Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 2.1
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
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protein kinase C beta(PRKCB) protein kinase C beta(PRKCB) Related Genes Homo sapiens
CHROMOSOME 16,
CYTOBAND 16p11.2,
ENSEMBL_GENE_ID ENSG00000166501,
GENERIF_SUMMARY Investigation of the inhibitory effects of chelerythrine chloride on the translocation of the protein kinase C betaI, betaII, zeta in human neutrophils, PKC-beta 1 when activated enhances calcium flux and protects the assembly of the F-actin cytoskeleton in intestinal monolayers against oxidants., A method that uses liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to quantify site-specific protein phosphorylation was used to measure the time-dependent increase of phosphorylation by PRKCB2 at a PKC-preferred site, Ser44., PKC beta II expressed in human neutrophils can phosphorylate p47phox and induce both its translocation and NADPH oxidase activation as well as the binding of p47phox to the cytosolic fragment of p22phox., The turn motif is a phosphorylation switch that regulates binding of Hsp70., REVIEW, Nephroprotective actions of the ACE inhibitor lisinopril in experimental diabetes mellitus were associated with and thus could be mediated in part by inhibition of diabetes-induced activation of PKC beta isoenzymes in the renal cortex., PKCbeta has a role in in the chemotactic response of human monocytes to MCP-1, elevated glucose increases the activity of core 2 GlcNAc-T and adhesion of human leukocytes to retinal capillary endothelial cells, in a dose-dependent manner, through diabetes-activated serine/threonine protein kinase C beta2 dependent phosphorylation, DNA sequence differences in the promoter of PRKCB1 contribute to diabetic nephropathy susceptibility in type I diabetes mellitus, data indicate a highly specific function of PKCbeta for regulation of TCR-CD28 induced-signaling, IL-2 gene expression and secretion in Jurkat T cells, PKCalpha and betaII have roles in the regulation of membrane recycling, protein kinase Cbeta is a direct, downstream target of RUNX1, EGF-mediated protection against oxidant disruption of the intestinal barrier function requires PKC-beta1 activation and NF-kappaB suppression., These results suggest that phosphorylation of tyrosinase by PKC-beta induces a complex formation between tyrosinase and TRP-1., PKCbetaII induces cell invasion through a Ras/Mek-, PKC iota/Rac 1-dependent signaling pathway, phospholipase D causes translocation of protein kinase C (PKC)betaII but not PKCbetaI to a juxtanuclear subset of recycling endosomes, RACK-I anchors activated PKC-beta on the melanosome membrane, allowing PKC-beta to phosphorylate tyrosinase, Protein kinase CbetaII regulates its own expression in rat intestinal epithelial cells and the colonic epithelium in vivo., PKC-MAPK pathway mRNAs plays an important role in the development and/or progression of early tissue damage in diabetic nephropathy, results showed that PKC beta(II) and delta isozymes are essential for the activation of IL-10 production in human monocytes following stimulation by HIV-1 Tat protein, We analyzed the dependence of the expression of some selected protein kinase C isoenzymes on the availability and/or action of androgens., juxtanuclear translocation of protein kinase C betaII is selectively inhibited by a negative feedback mechanism involving ceramide formed from the salvage pathway, Chemotaxis to PDGF-BB in 25 mmol/L glucose is PKCbetaII-dependent and requires activation of both the PI3K and MAPK pathways., PKCbetaII is regulated by PI 3-kinase in HT29 cells, the level of Smad6s can alter the level of TGF-beta and the subsequent induction of PAI-1 via a FoxD1 transcription site, This evidence supports that the Hal gene is turned on by glucocorticoids and by glucagon either via PKC or PKA, but prefers the PKA pathway., Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A increased phosphorylation at Ser660 that determines calcium sensitivity and activity of protein kinase c betaII isoform, Regulation of protein kinase C betaII expression and signaling play critical roles in mediating progenitor to dendritic cell differentiation, PRKCB1 gene on chromosome 16p may be involved in the etiology of autism., The data do not support a strong association between single nucleotide polymorphism of PRKCB and spina bifida risk., Furthermore, curcumin strongly repressed the PMA-induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP kinase, which were dependent on the PKC pathway, Acrosomal exocytosis is regulated through the PKC-mediated phosphorylation of conserved threonines in the polybasic regions of synaptotagmin VI., Data show that activity of protein kinase B in hormone-dependent mammary tumors was significantly higher than in tumor tissue from patients with negative receptor status., A novel mechanism by which ROS can initiate cell death through the activation of PKC-betaI is reported., Protein kinase C can inactivate TRPC3 indirectly by activating protein kinase G, and directly by phosphorylation on Ser-712., Protein kinase Calpha, betaI, and betaII isozymes regulate cytokine production in mast cells through MEKK2/ERK5-dependent and -independent pathways., Subcellular localization of protein kinase C (PKC)-beta, CD81, and LFA-1 was determined in T lymphocytes., increased expression of PKC-alpha and -betaI leads to increased total classical PKC kinase activity; increased activity of the isoenzymes plays a role in accelerated growth of TCC. In carcinoma tissue, PKC expression and activity are under strict control., study indicates that PRKCB1 is a predictor for worsening of kidney disease in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes, Thus PKC-beta2 is hypothesized to participate in the regulation of CFTR apical plasma membrane targeting within the constitutive cellular biosynthetic pathway., PKC-beta-dependent augmentation of transcellular ISC-cAMP at the level of the basolateral membrane demonstrated that transport events with geographically distinct subcellular membranes can be independently regulated by the PKC beta-isoform., These results indicate that Hcy (homocysteine)-stimulated superoxide anion production in monocytes is regulated through PKC-dependent phosphorylation of p47phox and p67phox subunits of NADPH oxidase., effect of insulin is dependent on activation of PKCalpha and/or PKCbeta, and these insulin signals may interfere with the dynamic assembly/disassembly and/or distribution of F-actin, which is required for the phagocytosis process, Incubation of podocytes with membranous glomerulonephritis sera determined strong upregulation of pPKC-alpha/beta that was reverted by pre-incubation with clusterin, Data describe the role of angiotensin II type 1A receptor phosphorylation, phospholipase D, and extracellular calcium in isoform-specific protein kinase C membrane translocation responses., The suppressive effects on MDR3 mRNA of PMA were attenuated in antisense PKCbeta-treated cells. PKCbeta plays a regulatory role in the expression of MDR3., beta and some other PKC isoenzyme, most likely delta, mediate cholesterol accumulation when macropinocytosis of LDL is stimulated in PMA-activated human monocyte-derived macrophages, overexpressed active PKCbetaII plays a role in the regulation and outcome of BCR signals that can be important for the progression of CLL, structure of the Rac1-PLC-beta2 complex reveals determinants that dictate selectivity of PLC-beta isozymes for Rac GTPases over other Rho-family GTPases, Findings indicate that IL-1beta-induced Cox-2 expression in human myometrial smooth muscle cells is dependent on the action of atypical PKCs, through stimulation of the activity of NF-kappaB., Data do not support the finding that the PRKCB1 gene variants contribute risk for the development of autism., hBVR activation of PKC betaII underscores its potential function in propagation of signals relayed through PKCs, the cell fate commitment of CD14(+)monocytes towards MDMs or MoDCs appears to be steered by the selective activation of PKCalpha or PKCbeta(I), respectively., PTH induces an increased activity of the eNOS system through PKA and PKC pathways, HGF signaling process from Gab1 to PI3K is negatively regulated by PKC-betaII, and its loss is critical for melanoma cells to gain invasive potential., the compartmentalization of HLA-DR/CD18 complex within or outside lipid rafts as a mechanism through which HLA-DR can integrate both PTK and PKCbeta signals leading to activation and death, Differential protein kinase C isoform abundance was observed in thoracic aortic aneurysm samples from patients with bicupsid valve versus those with tricupsid valve, suggesting independent molecular signaling pathways may be operative., PKC-beta I and II are differently distributed in the two prognostic subgroups of de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma., Data show that expression of DMPK-CUG-repeat RNA results in hyperphosphorylation and stabilization of CUGBP1, and suggest that inappropriate activation of the PKC pathway contributes to the pathogenic effects of a noncoding RNA., the -546 polymorphism in the PKCbeta promoter reduces promoter activity, which leads to a decreased expression of PKCbeta2 and subsequently is associated with decreased peripheral insulin-dependent glucose uptake, PLCgamma-mediated activation of PKCepsilon and PKCbetaI and intracellular calcium is involved in EGF-mediated protection of tight junctions from acetaldehyde-induced insult, Data suggest that foreign body giant cell formation is supported by PKCbeta, PKCdelta, and PKCzeta in combined diacylglycerol-dependent (PKCbeta and PKCdelta) and -independent (PKCzeta) signaling pathways., discrete PKCs trigger distinctive responses when activated in different phases of the cell cycle via a common mechanism that involves p21 Cip1 up-regulation., The phosphorylation of ERK(1/2) and p38 MAPK was regulated by upregulated protein kinase C beta (PKC beta) in hepatocellular carcinoma., Cx43Hc electrical conductance is inhibited after PKC activation. Inhibition is predominantly mediated by PKC-epsilon. Partial inhibition may be provided by PKC-beta II/PKC-delta., PKC-beta is upregulated at the gene expression level in human diabetic nephropathy., Probiotic-secretory proteins protect the intestinal epithelium from hydrogen peroxide-induced insult by a PKC beta1/epsilon- and ERK1/2-dependent mechanism., the E3 activity of RBCK1 is controlled by two distinct manners, interaction with RBCK2 and phosphorylation by PKCbeta, The results of this study confirmed the existence of a significant association between PRKCB1 gene variants and autism., These findings demonstrate a central role for PKC-beta, and particularly PKC-betaII in the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis., PKC delta in preeclamptic placentas promotes Bax dissociation from 14-3-3 zeta through 14-3-3 zeta phosphorylation., PRKCB2 (protein kinase C beta2) and PKCdelta (protein kinase C delta) counter-regulate coronary endothelial barrier properties by targeting distinctive subcellular sites., Taken together the results of the present study show that PKCbetaII can act as a specific PKC isoform regulating translation, in an mTOR-independent fashion, possibly close to the ribosomal machinery., The expression of P-cadherin (a marker of proliferating keratinocytes) was regulated by all of the examined protein kinase C isoenzymes, also in an antagonistic manner (inhibited by cPKCalpha/nPKCdelta and stimulated by cPKCbeta/nPKCepsilon)., Upregulation of PKCbetaII is associated with increased angiogenesis and prostate tumor cell proliferation, protein kinase C betaII augments NF-kappaB-mediated TNF-alpha-induced transcription of the target gene CCL11, promoting p65 association with the CCL11 promoter, in human airway smooth muscle cells by phosphorylating p300/CBP-associated factor, These data show that native ribosomes host active PKC and hence allow the phosphorylation of ribosome-associated substrates like initiation factors and mRNA binding proteins., Nonspecific inhibition of PKCbeta prevents LDL uptake in macrophages. These findings suggest that PKCbeta inhibitors may represent a novel class of antiatherosclerotic drugs., C-terminal tail and determinants in the alphaE-helix of the catalytic domain allows the chaperones Hsp90 and Cdc37 to bind newly synthesized PKC beta II, a required event in the processing of PKC by phosphorylation, PKCbeta plays a key role of in HCC motility and PKCbeta may be a potential therapeutic target., PRKCB was necessary for in vitro survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell lines., The immunohistochemical detection of PKC-beta II in patients with colorectal cancer is described., PKCbeta(2) plays a major role in TNF-alpha-induced human vascular endothelial cell apoptosis., Report expression of protein kinase A and C subunits in post-mortem prefrontal cortex from persons with major depression and normal controls., YadA and invasin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis both trigger signal transduction pathways during integrin-mediated phagocytosis into epithelial cells, which lead to the activation of Akt, PLC-gamma1, PKCalpha and -beta downstream of PI3 kinase., These results suggest that swiprosin-1 is a PKC-beta I/eta-inducible gene and it modulates mast cell activation through NF-kappaB-dependent pathway., Protein kinase Cbeta modulates ligand-induced cell surface death receptor accumulation, PMA-responsive cPKC isoforms (alpha, beta and gamma) play a key role in negative regulation of CD98 signalling and homotypic aggregation, Recruitment of PKC-betaII to lipid rafts mediates apoptosis-resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia expressing ZAP-70., down-regulated expression of PKCbetaII is associated with HBV infection in human hepatocellular carcinoma, Results indicate that a depletion of the WRN protein in normal fibroblasts causes the activation of several PKCs through translocation and association of RACK1 with such kinases., The PKCbetaII was localized to the mitochondria, and inhibition of PKCbeta significantly reduced UV-induced reactive oxygen species in neoplastic melanocytes with high PKCbetaII expression., Study suggests the necessity for assessing the subcellular localization of PKCbetaII in breast cancer subtypes when evaluating the possible effectiveness of PKCbetaII-targeting agents., Our results suggest lack of association of PRKCB1 gene promoter polymorphisms and moderate protective association of PEDF gene polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy in the south Indian population., VEGF, in addition to its role in providing prosurvival signals, also plays a role in overexpression of PKCbetaII, an enzyme with a specific pathophysiologic role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, TRPC3 functions as both a Ca(2+)-permeable channel and a protein scaffold at the plasma membrane for downstream PKCbeta activation in B cells., phosphorylation of histone H3 at threonine 6 (H3T6) by protein kinase C beta I (PKCbeta(I), also known as PRKCbeta) is the key event that prevents LSD1 from demethylating H3K4 during AR-dependent gene activation, the single amino acid substitution identified in lung cancer cell lines did not affect enzastaurin's antiproliferative or phosphorylation-inhibitory activity, In conclusion, PKC activation, opening of mitoK(ATP) channels and p38 MAPK activation in early reoxygenation induced the postconditioning of human myocardium, in vitro., Data propose that PKC suppresses store-operated Ca(2+) entry and Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel function by phosphorylation of Orai1 at N-terminal serine residues Ser-27 and Ser-30., intracellular Francisella tularensis novicida triggers temporal and early activation of Ras through the SOS2/GrB2/PKCalpha/PKCbetaI quaternary complex; Ras signalling by intracellular F. tularensis is essential for intracellular proliferation in the cytosol, Genetic variants in the PRKCB1 gene were independently associated with development of ESRD in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes., requirement for PKCbeta in IL-2 secretion/transcription and IL-2R regulation., Two novel susceptibility loci, PRKCB and 8p11.21, have been identified for systemic lupus erythematosus., PKC-alpha and -betaI play critical roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells in response to urinary proteins., APE1 suppresses oxLDL-induced p66shc activation in endothelial cells by inhibiting PKCbetaII-mediated serine phosphorylation of p66shc, and mitigates vasoconstriction induced by activation of PKC., Results establish a causative role for PKCbetaII and L-plastin in linking GM-CSF-induced eosinophil priming for chemotaxis., oxidized LDL also increased phosphorylation of protein kinase C beta(2) (PKCbeta(2)) at both Thr641 and Ser660, as well as c-Jun N-terminal kinase, PKCbeta plays an important role in Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma survival., activation of phospholipase C and protein kinase C-beta 2 by the IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor are required for the activation of sphingosine kinase 1., C-peptide increases Na,K-ATPase expression via PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent activation of transcription factor ZEB in human renal tubular cells, These data show that the impact of PKC on G(q) signal transduction is determined by the background of cell-specific processes., PRKCB may be a potential predictor of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-induced nephrotoxicity in heart transplant recipients, and could therefore be a promising candidate to identify patients who are most susceptible to this adverse drug reaction., Data indicate PKCbetaII as a novel inhibitor of proteasomal function., PKC signaling modulates osteoblast differentiation, at least in part, through the regulation of Msx2., Data from studies using recombinant proteins suggest that isoforms of PRKA (A kinase anchor protein 7) exhibit high-affinity interactions with isoforms of PKC (primarily PKCalpha and PKCbeta used here); AKAP7 could dictate PKC localization/function., Comp of gene expression between PROX1-overexpressing and mock-transfected cells revealed that the expression of PRKCB2 is down-regulated in PROX1-overexpressing cells. A PRKCB inhibitor suppressed growth of control cells more than PROX1-expressing cells., We found that transcriptional activation of PRKCB was directly regulated by the chimeric fusion oncogene EWSR1-FLI1 that drives ewing sarcoma growth., Estrogen receptor-alpha, RBCK1, and protein kinase C beta 1 cooperate to regulate estrogen receptor-alpha gene expression., Our findings implicate PKCbeta activity in endothelial insulin resistance., Inhibition of PKCbeta enhanced apoptosis of human autoreactive B cells., The expression of protein kinase C (PKC)-betaII and the subsequent activation of NF-kappaB in bone marrow stromal cells are prerequisites to support the survival of malignant B cells., Genetic variation in protein kinase C type beta may contribute toward the interindividual variation in DHV constriction responses to alpha2-AR activation by the agonist dexmedetomidine, PKCalpha and PKCbeta cooperate in IL-2 transcriptional transactivation in primary mouse T cells independently of the actions of PKCtheta;., Protein kinase Cbeta critically regulates dopamine D2 autoreceptor-activated dopamine transporter trafficking., HIF1alpha and PKCbeta have roles in mediating the effect of oxygen and glucose during wound healing, Data suggest that hyperglycemia promotes cerebral-barrier dysfunction through activation of PKCbeta and consequent stimulation of oxidative stress and tight junction dissolution., established an important role for PKCbeta1 in PANC1 cells suggesting it would act as a suppressor of tumorigenic behavior in pancreatic cancer, The translocation of PKCBetaII was induced by soluble amyloid Beta precursor protein alpha., PKCbeta is the isoform responsible for Syk negative regulation, Normalization of glucose levels and silencing PKCB activity neutralized the effects of hyperglycemia on occludin and RhoA/Rho-kinase/MLC2 expression, localization, and activity and consequently improved in vitro blood-brain barrier integrity and function., Vimentin is a phosphorylation target of PKC-beta in MCP-1-treated monocytes and that PKC-beta phosphorylation is essential for vimentin secretion., These results provide further support for the contribution of PKCs in Niemann Pick Type C1 disease pathogenesis., CD40L may contribute to atherogenesis via PRKCB by activating endothelial cells and recruiting monocytes to them., PKCalpha/beta is critical for PLCepsilon-mediated cancer cell invasion and migration, Protein kinase C beta is important for the regulation of NHE-1 activity, which is associated with ERK1/2-p90RSK signaling pathways as a kinase of NHE-1 in cortical neuronal cells exposed to glutamate., Hydroxytyrosol, at nutritionally relevant concentrations, reduces MMP-9 and COX-2 induction in activated human monocytes via PKCalpha and PKCbeta1 inhibition, shRNA knockdown of PKCbeta reduced cellular proliferation, colony formation, and migratory capacity of melanoma cells and also reduced lung colonization of stably transduced melanoma cells in mice., This review summarizes the current knowledge of both PKCbeta and PKCdelta isoforms during atherogenesis, and addresses differential roles and disputable observations of PKC isoforms., STAT3 bound to previously undescribed negative regulatory elements within the promoter of PRKCB, which encodes PKCbetaII., PRKCB2 is specifically required for mTORC2-dependent AC9 activation and back retraction during neutrophil chemotaxis., isoform betaII plays a central role in the PKC-dependent regulation of Kv1.5/Kvbeta1.2 channels., The detected PDPN-PRKCB, CD63-PRKCD and LAMTOR1-PRKCD gene fusions are all predicted to result in chimeric proteins consisting of the membrane-binding part of PDPN, CD63 or LAMTOR1, PKCbeta2 inhibition protects mice from gut ischemia-reperfusion injury by suppressing the adaptor p66(Shc)-mediated oxidative stress and subsequent apoptosis., Pharmacological inhibition PRKCB1 via their specific inhibitors and neutralisation of O2 (*-) by a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic., PMA primed PBTLs for polarization under flow, with protein kinase C (PKC)-delta enriched in the leading edge, PKC-betaI in the microtubule organizing center, and PKC-betaII in the uropod and peripheral region., Data show that in K562 cells, the protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) and protein kinase C beta II (PKCbetaII) expressions enhanced in the presence of the drug when the growth was inhibited., Hyperoxia can increase the expression of PKCbeta in alveolar epithelial cells and production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and decrease mitochondrial membrane potential., Direct interaction between the two proteins leads to Apoptin-induced activation of PKC and consequently activated PKCbetaI mediates phosphorylation of Apoptin to promote its tumour-specific nuclear translocation and cytotoxic function., Ionizing radiation-induced eNOS activation in human vascular endothelial cells is attributed to both the up-regulation of PKC-betaII and the increase in ROS generation which were independent of each other., human AKAP79-anchored PKC selectively phosphorylates the Robo3.1 receptor subtype on serine 1330, that the high-concentration glucose-induced disruption of endothelial adherens junctions is mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial cadherin through PKC-beta and myosin light chain phosphorylation, Our data indicate a new direction for LOX-1 regulation by the modulation of the PKCbeta/NAPDH oxidase/SIRT1/HSF1 mechanism, Effect of PKC-beta Signaling Pathway on Expression of MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in Different Cell Models in Response to Advanced Glycation End Products, Gene fusions involving PRKC genes occur in several morphological and clinical subsets of benign fibrous histiocytoma, but they seem to account for only a minority of the cases., Study found a significant decrease of PRCKB1 mRNA expression in subsyndromal symptomatic depression, suggesting PRKCB1 might be a candidate gene and biomarker, Lower hydrogen sulfide is associated with cardiovascular mortality, which involves PKCBII/Akt pathway in chronic hemodialysis patients., PPAR-delta and NKIRAS1 are downstream mediators in the PRKCB pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells., PKCbetaII inhibits the ubiquitination of beta-arrestin2 in an autophosphorylation-dependent manner,
SP_COMMENT catalytic activity:ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein., cofactor:Binds 3 calcium ions per subunit. The ions are bound to the C2 domain., function:This is a calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent, serine- and threonine-specific enzyme. PKC is activated by diacylglycerol which in turn phosphorylates a range of cellular proteins. PKC also serves as the receptor for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. May be considered as a novel component of the NF-kappa-B signaling axis responsible for the survival and activation of B-cells after BCR cross-linking., PTM:Phosphorylation on Thr-500 of isoform beta-I, within the activation loop, renders it competent to autophosphorylate. Subsequent autophosphorylation of Thr-642 maintains catalytic competence, and autophosphorylation on Ser-661 appears to release the kinase into the cytosol. Similarly, isoform beta-II is autophosphorylated on 'Thr-640' and 'Ser-659', subsequent to phosphorylation on Thr-500. Autophosphorylated on other sites i.e. in the N-terminal and hinge regions have no effect on PKC activity., similarity:Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. PKC subfamily., similarity:Contains 1 AGC-kinase C-terminal domain., similarity:Contains 1 C2 domain., similarity:Contains 1 protein kinase domain., similarity:Contains 2 phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc fingers., subunit:Interacts with PDK1 (By similarity). Interacts in vitro with PRKCBP1.,