating bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cell cartilage formation., Data define a new model of integrin beta4-dependent PKB/Akt and ERK1/2 activation demonstrating the keratin filament as a structure necessary in signal transmission., SOCS-3 interferes with the FGF-2 signalling pathway by modulating p44 and p42 phosphorylation in prostate cancer cells., Alternative splicing of human papillomavirus type-16 E6/E6* early mRNA is coupled to EGF signaling via Erk1/2 activation, ERK(1/2) was found to be activated in a sustained way after endocytosis of hepatitis C virus non-enveloped particles, followed by downstream immediate early gene modulation, Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is required for tubular network formation and migration of resistant breast cancer cells MCF-7 through PKC and ERK1/2 signalling pathways., Data demonstrate that ERK2 but not ERK1 signaling is necessary for Ras-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), and that ERK2 but not ERK1 overexpression is sufficient to induce EMT., Hepatitis B virus X protein upregulated the levels of cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in liver cells., PED/PEA-15 modulates Coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor expression and adenoviral entry, by sequestering ERK1/2., ERK2 plays an important role in cell growth of esophageal cancer cell line Eca109, These results suggest that in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts, activation of ERK, JNK, AP-1, and NF-kappaB are essential for IL-1beta-induced ICAM-1 expression and leukocyte adhesion., Factor Xa induces tissue factor expression in endothelial cells by P44/42 MAPK and NF-kappaB-dependent pathways., results support the participation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 pathway in the anti-adipogenic effect of angiotensin II on preadipose cells from human omental adipose tissue, Insulin-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is translocated to the nuclear envelope by caveolin-2., In CFTRDeltaF508 cells, the extracellular glutathione levels are decreased, leading to a greater sensitivity to reactive oxygen species, providing an explanation for the hyperactivation of the p38 and ERK MAPKs and increased IL-6 synthesis., regulatory pathway of ABCC6 expression showing that the ERK1/2-HNF4alpha axis has an important role in regulation of the gene, These data identify atypical PKC isozymes as STAT and ERK activators that mediate c-fos and collagenase expression., analysis of expression and activation of ERK1 and ERK2 in human esophageal cancer cell line EC9706, Thymic stromal lymphopoietin induced proinflammatory gene expression in human airway smooth muscle cells involved ERK1/2, p38, and JNK, and STAT3 activation., significantly decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cell line in association with down-regulation of p-ERK1/2, p-Akt, p-STAT3 survival pathways., Importance of Parp-1, APEX-1 and ERK1/2 catalytic activities in the growth arrest-induced apoD gene expression., Data hypothesize that VEGFR-2 forms a signaling complex with S1P(1) and and protein kinase C-alpha , evoking bidirectional signaling regulating both ERK1/2 phosphorylation and haptotaxis of ML-1 cells., Results strongly suggest that bFGF mediates TSP50 downregulation by ERK1/2 activation, leading to the phosphorylation of Sp1 in this process., M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype as being primarily responsible for these transcription factor responses after stimulation with carbachol through activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, AngII has ability to induce CRP expression in endothelial cells through AT(1)-ROS-ERK1/2 and JNK-NF-kappaB signal pathway, which strengthens understanding of the proinflammatory and proathroscerotic actions of AngII., JNK1/2 activation mediates hyperglycemia-induced iNOS gene expression and consequent nitrosative stress in diabetic embryopathy., Virual Us2 recruits ERK2 to cell membranes through interaction with the ERK common docking domain., Recombinant or microparticle-associated tissue factor stimulate endothelial cell proliferation through activation of the ERK 1/2 pathway, mediated through a novel mechanism requiring the interaction of exogenous TF with cell surface beta1-integrin., The activation of p-ERK and OPG expression by platelet-rich fibrin suggests a potential role for new bone formation., Knockdown of ERK2 kinase reduced ATM activation in response to etoposide treatment, and thereby attenuated phosphorylation of the ATM substrates., The EGFR/ERK pathway is activated in high-grade MECs with aggressive behaviour., Luciferase reporter constructs indicated that MEK/ERK signaling increased the half-life of dusp6 mRNA in a 3'untranslated region (3'UTR)-dependent manner., Tyr251 and Tyr301 of IL-22R1 are required for Shp2 binding and IL-22-induced Erk1/2 activation., FOXO3a is in a constant inactive state due to its cytoplasmic localization, and that neither PI3K/Akt nor extra-signal-regulated kinase-specific inhibition resulted in its nuclear translocation., AC3-33 is a novel member of the secretory family and inhibits Elk1 transcriptional activity via ERK1/2 MAP, Data show that formylpeptides induce sequential activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and PLD, which represents a novel signaling pathway., Iron and UVA increase MMP-1 activity in dermal fibroblasts not only directly through ERK activation but also by an indirect paracrine loop through TNF-alpha released by normal human epidermal keratinocytes., These observations reveal a major role for the Anaplasma phagocytophilum AptA protein, and the host protein, vimentin, in the activation of Erk1/2 during Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection., Inhibitors of MAPK pathway ERK1/2 or p38 prevent the IL-1{beta}-induced up-regulation of SRP72 autoantigen in Jurkat cells., Data demonstrate a cross-talk between IGF-1R and AT-1R in AT-II and IGF-1-induced Cx43 expression in SV SMCs involving Erk 1/2 and downstream activation of the AP-1 transcription factor., JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2 signals therefore play critical roles in EGF-mediated HUVEC cell angiogenesis., Increased expression of phosphorylated ERK2 is associated with T4 breast carcinoma., Phosphorylation of STIM1 by ERK1/2 modulates store-operated calcium entry., Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 might play an important role on the occurrence and progression of nasal polyps., The results obtained, therefore, rule out the existence of a negative correlation between ERK1/2 activation and MMP2 activity., Results suggest that activated Pak1 regulates colorectal cancer metastasis requiring an ERK-dependent phosphorylation of FAK at Ser-910., p-ERK1/2 is a predictive factor of response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in low/int-1 myelodysplastic syndromes., Data indicate that delta-tocotrienol protects mouse bone marrow and human CD34(+) cells from radiation-induced damage through extracellular signal-related kinase activation-associated mammalian target of rapamycin survival pathways., Data illustrate the importance of a coordinated signaling between Src PTKs, ERK1/2, and JNK during pIgR-mediated uptake of pneumococci by host epithelial cells., Coactivation of p38 MAPK and novel protein kinase C isoforms attenuates divalent calcium-ion uptake in a manner which is independent of mitochondrial transmembrane potential DeltaPsim but dependent on the integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane potential., Data show that S1P4 uses HER2 to regulate extracellular signal regulated kinase-1/2 MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells., Gene knockdown of ERK2 resulted in relocation of ATR from the nucleoplasm to the nucleolus in response to hydroxyurea, therefore making ATR unavailable to the sites of DNA damage., This pilot study finds ERK2 is increased in cerebrospinal fluid from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients compared to controls., This study data suggested that SAA activated PPARgamma through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)-dependent COX-2 expression., Human cells from bronchus, intestine, and skin (keratinocytes) showed similar time patterns for the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases Erk1/2 when treated with carbon nanoparticles., the CCR7/CCL21 signaling pathway leading to T lymphocyte migration on fibronectin is a beta1 integrin-dependent pathway involving transient ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which is modulated by PLCgamma1, These results support a model in which the interaction between sphingosine kinase 1, sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors 1 and/or 3, and ERK-1/2 might drive breast cancer progression, estrogen-occupied ERalpha activates and interacts with extracellular ERK2, a downstream effector in the MAPK pathway, resulting in ERK2 and ERalpha colocalization at chromatin binding sites across the genome of breast cancer cells, Data report that SMRT interacts with itself to form a protein dimer, and that Erk2, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, disrupts this SMRT self-dimerization in vitro and in vivo., Resveratrol represses YKL-40 expression in vitro; the ERK1/2 pathway is involved in this repression, The activations of caspase-3 and P38 MAPK were involved in ciglitazone-induced cell apoptosis., Data show that he intracellular signal mechanisms behind the effect of cigarette smoke extract involve activation of ERK1/2 and NF-kappaB pathways., Results showed significantly higher levels of ERK2 protein in smokers vs. non-smokers. Analysis suggests that the mRNA expression of ERK2 might be linked to mood, a novel regulatory mechanism by which mitogenic and oncogenic activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway promotes mTOR signaling, Data suggest that loss of PTEN permits CXCR4-mediated functions in prostate cancer cells through the ERK1/2 pathway., Data show that concurrent phosphorylation of cortactin by ERK1/2 and tyrosine kinases enables cells with the ability to regulate actin dynamics., MC1R signaling activated the ERK pathway in normal human melanocytes and melanoma cells through cKIT., Quantitative analysis of ERK2 interactions with substrate proteins, Results highlight an important role for the Fyn/ERK signaling pathway in imatinib-resistant cells that is driven by accumulation of intracellular SPARC., MEK-catalysed ERK phosphorylation is necessary but not sufficient for the full nuclear localization response., The silicotic supernatant of alveolar macrophages have promote proliferation of human embryonic lung fibroblasts and activation of ERK1/2., the major calcineurin-dependent event in glucose sensing by ERK1/2 is the activation of B-Raf., Study shows that the ERK-PEA3-MMP-1 axis is upregulated in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells and is a potentially important driver of the metastatic progression of oesophageal adenocarcinomas., Study demonstrates a novel role of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in promotion myocardium inflammation and dysfunction in coronary microembolization., Studies suggest that blocking ERK1 and 2, which play critical roles in multi-drug resistance and survival, may be beneficial in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of MMs and other tumors., Activated p38 MAPK is associated with lung adenocarcinoma., TbetaRII alone is able to mediate TGFbeta signaling to ERK1/2 without participation of TbetaRI., Heat shock protein 90 maintains the tumour-like character of rheumatoid synovial cells by stabilizing integrin-linked kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase B., down-regulation of p38 MAPK activation inhibits chondrocyte death induced by heat stress or mechanical stress., Results suggest that low magnitude stretch can induce cPLA(2) phosphorylation through the MEK/ERK and PI3K-Akt pathways, independently., These results strongly suggest that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS-mediated activation of p38 and ERK 1/2 is essential for the M. bovis BCG-induced CCL2 production., alternative ROS production pathway that is triggered by CD40 ligation, involves 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and results in activation of p38 MAPK, Cisplatin induces apoptosis in the paratumor cirrhosis hepatocellular cell line QSG-7701 via activation of p38MAPK pathway., These results strongly suggest the underlying mechanism of CXCR4 promoting Tca8113 migration and invasion by regulating MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression perhaps via activation of the ERK signaling pathway., These results suggest that silibinin might induce p53-mediated autophagic cell death by activating ROS-p38 and JNK pathways, as well as inhibiting MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways., Glucose and TNF-alpha increased Egr-1 expressionvia ERK1/2 activation in endothelial cells., A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc anchors a PKN-based signaling complex involved in alpha1-adrenergic receptor-induced p38 activation., Data suggest that activated protein C protects endothelial cells by attenuating cell adhesion molecule expression during inflammation, and that APC engages a regulatory crosstalk involving EPCR, ERK1/2, and NF-kappaB that impairs TNF signaling., TGF-beta1 diminishes collagen production during long-term cyclic stretching of engineered connective tissue by decreasing ERK signaling, These results demonstrate that ERK1/2 is needed for the chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as induced by TGF-beta3 supplementation., G-CSF restores RARalpha recruitment to target gene promoters through the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the subsequent derepression of chromatin., Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract protects human lens epithelial cells from oxidative stress via reducing NF-small ka, CyrillicB and MAPK protein expression, These findings suggest the potential involvement of MAPK and STAT pathways in norcantharidin-induced apoptogenesis., ERK1 and ERK2 are important for human mesenchymal stem cells adipogenic differentiation., Data show that Amot expression is required for proliferation of breast cancer cells in specific microenvironmental contexts that require ERK1/2 signaling., alpha1-adrenoceptors are coupled to ERK1/2 in the human prostate, the Egr-1/GGPPS/Erk1/2 pathway is responsible for insulin resistance during hyperinsulinism, The study identified raptor as a substrate for p44/42 MAPK., Collagen I induces discoidin domain receptor (DDR) 1 expression through DDR2 and a JAK2-ERK1/2-mediated mechanism in primary human lung fibroblasts., Des-gamma-carboxyl prothrombin stimulates HCC growth and promotes HCC metastasis by increasing the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through activation of the ERK1/2 MAPK signalling pathway, Chlorination of high-density lipoprotein induced phosphorylation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase, expression of transcription factor early growth response 1 and enhanced expression of heme oxygenase-1 in human endothelial cells., The anti-invasive effects of piperine may occur through inhibition of PKCalpha and ERK phosphorylation and reduction of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation, leading to down-regulation of MMP-9 expression., IFN-alpha-induced increases in phospho-p38 were greater in patients who developed depressive symptoms. Sensitivity of p38 MAPK signaling pathways to immune stimulation is associated with depressive symptoms during chronic IFN-alpha treatment., The p38 MAPK pathway transgene is dispensable for the development of natural killer (NK)T cells; however, NKT cell cytokine production and NKT-mediated liver damage are highly dependent on activation of this pathway., Ghrelin activated and phosphorylate extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2 and Akt., iron chelators significantly reduced ASK1-thioredoxin complex formation, resulting in the increased phosphorylation of ASK1, which activates the JNK and p38 pathways, activation of P2Y6 receptor mediates the UVB-radiation-induced activation of p38 MAPK and expression of COX-2, ATP induces HB-EGF synthesis and release by interacting with the P2 purinergic receptor and through p38 and ERK1/2 signaling in response to a challenging environment., Data show that ALK inhibitor-induced apoptosis is mediated both by BIM upregulation resulting from inhibition of ERK signaling as well as by survivin downregulation resulting from inhibition of STAT3 signaling in EML4-ALK-positive lung cancer cells., p38 MAPK is involved in cancer cell survival, and that the inhibition of p38 MAPK can enhance 5-FU to kill colorectal cancer cells., Upregulation of ERK2/ERK1 signaling pathway was found to be responsible for cisplatin resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer cells., Both MAPK-Erk1/2 and MAPK-p38 participate in IGF-I-induced signaling pathways for progesterone production, while insulin-induced progesterone production requires MAPK-p38, but not MAPK-Erk1/2., c-Kit, p-ERK, and cyclin D1 might help to differentiate thin melanoma from melanocytic nevus, MKP3 not only controls the activities of ERK2 and p38alpha but also mediates cross-talk between these two MAPK pathways., ER Ca(2+) release enhances eNOS Ser-635 phosphorylation and function via ERK1/2 activation., Down-regulation of cytokine-induced interleukin-8 requires inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) via MAPK phosphatase 1-dependent and -independent mechanisms., These results indicated that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 plays a role in modulating asbestos toxicity by regulating genes critical to cell injury and survival that are differentially expressed in human mesotheliomas., Pretreatment with PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2, significantly decreased LPS-induced TLR2 and SP-A mRNA expression, in glomerular mesangial cells, glucagon-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increases were mediated through the cAMP-PI3K-PKB-MEK-ERK1/2-TRPC6 signaling pathway., These data support the role of p38 MAPK/CREB1 signaling in Ggamma-globin gene transcription under steady-state conditions., Inhibition of the ERK1/2 signalling suppressed the endothelial-like differentiation of immature dendritic cells., Lentiviral depletion of CXCR4 in IEC-6 cells similarly altered ERK1/2 activity and prevented chemokine-stimulated migration, Data show that the deregulated kinase activities identified, which include the mTOR/p70S6K and ERK1/2 pathways, are potential novel molecular targets in MM., The results suggest that NADPH deriving from the pentose phosphate pathway contributes to PCN resistance to [Cu(isaepy)(2)] toxicity and propose its employment in combination with 3BrPA as possible tool for cancer treatment., IGFBP-3 binds and inactivates Erk1/2, resulting in suppression of Erk1/2 nuclear localization., Organometallic iron(III)-salophene exerts cytotoxic properties in neuroblastoma cells via MAPK activation and ROS generation, investigation of p38 MAPK involvement in leptin expression, These results suggest that the activation of p38 MAPK primarily contributes to UV-induced RhoB expression by recruiting the c-Jun and p300 proteins to the distal CCAAT box of the RhoB promoter in Jurkat cells., Fibroblast orientation in response to cyclic strain is mediated by p38 phosphorylation., Results show that silibinin decreased MMP-2, MMP-9, u-PA, p-p38, and p-Erk1/2 expressions in a concentration-dependent manner., ESAT-6 inhibits T cell IFN-gamma production in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner., Data suggest that sustained inhibition of both EGFR and ERK1/2 leads to significant protection of the cells from IFNgamma-induced apoptosis, indicating important roles for the EGFR tyrosine kinase and ERK1/2 MAP-kinases in regulating A431 cell death., Devised a novel flow cytometric method to quantify the expression of ERalpha, HER2, and the activation of ERK1/2 simultaneously in single cells., Diallyl disulfide induced MUC5B expression and activated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAPK in airway epithelial cells., results of this study show that AMPK induces MUC5B expression through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in airway epithelial cells., the data in this study suggest that the interaction between FVIIa and TF induces PAR2 activation, thereby triggers the ERK1/2 and IkappaB-alpha/NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway to regulate the gene expression of IL-8, TF, and caspase-7, Phosphatidylserine inhibited p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and activation in Dendritic cells, ERK1/2 activation is essential for leukemia inhibitory factor-mediated increases in proliferation and that both STAT3 and ERK1/2 activation are important for the survival of transformed trophoblasts., The MAPK signaling pathway is a potential key intracellular modulator of Ang II-induced increase in MMP-2 activity and MMP-14 and BSG protein expression., ERK1/2, rather than NF-kappaB, JNK and p38 MAPK signaling, plays a role in IL-4 induced chemokine activation, ATP-mediated Erk1/2 activation stimulates Shigella captured by filopodia., DUSP6 acts as a negative feedback regulator of ERK in adenocarcinoma progression., These findings suggest that the upregulation of PGRN via the p38MAPK and MEK1/2 signaling pathway in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells may contribute to the carcinogenic process., Study demonstrates that subamolide A triggered the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways and p53 and ERK1/2 activation in the human urothelial carcinoma cell line., TGF-beta1 undergo a switch into mesenchymal cells and PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways serve to regulate TGF-beta1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of A549 cells., T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) phosphorylation of MKP1 protein prevents solar ultraviolet light-induced inflammation through inhibition of the p38 protein signaling pathway., ECSM2 modulated bFGF-directed endothelial cell motility via the FGF receptor (FGFR)-extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway., Bortezomib can decrease the expressions of protein ERK and P38 and enhance the expression of JNK in daunorubicin-resistant K562 cells., Results provide an important role of CK2 in regulating nuclear ERK activities., ERK1/2 pathway plays an important role in microvibration-induced osteogenesis in BMSC cellular scaffolds, Data found phasic phosphorylation of caldesmon and ERK 1/2 during contractions in human myometrium., Clusterin induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB pathways in monocytes/macrophages., Data show that siRNA-mediated MR-silencing prevented DHEA-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and its effects on FoxO1., p-cresol inhibits proliferation of EPCs via activation of p38 MAPK pathways. P-cresol also attenuates angiogenesis function of EPCs and interferes with the Notch1 path-way., Data show that Fas-mediate events are mediated by ERK/JNK MAPKs which subsequently activate NF-kappaB for the transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory mediators., This study defines a novel CCN2/alpha(v)beta(3) integrin/Src/Smad1 axis that contributes to the pro-fibrotic TGF-beta signaling., The interaction of MAPK/ERK-2 with Gag polyprotein results in its incorporation into virus particles and may be essential for retroviral replication., Both P-TEFb recruitment to the HIV long terminal repeat and enhanced HIV processivity were blocked by ERK inhibitor, but not by AKT and PI3K inhibitors., Results suggest a model in which PRL-2 promotes cell migration and invasion through an ERK1/2-dependent signaling pathway., induce ERK1/2 activation via two distinct pathways, one PKC-dependent pathway occurring at a peak time of =2 min and the other matrix metalloproteinase-dependent growth factor receptor transactivation occurring at both early and later time points, Glycosaminoglycans and glucose prevent apoptosis in 4-methylumbelliferone-treated human aortic smooth muscle cells in a process mediated by Toll-like receptor 4, CD44, and PI3K but not by ERK1/2, Studies suggest the term quasi-processive phosphorylation to describe the mode of ERK phosphorylation that is operated under the physiological condition of molecular crowding., Data show that HMGN2 inhibited the attachment of bacteria, and then decreased bacteria-induced ERK1/2 activation and actin polymerization, which might contribute to bacterial internalization into T24 cells., Temporal differences in Erk1/2 activity distinguish among combinations of extracellular matrix component, HIF-1alpha possesses a MAPK docking domain; this finding provides a link between the MAPK signaling cascade and the hypoxia-induced signaling pathway and their possible roles in tumorigenesis., The H-Ras-ERK-induced and HO-1-mediated pathway could protect renal cancer cells from apoptosis., The p38 signaling involves EMP generation induced by indoxyl sulfate and is effectively suppressed by clopidogrel., One of the active mutants (Y323T) of p38 crystallized in both crystal forms, displaying different packing characteristics and significant differences in molecular conformation that were clearly dictated by the source seeds, Data demonstrate that TRAPPC4 may regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis in CRC by interaction with ERK2 and phosphorylating ERK1/2 as well as modulating the subcellular location of pERK1/2 to activate the relevant signaling pathway., Herbal preparation HMC05 disrupts the ERK1/2 signaling pathways to prevent aortic smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation., The BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway is upregulated in progressive retinal arterial macroaneurysm patients, caused by mutation in IGFBP7., our results indicate that ERK1/2, Akt, and cav-1 are involved in the regulatory mechanisms of PPAR-mediated protection against HIV-1-induced MMP-9 expression in brain endothelial cells, Molecular dynamics simulations of ERK2 indicate the importance of domain closure for autoactivation and activity regulation, with that event occurring prior to folding of the activation lip and of loop L16., Erk2 (but not ERK1) conditional knock-out mice exhibit decreased anxiety-related behaviors and impaired long-term memory, Data show that overexpression of ErbB2 maintains PDH flux by suppressing PDK4 expression in an Erk-dependent manner., in primary human monocytes, ROS mediate LPS-induced up-regulation of TACE activity indirectly through activation of the p38 signaling pathway., study demonstrates a novel role of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in regulating AR expression in certain PCa types and provides an insight into PCa responses to its aberrant activation, activated ERK1/2 interacts with CAR and represses dephosphorylation of Thr-38, providing a cell signal-regulated mechanism for CAR activation., Ca(2+) influx through reverse mode NCX is required for the activation and the targeting of PKCalpha to the plasma membrane, an essential step for VEGF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and downstream EC functions in angiogenesis, Chemokine CXCL12 uses CXCR4 and a signaling core formed by bifunctional Akt, ERK1/2, and mTORC1 proteins to control chemotaxis and survival simultaneously in mature dendritic cells., These results suggest that CRKL, but not MAPK1 is the target oncogene of the rare but recurrent amplification at 22q11.2 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma., The ERK_CEBP/beta intracellular signaling is a key inflammatory pathway that links phagocytosis of wear particles to inflammatory gene expression in osteoprogenitors., DUSP9/MKP-4 is a bona fide target of PKA signaling and attenuation of DUSP9/MKP-4 function can mediate cross-talk between the PKA pathway and MAPK signaling through both ERK1/2 and p38alpha in vivo, RHAMM/HA interaction regulates fibrosarcoma cell adhesion via the activation of FAK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 regulates ERK1/2 signal transduction amplitude and cell fate through CRAF., Study reveals an important role for cav-1 as a negative regulator of MMP-1 gene expression via inhibition of Erk1/2/Ets1 signaling in dermal fibroblasts., Cell death mediated by Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 1 is dependent on ERK1/2 MAPK., Overexpression of MUC1 enhances proangiogenic activity of non-small-cell lung cancer cells through activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways., Hypoxia-induced migration of HSC/MFs involves an early, mitochondrial-dependent ROS-mediated activation of ERK and JNK, followed by a delayed- and HIF-1alpha-dependent up-regulation and release of VEGF., The imbalanced expression of MKP-1 and p-ERK(1/2) may play a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and these two molecules may be new targets for the therapy and prognosis of SCC., The up-regulated protein expressions of ERK and P38MAPK and increased phosphorylation level of P38 MAPK in human sperm may be involved in the pathogenesis of asthenospermia., It was shown that VP24 interferes with the p38 MAP kinase pathway by blocking IFN-beta-stimulated phosphorylation of p38-alpha., Data indicate that both ERK-1 and ERK-2 are involved in the regulation of IL4 gene expression and binding to its promoter., PRL-1 binding to p115 RhoGAP provides a coordinated mechanism underlying ERK1/2 and RhoA activation, Data suggest that DJ-1 upregulates tyrosine hydroxylase expression by activating its transcription factor Nurr1 via the ERK1/2 pathway., Data strongly demonstrate that the small GTPase ARF1 modulates ERK1/2 activation by alpha(2B)-AR and provide the first evidence indicating a novel function for ARF1 in regulating the MAPK signaling pathway., Studies indicate that ERKs stimulate their own dephosphorylation by directly binding to phosphatases, such as MKP-3, and activating them., a model in which Pin1 promotes PML degradation in an ERK2-dependent manner., Adiponectin stimulates proliferation of adult hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)/glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta)/beta-catenin signaling cascade., Phosphorylation of nPKC-delta results in activation of ERK1/2 kinase and subsequent induction of Egr-1. Subsequently, Egr-1 directly targets NHE2 promoter and promotes NHE2 transcriptional upregulation by interaction with NHE2-PMA response element., Formation of ternary complex of human biliverdin reductase-protein kinase Cdelta-ERK2 protein is essential for ERK2-mediated activation of Elk1 protein, nuclear factor-kappaB, and inducible nitric-oxidase synthase (iNOS)., Our results demonstrated that p38 MAPK was activated in cerebral vasospasm and associated with increased apoptosis in the basilar arteries., A novel TF/FVIIa/MAPK/c-Fos/MMP-7 axis plays an important role in modulating the invasion of colon cancer cells., RSV G interaction with DC- or L-SIGN was shown to stimulate ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation, with statistically significant increases relative to mock-infected cells, Identify cadmium as a potent activator of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 in lung epithelial cells and reveal the role of an NF-kappaB-independent but Erk1/2-dependent pathway in cadmium-induced lung inflammation., P.proliferation of human IVD cells is regulated by exogenous and autocrine growth factors mainly via the MEK/ERK and PI-3K/Akt pathways., Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated positive feedback of protein-tyrosine phosphatase epsilon (PTPepsilon) on ERK1/2 and AKT protein pathways is required for survival of human breast cancer cells., Erythrocyte plasma membrane-bound ERK1/2 activation promotes ICAM-4-mediated sickle red cell adhesion to endothelium., Suggest that in pancreatic ductal carcinoma ERK2 expression correlated to shorter postsurgical recurrence-free and overall survivals., C-peptide increases Na,K-ATPase expression via PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent activation of transcription factor ZEB in human renal tubular cells, Viral O1L protein is required for sustained activation of erk1/ark2 and promotes viral virulence., VEGF-A stimulation of lymphatic endothelial cells leads to the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 (Tyr 951, 1054, 1059, 1175, and 1214) which subsequently triggers PKC dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3-K dependent phosphorylation of Akt., NKCC1 activation occurred through time-dependent increases in protein-protein interaction between ERK1/2 and NKCC1, which were proportional to EGF concentration, TLR3 induces signaling mechanisms involving TRIF, p38 MAPK and MK2 to enhance stabilization of IFN-beta mRNA contributing to enhanced IFN-beta levels during pathogen infections., Gambogenic acid mediated apoptosis and was involved in the phospho-Erk1/2 and phospho-p38 MAPK proteins expression changes in HepG2 cells., Advanced glycation end products may play an important role in the impairment of diabetic wound healing by upregulating MMP-9 expression in keratinocytes via the RAGE, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways, and activation of NF-kappaB., Varicella-Zoster virus ORF12 protein triggers phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and inhibits apoptosis., Histamine-induced increased expression of MUC5AC by activated p38MAPK/COX-2 may be a possible pathogenesis of mucus hypersecretion in allergic rhinitis., The induction of CDK1, cyclin B1 mRNA and protein were shown to be dependent on the activation of MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling., p38 MAPK may play a role in up-regulation of hTERT, and therefore, p38 MAPK may be a useful marker in the assessment of hTERT and patients' prognosis in sarcomas, The authors show that oxidative stress increases lamin B1 levels through p38 Mitogen Activated Protein kinase activation., A novel p38-MAPK signaling axis modulates neutrophil biology in head and neck cancer., CCL2 might play an important role in regulating the functions of endometrial stromal cells through Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signal pathway., Selectively knocking down ERK1 and/or ERK2 killed A375 melanoma cells., Data suggest that HBXIP upregulates CD46, CD55 and CD59 through p-ERK1/2/NF-kappaB signaling to protect breast cancer from complement-dependent cytotoxicity., Knockdown of either Rab17 or liprin-beta2 restores invasiveness of ERK2-depleted cells, indicating that ERK2 drives invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells by suppressing expression of these genes., T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated Erk activation requires RasGRP1, but not Grb2/Sos., Sunitinib enhances antitumor effects against chemotherapy-resistant bladder cancer through suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation., GRS bound to different ERK-activated tumor cells, and released phosphatase 2A (PP2A) from CDH6., Co-inhibition of p38 MAPK and Rap1 GTPase reversed the LPS induced breakdown of chemotaxis suggesting that LPS effect requires the combined function of p38 MAPK and Rap1 GTPase, Inflammatory and catabolic signalling in intervertebral discs, Activation of p38 MAPK plays a critical role in cholesterol ester accumulation in macrophages and formation of foam cells., An in vitro kinase assay showed that the direct binding of Clostridium difficile toxin A to ERK1 or ERK2 inhibited their kinase activities., Src tyrosine kinase inhibits apoptosis through the Erk1/2- dependent degradation of the death accelerator Bik., We propose that 1a,25(OH)(2)D(3) and Pi act synergistically through FGF23 signaling and ERK1/2 phosphorylation contributing to late hypertrophic events and impaired mineralization in osteoarthritic chondrocytes., Muscarinic cholinergic signaling in cervical cancer cells induces cervical cell motility, which requires ERK1/2 activation., The extracellular signal-regulated kinase Erk potentiated activity of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase GRK2 and inhibited neutrophil migration., In the process of hepatocarcinogenesis, HBxAg may cause a series of abnormal changes in cell cycle, proliferation and apoptosis by affecting the expression of p38MAPK., Treatment with fibronectin significantly increased p38MAPK phosphorylation in spindle-shaped immature dendritic cells., Ectopic expression of human MutS homologue 2 on renal carcinoma cells is induced by oxidative stress with interleukin-18 promotion via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways., Lead specifically induces dysregulation of IRP1 protein by activating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, indicating a novel role for iron regulatory protein (IRP)1 and the ERK/MAPK pathway in vascular endothelial functions., Active caspase-3 targeted the linker region of MKP3 at several residues, rendering N-terminal and C-terminal MKP3 fragments that contain specific arrangements of nuclear export sequence and ERK1/2 interaction motifs, PLD acts as an important regulator in Bcl-2 expression by activating STAT3 involving the phosphorylation of Ser727 through the PLA(2)/G(i)/ERK1/2, RhoA/ROCK/p38 MAPK, and Rac1/p38 MAPK pathways., ETS1, ERK2 and Mxi2 are important complex partners initiating increased p16(INK4a) and p21w(af1/cip1) activation in renal tumor cells., immunohistochemical analysis of NOTCH1-3, JAGGED1, cMET, and phospho-MAPK in 100 carcinomas of unknown primary, A second p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190) significantly blocked andro-mediated hBD-2 induction in SPC-A-1 lung epithelial cells., Hh signaling pathway mediates invasion and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma by up-regulating the protein expression of MMP-9 via ERK pathway., These results suggest that EGF is secreted from A549 cells by MMP and increases claudin-2 expression mediated via the activation of an EGFR/MEK/ERK pathway., This study provides a first model of ERK1 and ERK2 activation and their nuclear shuttling dynamics, revealing a role in the regulation of the efficiency of nuclear signaling., Dehydroepiandrosterone seems to act selectively on osteoblasts via the dominant ER beta receptor, which mediates amplified cell viability through the MAPK signaling pathway involving pERK1/2 and upregulates the production of OPG rather than RANKL., The mu-opioid receptor-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was selectively desensitized by 5-HT(1A) receptor activation., Data show that HEK293T cells transfected with estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)+/-Galpha(o) revealed that Galpha(o) stimulated phosphorylation of ERK MAP kinases ERK 1/2 and subsequently increased the phosphorylation of ERalpha on serine 118., Data indicate that expression of pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) activated the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway to a limited extent, resulting in increased phosphorylation of HIV-1 viral p17 matrix protein., Data indicate that specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 or U0126 blocked cortisol- and mifepristone-induced responses in uterine natural killer (uNK) cells., CAV-1 affected cell growth of lung cancer NCI-H446 cell through the interactions with p-ERK1/2, estrogen receptor and progestin receptor, Dynamin II function is required for EGF-mediated Stat3 activation but not Erk1/2 phosphorylation, Alteration in the mitogen-associated protein kinase pathway may have a role in the patho-genesis of some large B-cell lymphomas of the thyroid., High ERK-2 levels were correlated with a lower overall survival rate, and high phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase levels were correlated with a higher relapse-free survival rate in triple-negative breast cancer patients., B-cell receptor stimulation induced ERK1/2 activation and upregulation of BLIMP1 mRNA expression in B cells, beta1 integrins should sense the stimulation of fluid shear stress and thus activate ERK1/2 through activating of FAK., Our findings depict the presence of activated ERK despite the low frequency of upstream alterations, implicating ERK activation in the acquisition of a more aggressive phenotype in esophageal cancer., The VEGFR-2 is expressed on primary human hair follicle DP cells and VEGF induces proliferation of DP cells through VEGFR-2/ERK pathway, but not p38, JNK or AKT signaling., In both TUR and radical cystectomy specimens of bladder tumors, p38MAPK expression was higher than in normal tissue, and was related to the grade of bladder tumors., DcR3 and ERK1/2 play a vital role in the development of gastric cancer, and they may be new markers for indicating the efficiency of gastric cancer treatment in the future., Loss of transgenic Erk2 severely impedes T helper type (Th)1 differentiation while enhancing the development of Foxp3+-induced T regulatory (Treg) cells., The induction of CXCR4 receptor in circulating angiogenic cells is mediated by p38MAPK promoted by adiponectin., Data show that p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, and COX-2 activation are mediators for the galectin-1-promoted tumor progression and chemoresistance in lung cancer., CCR3 is strongly expressed by ASM cells in vitro and in vivo. Protection against cell death by CCR3 activation is dependent on p42/44 MAPK but does not affect caspase 3 mediated apoptosis., Propionate-stimulated GPR41 strongly coupled to ERK1/2 activation, while the coupling of linoleic acid-activated GPR40 and acetate-activated GPR43 was weaker., The constitutive activation of the ERK2 pathway in HER2/ERBB2-transformed cells prevents EGF deprivation-induced FLIPL upregulation and TRAIL resistance., Dermokine-beta impairs ERK signaling through direct binding to GRP78, B-Raf/MKK/ERK controls key aspects of cancer cell behavior and gene expression by modulating a network of miRNAs with cross-regulatory functions., A novel mechanism involving four-and-a-half LIM domain protein-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 regulates titin phosphorylation and mechanics., we show for the first time that expression of the transcription factor c-myc, which is phosphorlyated by Erk2, is required for EMT., endogenous IL-1beta play a role in elastin gene upregulation and this upregulation is mediated by the Ras-ERK1/2 pathway in 3D cultures, TEY domain GnRH-induced phosphorylation of ERK is necessary, but not sufficient for the full nuclear localization response., IL-17A could promote platelet function in patients with acute coronary syndrome via activating platelets ERK2 signaling pathway., IL-22 up-regulates K17 expression in keratinocytes in a dose-dependent manner through STAT3- and ERK1/2-dependent mechanisms., NMR chemical shift perturbation and backbone dynamic studies at the fast ps-ns timescale of PED/PEA-15, in its free form and in the complex with ERK2., p38 MAPK pathway mediates IL-28A-induced cell migration through MMP-9 expression by activating NF-kappaB and AP-1 binding motifs., miR-214 is the regulator of ERK1, whereas ERK2 is regulated by miR-124 and miR-214 in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma., The mechanism by which Nec-1 sensitizes shikonin-induced apoptosis appears to be the inhibition of RIP1 kinase-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2., thise preliminary result indicated that HSP70 was related to the phosphorylation of MK2, a specific nuclear downstream target of p38, suggesting HSP70 is a potential chaperone for the nuclear translocation of p38., ischemia/reperfusion inhibited eNOS expression by inactivation of ERK1/2, leading to decreased NO formation through a MKP-3-dependent mechanism in endothelial cells, Phospho-ERK may be a useful marker in combination with K-Ras for improving the prognosis of colorectal cancer, These data indicate that EGFR and PKC are involved in mAChR-mediated activation of ERK1/2 and RSK and the subsequent proliferation of SNU-407 colon cancer cells., The level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation was higher in alcoholic liver cirrhosis peritoneal macrophages at baseline than in hepatitis C patients., ERK1/2 have roles in the pathogenesis of GA, a late stage of age-related macular degeneration, Sp1 or Sp3 siRNA knockdown reduced 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-regulated hCYP24A1 promoter activity., Data show that IL-17RA, IL-17RC, IL-22R1, ERK1/2 MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways are involved in Th17 cytokine-induced proliferation., Transgenic ERK2 plays a predominant and/or specific role in pain plasticity, while the contribution of ERK1 transgene is limited., the presence of the G2019S LRRK2 mutation, one of the most prevalent in LRRK2, is accompanied by a deregulation of autophagy basal levels dependent on the MAPK1/3 (ERK2/1) pathway., HLA class I antibody-stimulated aortic endothelial cells do not promote any detectable change in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, but instead induce MLC kinase phosphorylation and stress fiber assembly., ERK-1 and 2 can modulate MMP2 and 9 and are essential for the induction of abdominal aortic aneurysm., CCL2/CCR2 chemokine signaling coordinates survival and motility of breast cancer cells through Smad3 protein- and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanisms., osteosarcoma patients whose tumors expressed pERK2 had a poorer clinical outcome than those whose tumors did not., sustained osmotic cell shrinkage per se was found to trigger phosphorylation of JNK and p38, caspase activation, and cell death., Data show that cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of nuclear interaction partner of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NIPA)is mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2)., Nampt has a key role for overcoming multiple myeloma drug resistance and its signal transduction-targeted pathways (mTORC1, ERK1/2)., As replicative senescence is believed to underlie human ageing, a moderate level of stress-induced premature senescence and p38 activity may play a role in the relatively mild ageing phenotype seen in Rothmund-Thomson., Data show a link between the ERK1/2 pathway and BIM expression through miR-494., Data indicate that OCT4A interacts with ERK1/2 and is phosphorylated at Ser-111, increasing its ubiquitination and degradation., Associations between treatment response and Lyn, Syk, PLCgamma2 and ERK were not found., Heparanase enhances the insulin receptor signaling pathway to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase in multiple myeloma, Hard-metal (WC-Co) particles trigger a signaling cascade involving p38 MAPK, HIF-1alpha, HMOX1, and p53 activation in human peripheral blood mononucleated cells., Targeting p38 for inhibition may offer an effective therapeutic approach to treat osteolytic bone lesions in patients with myeloma., SHOC2 and CRAF mediate ERK1/2 reactivation in mutant NRAS-mediated resistance to RAF inhibitor., The balance between Bax and Mcl-1 protein expression, and theinvolvement of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in the control of Mcl-1 expression were investigated in obstructive sleep apnea patients undergoing nightly intermittent hypoxia episodes., ERK reduces NHEJ-mediated repair of double strand breaks via attenuation of DNA-PKcs activation., High levels of phosphorylated MAP kinase are associated with glioblastoma., AKT1 and MAPK1 expressions were upregulated in SLE patients and correlated with Th17, Treg, TGFB)-2, and Th2-(interleukin (IL)-5)-related genes., After transfection of HUVECs with miR-155, expression of apoptosis-promoting factors and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were reduced significantly and HUVEC migration and capillary tubule formation were restored to some extent., Our results suggest that immunohistologic analysis of phosphorylated ERK expression in colorectal glands may aid the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and that nuclear phosphorylated ERK might be a valuable prognostic marker for colorectal cancer., MiR-320a is downregulated in patients with myasthenia gravis and modulates inflammatory cytokines production by targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase 1., [review] Recent advances in the molecular dissection of the p38 MAPK pathway have generated reports investigating its role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and autoimmune hepatitis., A previously unrecognized interplay between ERK1/2, TWIST1, and MMP-1 that is likely significant in the progression of melanoma toward metastasis., Vitamin D significantly reduced the endothelial malfunction and damage caused by oxidative stress, through the activation of MEKs/ERKs/SirT-1 axis., The findings reveal a tumor suppressive role of hsa-miR-196a2 through regulation of TP63 by ERalpha and/or ERK2 signaling., TNF-alpha stimulates tissue repair functions of HPAECs. This may be mediated, at least in part, positively via JNK & ERK1/2. This may play a role in endothelial cell-mediated tissue repair, especially in an inflammatory milieu where TNF-alpha is present., Data indicate that patients with high tumour levels of pMAPK and pER(ser118) expression had a significantly shorter disease-free survival time in comparison to those with low pMAPK and pER(ser118) expression., p38 MAPK has an important physiological role in nerve regeneration following sciatic nerve crush., Derlin-1 is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer and promotes invasion by EGFR-ERK-mediated up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9., P38 indirectly promotes apoptosis via ERK1/2 inhibition but directly causes coxsackievirus B3-induced necrosis., These findings suggested that salinomycin efficiently inhibits the cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line growth through the induction of apoptosis, potentially associated with the p38 MAPK activation., Low MAPK1 expression is associated with the development and progression of glioblastoma multiforme., VEGFR2 internalization may be a generic requirement for pro-angiogenic growth factors to activate endothelial ERK1/2 signaling, Data indicate that besides confirming the constant presence of BRAF-V600E in all patients with hairy cell leukemia, phospho-ERK1/ERK2 expression was observed., Data indicate that the down-regulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by siRNA neither affected the expression of ABCB1 nor the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel on epidermoid carcinoma cell line KBv200., We conclude that pERK1/2 is a sensitive marker of early colon cancer, which disappears at later stages of cancer development, Data indicate that upon U0126 treatment, Erk1/2 activities were greatly diminished in colorectal cancer cell lysates., hCGbeta induced cell motility via promoting ERK1/2 phosphorylation and MMP-2 upregulation in human prostate cancer DU145 cells., Data indicate that the MEK-ERK signaling pathway contributes the maintenance of the immature state of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) is partly dependent on the activity of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)., The results suggest that p38 inhibitors together with the combination of simvastatin and thalidomide have the potential to be used in MM treatment., in human neutrophils, ERK1/2 kinase is not directly involved in the regulation of iNOS and NO production induced by NDMA; however, the kinase participates in superoxide anion production in these cells, UV-induced G2 checkpoint activation in this situation therefore relies on signalling via the p38 MAPK and ATR-Chk1 signalling cascades., Activated/phosphorylated pMAPK 44/42 was detected in 82% of medulloblastomas, all subtypes, and in 62.5% of primitive neuroectodermal tumors with coexpression of SSR1 in one third., ERK1/2 signals downstream of C/EBPbeta to facilitate IL-1beta-induced astrocyte TIMP-1 expression., The data suggest that in human monocytes, nHZ and 15-HETE upregulate MMP-9 expression and secretion through activation of p38 MAPK pathway., Obesity-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle is characterised by defective activation of p42/p44 MAP kinase., ribotoxic stress activates the human pyrin inflammasome through a mechanism that requires p38 MAPK signaling and microtubule stability., GLIPR-2 overexpression in HK-2 cells can potentiate EMT-like processes in this cell type through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, Engineering of ERK2 surface mutations decreases the chance of ;unwanted' crystal packing of ERK2 and leads to the structural determination of ERK2 in complex with new docking peptides., Tat modulates expression of interferon-stimulated genes in the absence of type I IFNs by triggering activation of the p38 MAPK-STAT1 pathway via association with the promoters of 2 MAPKKs, MAP2K6 and MAP2K3, and of IRF7., Present results suggest that some genetic polymorphisms in both CREB1 and MAPK1 could be associated with treatment remission., hyperactivated ERK and/or AKT signaling pathways promoted MED1 overexpression in prostate cancer cells., ERK2 but not ERK1 is shown to be responsible for paxillin serine 126 phosphorylation and its increased turnover at focal adhesions., TIMP1 is an upregulated gene product and a proliferative inducer of K-Ras(G12D)-mutated pancreatic ductal cells through the ERK2 signaling pathway., Simvastatin-treated patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms exert lower CyPA mRNA/protein levels and a decreased amount of phospho-ERK1/2., ERK1/2 activity may protect pancreatic cancer cells from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis., PEA-15 binding protects ERK2 from dephosphorylation, thus setting the stage for immediate ERK activity upon its release from the PEA-15 inhibitory complex, studies show that SAP97 interactions with CRFR1 attenuate CRFR1 endocytosis and that SAP97 is involved in coupling G protein-coupled receptors to the activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway., The Shc-Erk complex restricts Erk nuclear translocation, restraining Erk-dependent transcription of genes, including those responsible for oncogenic growth., Data suggest that angiotensin II AT1 receptor (AT1R) may be an important transducer of shear stress-dependent activation of ERK1/2., Interference with ERK(Thr188) phosphorylation permits the impairment of ERK1/2-mediated cardiac hypertrophy without increasing cardiomyocyte death., Fev-ERK signaling is essential for hemogenic endothelium-based hematopoietic stem cell development., 5-HT inhibits pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell apoptosis via pERK1/2, PDK, 5-HT1B, 5-HTT pathway., Data indicate that fucoxanthin and siphonaxanthin down-regulate the phosphorylation of FGF-2-mediated intracellular signaling proteins ERK1/2 and Akt., results suggest that c-Src suppression by PP2 or siRNAs may regulate the progression of cell cycle through AKT/GSK3beta and ERK1/2 pathways, Data indicate CCN1 can induce actin reorganization, formation of lamellipodia, and cell migration/invasion through the alphaV integrins/Rac1/ERK signaling axis; these CCN1-dependent activities can be effectively suppressed by monoclonal antibody YM1B., activation of the MEK-ERK pathway contributed to EGFR-facilitated prostate cancer stem-like cell propagation., IL-31 induces pro-inflammatory effects in activated human macrophages via STAT-1 and 5 phosphorylation. Interleukin-31-induced ERK 1/2 activation contributes to the underlying mechanism of Th1 cytokine IL-12 suppression in macrophages., POPX2 might regulate cell motility through its regulation of the MAPK1/3, leading to changes in the cytoskeleton and cell motility., Elevated Notch1 levels and enhanced Notch1 activation play a major role in augmentation of the pro-osteogenic response of aortic valve interstitial cells of stenotic valves through modulation of ERK1/2 and nuclear factor-kappaB activation., Data show that macrophages on gastric and colorectal cancer cells migration through epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphorylation of Akt, c-Src and ERK1/2, and led to an increase of RhoA and Cdc42 activity., Data indicate that expression of mutant TRPC6 induces ERK1/2 activation via both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms., Pericentrosomal accumulation of ERK2 was phosphorylation independent, required an intact microtubule network and was significantly enhanced by the overexpression of Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 (NCS-1)., Data show that curcumin-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles (CURN) decreased the expression of ICAM-1, inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived ROS generation, and reduced MAPKs and AP-1 transcription factor binding activities., ERK2 (but not ERK1) is responsible for the transcriptional regulation of tumor-derived Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor., Findings suggest that IL-6 promotes the maturation of autophagosomes into functional autolysosomes by regulating ERK., ERK2 binds to the GP130 promoter, where it perhaps interacts with the transcriptional machinery., Data show that hepatitis C virus NS5A-transactivated protein 9 (NS5ATP9) knockdown activated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 signaling under C virus nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) expression., B56gamma1 suppressed EGF-induced cell migration on collagen, bound to phosphorylated-ERK, and dephosphorylated ERK., miR-21 promoted the proliferation, migration and inhibited apoptosis of Eca109 cells through activating ERK1/2/MAPK pathway., Strikingly, promoters bound by ELK1 without ERK2 are occupied by Polycomb group proteins that repress genes involved in lineage commitment., A novel, time-dependent change in the relationship between total ERK and phosphorylated ERK levels that persists without negative feedback, is reported., results suggest that ERK1/2 regulates SIRT2 by increasing the protein levels, stability and activity of SIRT2, CAC1 promoted the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells with activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathways., Data indicate that Erk1/2 and Akt activation were increased in CCA tissues when compared with their normal adjacent tissue., DUSP4 attenuates ERK signaling and reduces cell viability, suggesting that the novel crosstalk between NFkappaB and mitogen activated protein kinase pathways contributes to cell survival., These findings indicate that KRAS/MAPK1 amplification is critical for the growth of a subset of type II ovarian carcinomas., ERK signal is potentially a mediator in the process of osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells induced by phosphatidylserine., The pERK immunohistological staining score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status and Child-Pugh class may be helpful in determining patients most likely to benefit from sorafenib therapy., results identify STYX as an important regulator of ERK1/2 signaling critical for cell migration, Female stress urinary incontinence is associated with reduced expression levels of phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2 as compared to controls., APRIL depletion induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis partly through blocking noncanonical TGF-beta1/ERK., Deregulated MIR335 that targets MAPK1 is implicated in poor outcome of paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia., activation of RAF1-MEK1-ERK/AKT axis may determine the resistance of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines bearing wild type EGFR to erlotinib, Data suggest that ERK1/2 (MAPK3/MAPK1) signaling pathway acts as a potent negative regulator of expression of placental/trophoblastic HSD11B2 (11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2); such inactivation involves transcriptional regulation., Adiponectin inhibits neutrophil apoptosis via activation of AMP kinase, PKB and ERK 1/2 MAP kinase., Integration of mTOR and estrogen-ERK2 signaling in lymphangioleiomyomatosis pathogenesis., p38 MAPK blockade positively regulates glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation and glucocorticoid receptor-dependent induction of the steroid-target gene glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper in a hormone-independent manner, Data show that buthionine sulfoximine and synergizes with hydroxychavicol in inducing apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemic (CML) cells through the GSH-ROS-JNK-ERK-iNOS pathway by apoptosis inducing factor (AIF)-dependent manner., Data suggest opposing paths of blocking apoptosis of placental trophoblasts infected with Toxoplasma gondii strains differing in virulence is due to different cytokine secretion profile and expression of Fas/CD95 antigen and phosphorylated ERK1/2., Phosphorylated-FAKSer732 was barely detectable during interphase while its levels strongly increased in mitotic cells upon activation of the EGFR/MEK/ERK/CDK5 axis in an integrin-independent manner., The combined expression of Cav-1 and pERK serves as an independent biomarker signature with potential merit in renal cell carcinoma surveillance strategies., TNF-alpha modulation of intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier is regulated by ERK1/2 activation of Elk-1., CR108 is a novel vitamin K3 derivative that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction and associates with the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and the inhibition of survivin in the human breast cancer., Trib1 acts as an activator of the MAPK pathway., Findings indicate that phosphatidic acid (PA) production by PLD2 determines the output of ERK1/2 in cancer cell growth factor signaling., nuclear phosphorylated ERK1/2 is associated with enhanced proliferation and invasion of mammary carcinomas, Data indicate that the median time to progression (TTP) 8.9 months is close to the promising BRAF- and MEKi combination therapy with median progression-free survival (PFS) 9.4 months., After MeCP2 siRNA treatment, p-ERK1/2 levels decreased, but p-p38 levels increased., ERK1 and ERK2 kinases are positively regulated by GLIPR-2., p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase interacts with vinculin at focal adhesions during fatty acid-stimulated cell adhesion., Results indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from changes in the ERK1/2-fission/fusion dynamin-like protein (DLP1) machinery and signaling pathway., ERK2 phosphorylates KIBRA at Ser(548) for cell proliferation and migratory activity, Cotreatment with MESC and an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) significantly increased the expression of DR5 to induce apoptosis...MESC may induce apoptosis via the ERK pathway and may be a potential anticancer drug candidate against human oral MEC., Airborne particulate matter exposure induced cytoplasmic p21(CIP1/WAF1) retention, ERK1/2 activation, cytoskeleton remodeling and the acquisition of a senescence-like phenotype in lung cells., GA could inhibit NF-kappaB and MAPK/HO-1 signalling pathways., results demonstrated that p38 and ERK1/2 played crucial positive roles in adipogenesis, and FAK, RhoA/ROCK and cytoskeleton played negative roles, activation of deltaPKC increased its binding to 14-3-3, transiently activated ERK1/2 and increased ESC proliferation., pERK 1/2 inhibit Caspase-8 induced apoptosis in cancer cells by phosphorylating it in a cell cycle specific manner., Endogenous or exogenous PGD2 induces CRTH2-dependent apoptosis in human differentiated osteoclasts; beta-arrestin-1, ERK1/2, and Akt, but not IKK2/NF-kappaB are probably implicated in the signaling pathways., We suggest that Tay bridge constitutes a novel element involved in the regulation of Erk activity, acting as a nuclear docking for Erk that retains this protein in an inactive form in the nucleus, ERK2-mediated phosphorylation of transcriptional coactivator binding protein PIMT/NCoA6IP at Ser298 augments hepatic gluconeogenesis., Ghrelin promotes intestinal epithelial cell proliferation through PI3K/Akt pathway and EGFR trans-activation both converging to ERK 1/2 phosphorylation., Nodal expression was significantly upregulated in glioma cells when TGF-beta was added, whereas the TGF-beta-induced Nodal expression was evidently inhibited by transfection Smad2 or Smad3 siRNAs., These findings reveal a novel, differential responsiveness of PP5-ERK1 and PP5-ERK2 interactions to select oncogenic Ras variants and also support a role for PP5.ERK complexes in regulating the feedback phosphorylation of PP5-associated Raf1., our results suggest that the cellular effects of S100A6 are mediated by the ERK and p38 MAPK pathways, and modulation of these pathways may be employed for CRC prevention and therapy., Activity of sputum p38 MAPK is correlated with airway inflammation and reduced FEV1 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients., Gli1 inhibited cell growth, cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis and autophagy depending on ERK1/2 activity in chondrosarcoma cells., Data indicate that quercetin inhibited the interaction between IQ motif-containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2 in RPMI8226 multiple myeloma cells., Data show that sangivamycin induced the apoptosis of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells by activating caspase-7 and -9 and suppressed the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt, thus inhibiting activation of the proteins., CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 activated p38 MAPK, as well as Src kinase within 30 and 5 min, respectively. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation occurred in activated lymphocytes., IQGAP1 expression in podocyte under high glucose media is modulated by the ERK1/2 pathway., our data emphasizes the importance of the translational regulation of p21 by the MEK1/2-ERK1/2-p70S6K pathway to negatively control the cell cycle progression., Authors showed that virion-associated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates HIV-1 capsid protein at serine 16, that is required for the Pin1-dependent HIV-1 uncoating., Cell wall associated Rv1808 protein manipulated the host cytokines via MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways., Tissue kallikrein facilitated the activation of EGFR, ERK1/2 and p38 cascade. Not p38 but ERK1/2 phosphorylation was severely compromised in cells depleted of EGFR. Impairment of signaling of ERK1/2 seemed not to be restricted to EGFR phosphorylation., There are comparable levels of EESR1, total ERK1/2 and active ERK1/2 in the stroma and epithelium of proliferative phase endometrium., Data indicate that sulforaphane (SFN) inhibited invasion via activating extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2 in a sustained way., Inhibition of p38 MAPK activity counteracts the chemopreventive effects of a synthetic flavagline., distinct p38/ERK pathways are related to E-cadherin levels and function downstream of E-cadherin allowing, respectively, for hepatocyte-mediated MErT and tumor cell survival in the face of death signals., It modulates the activity of NRF2., The present experiments demonstrated a critical role for the GPRC6A-ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in arginine-mediated fibroblast survival., These results first declare that MAPK-PPARalpha/gamma reciprocal signal pathways are involved in Chlamydia pneumoniae, which induces foam cell formation, thus facilitating atherogenesis., Activation of GABAB receptor promotes breast cancer cell metastasis by enhancing p-ERK1/2 levels., CD99 induces ERK activation, increasing its membrane-bound/cytoplasmic form rather than affecting its nuclear localization., Excess PLAC8 promotes an unconventional ERK2-dependent EMT in colon cancer., Paxillin-GEF-H1-p42/44-MAPK module as a regulator of pathological mechanotransduction., HGFs modulate IL-10 production in monocytes through the ERK1/2 pathway., ERK1/2 as well as STAT3 (Ser727) phosphorylation play an important role in LIF-mediated JEG-3 trophoblastic cell invasion and gene expression, these results indicate that AQP5 is associated with drug resistance of colon cancer, and that the AQP5-P38 MAPK pathway may represent a potential drug target to improve drug resistance of colon cancer cells., These data disclose a novel mechanism by which ERK1/2 regulates mitochondrial function through direct phosphorylation of TFAM., overexpression of ERp29 may play a key role in apoptosis in HTR-8/SVneo cells via activation of p38, which may participate in the pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, Data show that salvianolic acid B protects endothelial progenitor cells against oxidative stress by modulating Akt/mTOR/4EBP1, p38 MAPK/ATF2, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways., Data suggest that extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2 signaling can cross-interact with the transforming growth factor beta2/Smad2/3 and the Jagged-1/Notch-3 signaling in retinal pigment epithelium cells epithelial-mesenchymal transition., Results demonstrate that overexpression of p-ERK1/2 is closely associated with metastasis in gastric adenocarcinoma., Furthermore, we confirmed that these phenotypic changes are associated with the inactivation of AKT and ERK. Our findings suggest that PTK7 has different oncogenic roles in organs and target tumors., Results of Western blotting demonstrated that the combined treatment-induced A375 cells growth inhibition was achieved by triggering reactive oxygen species-mediated DNA damage involving inactivation of AKT and MAPKs., Dual MAPK and PI3K/Akt inhibition was detected., Taken together, our findings suggest that Cd induces vascular hyper-permeability and disruption of endothelial barrier integrity through stimulation of p38 MAPK signaling., Lipoxin A4 suppresses the development of endometriosis in an ALX receptor-dependent manner via the p38 MAPK pathway, we found that obacunone inhibited COX-2 and NF-kappaB by activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Finally, the uptake level of obacunone into MCF-7 cells was measured by HPLC and its structure was confirmed by LC-HR-MS, Resistin-induced SDF-1 upregulation by activation of TLR4, p38 MARK and NF-kappaB may explain a new role of resistin in the link of obesity and gastric cancer., ASM knockdown or desipramine blunted p38 MAPK activation in response to TNFalpha, revealing a key role for ASM in activating p38, a signaling pathway known to regulate IL-6 induction., Rg3 exhibits anti-leukemia effect in part due to its anti-angiogenic activity via inhibiting PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, which act to regulate the expression of HIF-1alpha and VEGF., Report EGFR overexpression and ERK1/2 overexpression in Kazakh patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma., Together, these results indicate that SUN induced hypertrophic gene expression through MAPK-dependent mechanisms., ATR1-blockade-induced reduction in cytokine levels in the atheroma supernatant correlated to a reduction in ERK1/2 expression in the tissue. Inhibition of ERK1/2 downregulated IL-6, IL-8 and CXCL5 in both atheroma and cell culture supernatants., Our analysis shows that atherosclerosis-associated ophthalmic complications are caused by the convergence of neurotrophin signaling pathways, multiple immune response pathways and focal adhesion pathway on the MAPK signaling pathway, p38 also induced multisite phosphorylation of wild-type GATA-2, which required a single phosphorylated residue (S192). Phosphorylation of GATA-2, but not T354M, stimulated target gene expression., the activation of reactive oxygen species-ERK pathway by mitochondrial fission induced phosphorylation of serine73 on MITF accelerating its proteasomal degradation., Low ERK2 expression is associated with hormone resistance in breast cancer., proliferation was linked to a novel DEPDC1B-Rac1-ERK1/2 signaling axis in oral cancer cell lines., Data indicate that the mRNA and protein expressions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and and matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly decreased by baicalein., Shock wave treatment induced ATP release, increased Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation, and enhanced proliferation in three different cell types, increased AQP8, Erk1/2 and phosphorylated-Erk1/2 expression may play a role in transformation of cervical intraepithelila neoplasia into cervical cancer, and in early invasion and lymphatic metastasis of cervical cancer, data suggest that ERK2 isoform activation by Snail in aggressive breast cancer cells leads to EMT associated with increased cell migration and decreased cell adhesion, p38 MAPK-regulated PKD1/CREB/Bcl-2 pathway contributes to selenite-induced colorectal cancer cell apoptosis, PTN decreased melanogenesis, probably through MITF degradation via Erk1/2 activation in melanocytes., The p38 signaling pathway mediates the TGF-beta1-induced transdifferentiation of human Tenon fibroblasts to myofibroblasts., ANXA2 is involved in gastric cancer multi-drug-resistance (MDR) through regulating p38MAPK and AKT pathways as well as certain MDR factors, Immunohistochemistry analyses show that the cell signalling proteins AKT1 and ERK1/2 shuffled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm with tumour progression in breast cancer., In this review, we present the clinical and molecular features of selected syndromes from the RASopathies group., Ubc13 was dispensable for transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-induced SMAD activation but was required for activation of non-SMAD signaling via TGFbeta-activating kinase 1 (TAK1) and p38, CTDSP1 activity stabilizes REST in stem cells and ERK-dependent phosphorylation combined with Pin1 activity promotes REST degradation in neural progenitors., ERK1/2 constitutively phosphorylated tumour cells was able to markedly decrease the number of double minute chrom, Data show that ouabain-induced glioblastoma cells apoptosis and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in extracellular signal-related kinases ERK1/2-Shc signaling adaptor protein p66SHC-dependent pathway., Our current data indicate that U II may have promoting effects on the progression of atherosclerosis, likely through suppressing ABCA1 expression via activation of the ERK/NF-kappaB pathway., Taken together, these data demonstrate that DUSP28 plays a significant role in HCC progression and may be a feasible molecular target for anti-cancer therapy., ERK1 and ERK2 activation plays a decisive role in yellow fever virus replication., alkaline phosphatase plays a role in the ERK1 and ERK2 dephosphorylation in renal cell carcinoma cell lines., Gastrin stimulates proliferation of HT-29 cells and inhibits apoptosis by upregulating phosphorylation of ERK and K-ras through the Ras-Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway., Studied the promoter methylation and RNA expression profiles of ERK and RAF1 genes with risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) along with the promoter methylation status of ERK and RAF1 genes., Episesamin interferes with inflammation-associated smooth muscle cell activation and subsequent decreased proliferation and migration via ERK1/1 signaling., CypA is secreted from CCA cells and enhances cell proliferation in an autocrine/paracrine manner, at least via direct binding with CD147, which may activate the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways., The fact that phospho-Erk1/2 is a common element to both mechanisms suggests that specific factors deciding between proliferation and apoptosis must be operative downstream of this signaling pathway., SKLB-M8 inhibited melanoma tumor growth by inducing apoptosis through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway., Based on an extensive analysis of published data, the goal of this review is to provide an overview on recent studies about the mechanism of MAP kinases, and how it generates certain tumors, as well as related treatments, Hypoxia-induced p38 MAPK activation reduces Mcl-1 expression and facilitates sensitivity towards BH3 mimetics in chronic lymphocytic leukemia., An increase in integrin-linked kinase non-canonically confers NF-kappaB-mediated growth advantages to gastric cancer cells by activating ERK1/2, Our results showed that MEK-dependent p42 MAPK pathway might play an important role in Endothelial progenitor cells proliferation, Data indicate that the interferon regulatory factor (IRF1) promotion was observed in cancer cell lines treated with different MEK inhibitors or with RNAi oligonucleotides against extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2)., PBX3 induces invasion and metastasis of colorectal caner cells partially through activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway., this study suggested that AGE or MGO promoted VEGF and MCP-1 expression through activation of p38 MAPK signaling., inhibition of p38 MAP kinase attenuated the histamine response in all three EC types. Inhibition of RhoA, ROCK, or MLCK also prevented the histamine-induced decrease in TER in HDMEC., High p38 MAPK expression is associated with preterm preeclampsia., CD44 functions as an upstream regulator sensing the extracellular environment to modulate ERK, AKT and Hippo-YAP pathways which cooperatively control downstream gene expression to modulate breast cancer cell contact inhibition of proliferation., cytoprotective effect of pPolyHb involves upregulating HO-1 and subsequently decreasing the phosphorylation of the JNK and p38 MAPK and ROS generation., Piperlongumine induces apoptotic and autophagic death of the primary myeloid leukemia cells from patients via activation of ROS-p38/JNK pathways., H2AX phosphorylation at Ser139 in human K562 cells is regulated by p38 and JNK, and is essential for resveratrol-induced apoptosis., these results suggest that simvastatin may inhibit A549 cell proliferation and downregulate TGF-betaRII expression by inhibiting activation of ERK., We also found that berberine-induced migration suppression was mediated by downregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through phosphorylation of p38 MAPK., ERK2 mediates growth arrest and differentiation independently of the conventional ERK-target interaction mechanism, ERK1 and ERK2 promoted proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells and regulated the expression of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins., Data indicate that microRNA miR218-5p negatively regulates trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) in an extracellular signal-regulated kinases Erk1/2-dependent manner., IL-33 promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and migration by stimulating the secretion of MMP-3 and IL-6 via ST2-ERK1/2 pathway., Letter, p38 MAPK inhibition may be beneficial in COPD by restoring corticosteroid sensitivity., Cigarette smoke decreases CFTR expression in the lung via MEK/ERK1/2 MAPK pathway., p38 MAPK directly phosphorylates Drosha at its N terminus promoting its nuclear export and degradation., Data indicate that cyclic AMP signaling reduces the expression of sirtuin 6 deacetylase via inhibition of the c-Raf-MEK1-ERK1/2 pathway., The etracellular protein induces inflammation in endothelial cells via p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB p65 activation., Structural assembly of the signaling competent ERK2-RSK1 heterodimeric protein kinase complex., The results of our study suggest that ERK1 and ERK2 have previously unrecognized effects on the Hippo pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer cells, overexpression or knockdown of PTK6 or ERK1/2 effectively removed the inhibition of S1P-induced migration by miR-17., inhibition of NCX1 by KB-R7943 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, LLC-PK1, and human primary renal epithelial cells (HREpiC) increased ERK1/2 activation and cell migration., treatment with Ang-(1-7) promoted cholesterol efflux in Ang II-treated THP-1 macrophages, partly through inactivation of p38 and JNK signaling and by inducing the expression of PPARg and LXRa., these results suggest that M. tuberculosis Mce3E exploits the ERK1/2 signaling pathway to suppress host innate immune responses, providing a potential Mce3E-ERK1/2 interface-based drug target against M. tuberculosis., Data show that phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes of 15 kDa (PEA-15) influences dephosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2 sequestration in the cytoplasm., Taken together, this study for the first time identified both ERK1 and ERK2 were required for enterovirus 71 efficient replication., data demonstrate that HNP-1 induces IL-8 production not only through P2Y6, but also through additional P2 receptors via an ERK1/2-dependent mechanism in intestinal epithelial cells., High phospho-ERK expression is associated with renal clear cell carcinoma., mitophagy in mammalian cells predominantly occurs through an alternative autophagy pathway, requiring the MAPK1 and MAPK14 signaling pathways, potential ability of sesamin to downregulate the secretion of cytokines and the expression of cell proliferative- and invasive-related gene products induced by LPS was shown to be via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) and NF-kappaB, In several leukemia cell lines, U0126 suppressed the basal phosphorylation levels of p44/42 ERK in a dose-dependent manner and this restored AMPK activation after metformin treatment., Consistent with its role as an intermediate filament, vimentin acted as a scaffold to recruit Slug to ERK and promote Slug phosphorylation at serine-87., Our findings support the de-regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways in type I endometrial carcinomas suggesting involvement of these pivotal pathways in endometrial carcinogenesis, In several melanoma cell lines, DMU-212 activated the ERK1/2 pathway, increasing the phosphorylation of ERK 1 and 2 and their translocation to the nucleus. This ultimatedly resulted in G2/M arrest., These findings establish a central role for ANXA1 in the cell migration through the activation of NFkappaB, ERK1/2 and RhoA., we demonstrated here the inhibitory effect of CACP on the growth of H22 cells in vitro and in vivo, which may be through, at least partly, repression of PTTG1 and then followed by the inactivation of P13/Akt and activation of p38 MARK signaling pathways, These results identify Erk2 as the key downstream signal transducer between Met activation and EGFR ligand upregulation in squamous cell carcinoma cell lines derived from tongue, larynx and lung., SSc T lymphocityes are characterized by high levels of ROS, generated by NADPH oxidase via ERK1/2 phosphorylation, that are essential for cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production., MNQ induced apoptosis of A549 cells independent of cell cycle arrest, and is mediated by the JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways., siRNA-mediated suppression of p38alpha, or inhibition using SB202190 significantly reduced the p53 protein levels, p53 nuclear localisation and transcriptional activity, suppressed Bax expression and prevented cellular apoptosis., In stable atherosclerosis, 12 weeks of treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor BMS-582949 did not reduce arterial inflammation or hs-CRP., Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma attenuates serotonin-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis inhibition involving ERK1/2 pathway., Histamine can reduce local lamellipodia protrusion activity through activation of p38 MAP kinase, reducing endothelial barrier integrity and eliciting central movement of actin fibers., Proteins induced by PIK3CA mutations correlated with EGFR signaling and reduced relapse-free survival in basal-like breast cancer., TNF-a induced MMP1/3 expression, which was abrogated by C/EBPb knockdown or p38 MAPK inhibition., the relative mRNA copy values of KSR1, ERK1 and ERK2 in the cancer tissues were 2.43 +/- 0.49, 2.10 +/- 0.44 and 3.65 +/- 0.94..EGb 761 enhanced the chemotherapy sensitivity through suppression of the KSR1-mediated ERK1/2 pathway in gastric cancer, PAR-2-mediated IL-13 production by human monocytes may be dependent on the Ca2+/ERK2 signaling pathway., Rich1 negatively regulates the epithelial cell cycle, proliferation and adhesion by CDC42/RAC1-PAK1-Erk1/2 pathway., findings indicate that regular cold water immersion enhances p38, AMPK, and possibly mitochondrial biogenesis, 3D topography transiently induces concomitant upregulation of IL-1beta and MAPK ERK1/2 through nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent signaling pathway., TPP2 mediates many important cellular functions by controlling ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation., immune-signaling and ERK1/2 as novel genetic markers for multiple addiction phenotypes, rapamycin inhibits Cd activation of Erk1/2-mediated neuronal apoptosis through intervening mTOR-PP2A/PTEN signaling network, Disruption of beta-catenin binding to parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor PTH1R inhibits PTH-stimulated ERK1/2 activation., Dienogest treatment of endometriotic cells suppresses AKT and ERK1/2 activity, thereby in turn inhibiting mTOR, inducing autophagy, and promoting apoptosis., CD40 signaling led to sustained ERK1/2 activation and up-regulation of Bcl-xL in BCR-primed HF1A3 germinal center B cells., The results demonstrated that 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 promoted odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp cells via modulating ERK activation., Cyclophilin A regulates JNK/p38-MAPK signaling through its physical interaction with ASK1., Tamoxifen prevents TGF-beta1 mediated myofibroblast differentiation through ERK1/2 signaling pathway., proliferation, migration, and invasion was inhibited in ovarian SKOV3 after silencing HOTAIR or MAPK1, MicroRNA197 reverses the drug resistance of fluorouracilinduced SGC7901 cells by targeting MAPK1., Erk activity promotes actin bundling by Eps8 to enhance cortex tension and drive the bleb-based migration of cancer cells under non-adhesive confinement., IL-1beta and IL-1R1 promote cancer growth and metastasis by up-regulating CXCR4 expression and that CXCR4 may be a link between inflammation and cancer., P2Y2 receptor and EGFR cooperate to promote prostate cancer cell invasion via ERK1/2 pathway., It was shown that newly synthesized H2O2 invigorates the phosphorylation and action of ERK-1/Erk2 in E. coli phagocytosis, while phospho-JNK and phospho-p38 appear to regulate H2O2 production., Opioid receptor delta-mediated activation of ERK1/2 is via ligand-specific transactivation of EGFR., Case Report, Data point to a nongenomic mechanism of action of parabens in activation GPR30 in both cancer and non-cancer breast cell lines through betagamma dimer-mediated activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, but not the cAMP/PKA pathway., Inhibition of snail expression and quercetin suppressive renal carcinoma by altering AKT/mTOR/ERK1/2 signaling pathways., CXCR4 inhibitor attenuates allergen-induced lung inflammation by down-regulating MMP-9 and ERK1/2 expression., Data show that small molecule protein kinase inhibitor DEL-22379 blocks proliferation of tumor cells harboring RAS-ERK pathway oncogenes., Findings indicate that the deregulation of beta-catenin by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2)-activated CSN6 protein is important for colorectal cancer (CRC) development., findings unravel ERK2 guided PK-dependent metabolic changes during PMA induction, which are important in megakaryocytic differentiation., Phosphorylated p38, DNMT1 and AChE were aberrantly expressed in a subset of hepatocellular carcinoma tumors., These data suggest that the AKT and ERK/p38 MAPK pathways are involved in the synergistic effects of butein and cisplatin., Studied the role of WNT/beta-catenin signaling via the PPARdelta/p38 pathway in cigarette smoke (CS)-related airway inflammation using patient lung tissues, human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBECs), and mouse models., GPCR cell-surface expression is regulated by receptor sequestration in response to beta-arrestin-2 phosphorylation by ERK1/2, HRG could inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation via the FGF-Erk1/2 signaling pathway by reducing Erk1/2 phosphorylation., The study shows that DYRK1B is a novel ERK2 substrate, uncovering new links between two kinases involved in cell fate decisions., Study highlights the potential role of CCM3 in regulating tight junction complex organization and brain endothelial barrier permeability through CCM3-ERK1/2-cortactin cross-talk, These studies define an atypical ubiquitin-mediated signaling pathway used by a subset of GPCRs that regulates endosomal p38 signaling and endothelial barrier disruption, /2 activities are required for not only MII-arrest maintenance, but also efficient pronuclear formation in mouse oocytes, Downregulating p22phox ameliorates inflammatory response in Angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress by regulating MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways in retinal pigment cells., Letter, The expression of p38, p-p38, Bcl2 and the ABC subtype are significant risk factors both p38 and p-p38 expressions remain independent prognostic factors., FcgammaRIIB requires Btk and p38 MAPK to mediate antigen-independent inhibition in human B cells., IL-17 Induces MPTP opening through ERK2 and P53 signaling pathway in human platelets., Data indicate that the activation of extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2 as a downstream signal in the mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway during cytokine production and apoptosis., Phloretin is able to inhibit NSCLC A549 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways, and therefore may prove to be an adjuvant to the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, The protein kinase Erk2 shares specific features of the Cdc37/B-Raf interaction., Suggest that EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway but not cholinergic pathway involved in chlorpyrifos-induced colorectal adenocarcinoma cell growth., results demonstrate that PSMC5 is a new and important player involved in regulating ERK1/2 signal transmission through the remodeling of Shoc2 scaffold complex in a spatially-defined manner., The present study identified a previously unreported MAPK1 mutation in ovarian mixed germ cell tumors for the first time, p38 MAPK is a key regulator of canonical Wnt signaling by promoting a phospho-dependent interaction between MEF2 and beta-catenin to enhance cooperative transcriptional activity and cell proliferation., BGLF2 enhanced BZLF1 expression and Epstein-Barr virus production by activating p38., The presented data demonstrate that propranolol, via betaAR perturbation, dose dependently suppresses cAMP levels and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2., Thus, this study demonstrated effective chemotherapeutic potential of SFE by inducing apoptisis as well as inhibiting migration and their preliminary mechanism for human gastric cancer management., MicroRNA-133b inhibits proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells by inactivating Akt and Erk1/2 signaling and targeting EGFR., analysis of information transfer via gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors to extracellular signal-regulated kinase or nuclear factor of activated T-cells, PFOS may inhibit BDNF-ERK-CREB signalling by increasing miR-22 levels, which may, in part, explain the mechanism of PFOS neurotoxicity, Since CAD and Erk have significant roles in cell proliferation and cell cycle, CIPC may work as a cell cycle regulator by interacting with these binding proteins., Protective Effect of D-Limonene against Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Damage in Human Lens Epithelial Cells via the p38 Pathway., miR-28-5p participates in atherosclerosis via ERK2-mediated upregulation of the ABCA1 pathway., In summary, this study identified a novel role for EGFRvIII in hypoxia tolerance, supporting an important link between hypoxia and subcellular localization alterations of the receptor., The data provide the first evidence that SJP protects SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA toxicity possibly by inhibiting MAPK and NF-kappaB and activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathways., Collectively, these results suggest that Kazinol-E is a direct inhibitor of ERK1, and more studies are warranted to develop this reagent for therapeutic breast CSLC targeting., Endocytosis separates EGF receptors from endogenous fluorescently labeled HRas and diminishes receptor signaling to MAP kinases in endosomes., FXa inhibitor reduces the collagen-stimulated release of phosphorylated HSP27 from human platelets due to the inhibition of HSP27 phosphorylation via p44/p42 MAP kinase, Studies indicate key feedback loops involved in the cross-talk among the insulin-proto-oncogene protein c-akt (AKT) and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways., The Asian-American variant of human papillomavirus type 16 exhibits higher activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, transformation, migration and invasion of primary human keratinocytes., Vav associates with ERK2.,
SP_COMMENT catalytic activity:ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein., cofactor:Magnesium., domain:The TXY motif contains the threonine and tyrosine residues whose phosphorylation activates the MAP kinases., enzyme regulation:Activated by phosphorylation on tyrosine and threonine in response to insulin and NGF. Both phosphorylations are required for activity., function:Involved in both the initiation and regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors such as ELK1. Phosphorylates EIF4EBP1; required for initiation of translation. Phosphorylates microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2). Phosphorylates SPZ1 (By similarity). Phosphorylates heat shock factor protein 4 (HSF4) and ARHGEF2., online information:Extracellular signal-regulated kinase entry, PTM:Dually phosphorylated on Thr-185 and Tyr-187, which activates the enzyme., similarity:Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily., similarity:Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MAP kinase subfamily., similarity:Contains 1 protein kinase domain., subunit:Interacts with MORG1 (By similarity). Binds to HIV-1 Nef through its SH3 domain. This interaction inhibits its tyrosine-kinase activity. Interacts with its substrates HSF4 and ARHGEF2. Interacts with NISCH.,