Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 2.1
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neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog(NRAS) neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog(NRAS) Related Genes Homo sapiens
CYTOBAND 11p15.5, 1p13.2,
GENERIF_SUMMARY Mutations were detected by using allele-specific amplification method., BMECs co-expressing SV40T, hTERT and N-ras exhibited an overtly transformed phenotype; forming very large colonies with an altered morphology and generating rapidly growing tumours in vivo., Regulation of Fas-mediated apoptosis by N-ras in melanoma., Protein kinase C mediates mutant N-Ras-induced developmental abnormalities erythropoiesis, giving rise to phenotypic and functional abnormalities commonly observed in preleukemia., role of interleukin-6 in activation of expression, HDL induced a potent signal through a Ras/MAPK pathway mediated by a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein coupled receptor to the angiogenic phenotype in HCECs., high frequency of NRAS codon 61 mutations detected in primary hereditary melanomas may be the result of a hypermutability phenotype associated with a hereditary predisposition for melanoma development in patients with germline CDKN2A mutations, NRAS and BRAF mutations arise early during melanoma pathogenesis and are preserved throughout tumor progression, Acquisition of N-ras mutation is frequently associated with progression of myelodysplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia, Mutations in N-ras gene is associated with malignant melanomas, Data show that Golgi-associated N-Ras is the critical Ras isoform and intracellular pool for low-grade T cell receptor signaling in Jurkat T cells., Low frequency of NRAS and KRAS2 gene mutations in childhood myelodysplastic syndromes., NRAS mutations are frequent in acute myeloblastic leukemia with normal karyotype., oncogenic NRAS is important for avoidance of apoptosis in melanomas that harbor the codon 61 NRAS mutation, Although BRAF and NRAS mutations are likely to be important for the initiation and maintenance of some melanomas, other factors might be more significant for proliferation and prognosis in subgroups of aggressive melanoma, Overactivation of N-Ras61K induces cytoplasmic mislocalization of p27 and disrupts TGF-beta-mediated Smad nuclear translocation by activation of the Mek/Erk pathway., Ras mutations do not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma in the Spanish population, NRAS and BRAF activating mutations can coexist in the same melanoma, but are mutually exclusive at the single-cell level, In 239 Thai adult AML cases, 35 RAS mutations were found in 32 cases (13%) predominantly classified as M1/M2 (53%) followed by M4/M5 (38%). Ten cases were positive for NRAS codon 12, 11 for NRAS codon 61, 13 for NRAS codon 13, and one for KRAS codon 13., ras may be involved in early stages of larynx carcinogenesis and may be activated by other mechanisms different from mutations, such as epigenetic events, NRAS mutation is associated with melanoma and melanocytic nevi., The chemical properties and stucture of the membrane bound C-terminus of N-ras is reported., Ras gene mutations, mostly involving the N-Ras gene, were detected in 20% of the multiple myeloma patients; Ras gene mutations are not likely to represent a master lesion in MM, NRAS mutations were associated with a significantly higher Clark level of invasion in melanoma tumours, Our data suggest that the activity of specific RAS isoforms is context-dependent and provide a possible explanation for the prevalence of NRAS mutations in melanoma., patients having juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia with NRAS or KRAS2 glycine to serine substitution received no chemotherapy, but hematologic improvement was observed during a 2- to 4-year follow up, data indicate that both early-life UV exposure and nevus propensity contribute to occurrence of BRAF+ melanoma, whereas nevus propensity and later-life sun exposure influence the occurrence of NRAS+ melanoma, observations on the effects of NRAS activation indicate that RAS-inactivating drugs, such as farnesyltransferase inhibitors should be examined in human autoimmune and lymphocyte homeostasis disorders, Nras gene mutation might be one of the mechanisms of oncogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma., No mutations in NRAS was found in pilocytic astrocytomas., Ras mutations were found in 33% of the papillary thyroid carcinomas, CD155, at least in part, enhances the proliferation of ras-mutated cells, expression of RET, nuclearRAS, and ERK proteins is greatly enhanced in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells and Hashimoto's thyroiditis oxyphil cells., Frequently mutated in high hyperdiploid childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia., Data indicate that a critical component of Ras signaling is the activation of PLD., 54% of childhood CBF-AML had RTKs and/or Ras mutations, 16k PRL inhibits cell migration by blocking the Ras-Tiam1-Rac1-Pak1 signaling pathway in endothelial cells, mutation of N-RAS or B-RAF, signature genetic lesions present in most MMs, potently induced the expression of cell-surface CD200, a repressor of DC function., NRAS mutation is not associated with cutaneous melanoma, N-ras mutation is associated with familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma, restricting CDC25A can limit tumorigenesis induced by the HER2/neu-RAS oncogenic pathway without compromising normal cell division or viability [review], the Ras-Net (Elk-3) pathway involves microtubules and is inhibited by pyrazoles, Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity is subject to regulation even in BRAF/NRAS mutant melanoma cells and that high MAPK pathway signaling may be important only in distinct subsets of tumor cells., NRAS mutation is associated with disease stabilization in melanoma, AML patients carrying mutRAS benefit from higher cytarabine doses more than wtRAS patients. This seems to be the first example of an activating oncogene mutation favorably modifying response to higher drug doses in AML., Silencing of N-Ras gene expression using shRNA decreases transformation efficiency and tumor growth in transformed cells induced by anti-BPDE., co-overexpression of KIT/CDK4 is a potential mechanism of oncogenic transformation in some BRAF/NRAS wild-type melanomas, analysis of a signaling mechanism for the regulation of the Ras/ERK pathway based on the eNOS-dependent differential activation of N-Ras and K-Ras at specific cell compartments, N-RAS(Q61K) and B-RAF(V600E) contribute to melanoma's resistance to apoptosis in part by downregulating Bim expression, Mutation in NRAS is associated with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Stimulation of human mast cells by activated T cells leads to N-Ras activation through Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein 1., suppression of oncogenic NRAS by siRNA can induce growth arrest and inhibit invasion of human melanoma cells by modulating the levels of these gene products, No NRAS1 mutations were observed in both the melanocytic aggregate and the melanoma, NRAS and BRAF mutations increase from the radial to the vertical growth phase in cutaneous melanoma, failed to find nRAS mutations in bladder tumor samples, Mutation in NRAS is associated with adrenocortical carcinomas., The present study indicates that esophageal neoplasms have a high frequency of NRAS mutations unlike mucosal neoplasms of other sites., REVIEW summarizes the literature on NRAS and BRAF activating mutations in melanoma tumors with respect to available data on histogenetic classification as well as body site and presumed UV-exposure., Targeting NRAS alone or both BRAF and CRAF in combination or both BRAF and PIK3CA together showed delay in tumor growth., Characterization of candidate gene copy number alterations in the 11q13 region along with BRAF and NRAS mutations in human melanoma., Transformation with N-RAS proved to increase the leading edge proportion and to considerably redistribute pseudopodial activity along the cell edge., analysis of the effect on the Ras/Raf signaling pathway of post-translational modifications of neurofibromin, analysis of coexisting NRAS and BRAF mutations in primary familial melanomas with specific CDKN2A germline alterations, NRAS mutations affect tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells via ERK-modulatory negative and positive feedback circuits along with non-ERK pathway effects, Data show that in hypoxic conditions or coexpressed with a constitutively active form of HIF-1alpha, c-Kit mutants activate the Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk pathway, stimulate proliferation and transform melanocytes., Backbone conformational flexibility of the lipid modified membrane anchor of the human N-Ras protein investigated by solid-state NMR and molecular dynamics simulation., RAS and CSF3R mutations in severe congenital neutropenia., assessment of NRAS mutations in juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia, Although oncogenic NRAS expression alone was found to be insufficient to promote tumor formation, loss of functional p53 was found to collaborate with NRAS expression in the genesis of melanoma., study reports that germline NRAS mutations conferring enhanced stimulus-dependent MAPK activation account for some cases of Noonan syndrome; findings provide evidence for an obligate dependency on proper NRAS function in human development and growth, Screening for BRAF, RET, KRAS, NRAS, and HRAS mutations, as well as RET-PTC1 and RET-PTC3 rearrangements, was performed on cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis with a dominant nodule, Formalin-fixed primary melanomas from relapsed and nonrelapsed patients were sequenced for common BRAF and NRAS mutations. BRAF/NRAS mutations were detected in 77% of relapsers and 58% of nonrelapsers and did not predict ulceration or mitotic rate., whereas H-Ras and N-Ras were unable to localize to the plasma membrane in the presence of USP17, K-Ras4b localization was unaffected, Significant K-ras mutations were frequently detected in the major duodenal papilla and gastric and colonic mucosa of autoimmune pancreatitis patients, Specific point mutations of activated N-ras were detected in 9% (5 of 55) of the bladder cancer patients, all being missense., NRAS mutations are associated with relapsed childhood high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia., NRAS mutations contribute to evolution of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia to the proliferative variant., Ras induces ARC in epithelial cancers, and ARC plays a role in the oncogenic actions of Ras, if KRAS is not mutated, assessing BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA exon 20 mutations (in that order) gives additional information about the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer., experiments further confirmed the link between the loss of neurofibromin and increased activity of Ras/MAP kinase pathways and the activation of downstream transcriptional mechanisms in MPNSTs from NF1 patients, p16(INK4A) promoter methylation in melanoma was significantly overrepresented in NRAS-mutated samples compared to NRAS wild-type samples (P=0.0004), indicating an association between these two events, Endogenous Ras activation occurs only at the plasma membrane of live Jurkat T lymphocytes; all signals transmitted via the T cell receptor/Ras pathway originate at the T cell surface., association between MC1 receptor germline variation and BRAF/NRAS mutations in melanoma, the frequency and spectrum of N-RAS gene mutation differ between biologically distinct subtypes of AML but do not significantly influence prognosis and clinical outcome in patients with AML., NRAS mutations were detected in 5 (2.2%) of the 225 colorectal cancers and tended to occur in left-sided cancers arising in women, but did not seem to be associated with any of the molecular features that were examined., Yiqi Yangyin Recipe can inhibit the colonic proliferation of AML cells, and decrease the expressions of FLT3 and N-ras., melanomas escape B-RAF(V600E) targeting not through secondary B-RAF(V600E) mutations but via receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated activation of alternative survival pathway(s) or activated RAS-mediated reactivation of the MAPK pathway, Primary esophageal melanomas of Caucasian patients did not harbor mutations of NRAS., Activating mutations, specifically in NRAS, are found exclusively in advanced forms of systemic mastocytosis and may precede the proto-oncogene protein c-kit D816V mutation in clonal development., NRAS mutation was frequently evident in patients with nodular melanoma (OR=1.894; P<0.001) and in melanomas arising in chronic sun-damaged skin (OR=1.887; P=0.018)., Mutations in PIK3CA, KRAS and NRAS were exclusive to tumors of uterine origin and age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards modeling associated advanced age, stage and TP53 mutations with decreased survival in the uterine subset., N-Ras(G12D) induces features of stepwise transformation in preleukemic umbilical cord blood cultures expressing the AML1-ETO fusion gene., study analyzed 90 samples of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas patients and found 2 KRAS (G13D) and 2 NRAS (Q61K) mutations, Mutations in NRAS from individuals with Noonan syndrome activated N-Ras signaling and induced developmental defects in zebrafish embryos., Alterations of the NRAS gene is associated with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia., 26 of colorectal tumors were mutant for NRAS., NRASmut did not affect the outcome in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia, The NRAS codon 61 mutation in giant congenit-al melanocytic nevi was significantly related to the amount of sun exposure., The tumor transformation potential of endogenous oncogenic Nras is both dose- and cell type-dependent., The study demonstrated that activated NRAS played an important part for delNS1 H5N1 virus replication in MDCK cells., NRAS mutations were associated with thicker tumors and higher rates of mitosis when compared to BRAF(V600E) and wild type melanoma., The low frequency of NRAS and BRAF mutations indicate that these genes are not common, but probable events in oral mucosal melanoma pathogenesis., Cholangiocyte N-Ras protein mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin 6 secretion and proliferation, Patients with mutations in BRAF or NRAS gene are frequently present with ulceration, and mutation in BRAF or NRAS gene is indicator for poor prognosis., N-RAS Q61R mutation was detected in 6% of tumours, 3% of classic papillary thyroid carcinoma and 10% of follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma., Wild type N-ras appears to mediate its anti-malignant effect by downregulating decorin expression., analysis of N-Myc and c-Myc synthesis, degradation, and transcriptional activity by the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, c-Met is more likely to be activated in both NRAS-mutated and wt/wt melanomas; melanoma cells with these genotypes, particularly NRAS mutants, are more sensitive to pharmacologic c-Met inhibition, Activated human N-ras v12 can play a role in murine B- and plasma cell homeostasis & that activated N-Ras & c-Myc can cooperate to induce B-cell neoplasia., correlation of mutations with clinical response to high-dose IL-2 in patients with advanced melanoma, NRAS mutation status was identified as an independent predictor of shorter survival after a diagnosis of stage IV melanoma., RET mutations may have a role in medullary thyroid carcinoma, while BRAF, AKT1, and CTNNB1 do not; the role of HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS mutations are not determined, KRAS mutations to be more frequent than NRAS mutations in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia., Investigation the prevalence of mutations in the NRAS gene and its correlation with demographic characteristics, tumor location and stage in 100 colorectal carcinoma patients from India., Report marked differences in the genetic pattern of the BRAF or NRAS mutated and wild-type melanoma subgroups., study examined the mutational spectra of Ras isoforms curated from large-scale tumor profiling and found that each isoform exhibits surprisingly distinctive codon mutation and amino-acid substitution biases, BRAF/NRAS mutations were identified in 58% of primary melanomas, Thyroid follicular carcinomas harbored RAS mutations, and the mutation was predominantly found in the NRAS codon 61 (22/33, 67%)., study reports 2 patients with somatic mosaicism for oncogenic NRAS mutations (G12D and G12S) associated with the development of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, In primary melanocytic tumours of the CNS, GNA11 and N-RAS mutations represent a mechanism of MAPK pathway activation alternative to the common GNAQ mutations, Lung cancers with acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors occasionally harbor BRAF gene mutations but lack mutations in KRAS, NRAS, or MEK1., As has been reported in other common types of melanoma, V600 BRAF mutation is the most common mutation of those tested in spindle cell melanoma. NRAS or KIT mutation appears to be rare, if not completely absent., oioiuh ohhiu iuhli u hliuh liuh iluh, NRAS germline mutations are a rare cause of Noonan syndrome or juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia., Data indicate that mutation frequency in malanoma patients was found witih BRAF(V600) in 51%, NRAS in 19%, PI3K pathway in 41% and PTEN in 22%., GAB2 is a novel regulator of tumor angiogenesis in NRAS-driven melanoma, We conclude that the presence of BRAF mutation, NRAS mutation, and the absence of an immune-related expressed gene profile predict poor outcome in melanoma patients with macroscopic stage III disease., N-ras expression was not associated with pathogenesis and biological behavior of thymic epithelial neoplasms., findings suggest a gradient model of oncogenic NRAS signaling in which the output is gated, resulting in the decoupling of discrete downstream biological phenotypes as a result of incomplete inhibition., identified a single activating mutation in NRAS and complete absence of oncogenic mutations in all other genes tested in aggressive pediatric rhabdoid tumors, The cAMP pathway is more frequently impaired in melanoma than could be predicted by the MC1R or NRAS genotype., SHOC2 and CRAF mediate ERK1/2 reactivation in mutant NRAS-mediated resistance to RAF inhibitor., We found that NRAS-mutant melanomas were significantly more likely from older patients and BRAF-mutant melanomas were more frequent in melanomas from the trunk., Localization of the NRAS, MiR-145 suppressed AKT and ERK1/2 pathways and HIF-1 and VEGF expression by targeting N-RAS and IRS1, miR-148b controls malignancy by coordinating a novel pathway involving over 130 genes and, in particular, it directly targets players of the integrin signaling, such as ITGA5, ROCK1, PIK3CA/p110alpha, and NRAS, as well as CSF1, The prevalence of RAS mutations in the present series of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) was 10.1%, and 17.6% when considering only RET-negative cases. RAS mutations were found in MTC tumor tissue but not in peripheral blood indicating their somatic origin, Cooperation between p53 and v-Ras control critical genes related to tumorigenesis.{review], Primary melanoma of the CNS in children is driven by congenital expression of oncogenic NRAS in melanocytes, mutational status of N-RAS and K-RAS genes in a cohort of 504 Chinese acute myeloid leukemia patients; mutation frequency of N-RAS and K-RAS were 9.7 percent and 2.9 percent respectively; concluded RAS mutations are associated with some biologically specific subtypes of AML but don't impact clinical outcome in Chinese patients, mutations in N-RAS may play a role in acral lentiginous melanomas, These results suggest that single postzygotic NRAS mutations are responsible for multiple congenital melanocytic nevi and associated neurological lesions in the majority of cases., study demonstrated that RAS mutations frequently occur in Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL)-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases and especially in t(4;11)-positive infant ALL patients and their presence represents an independent poor prognostic factor, Gene expression changes due to neurofibromin modulation but independent of NRAS and MEK1/2 regulation in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells indicated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) signaling as a key pathway., A significant proportion of fast-growing melanomas bear mutations in NRAS., Data suggest that mutations in NRAS are relatively common (7/28 patients, 25%, p.Gln61Arg) in subjects with partially-encapsulated or well-circumscribed follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in Boston area., Wild-type copies of HRas, NRas and KRas play unique roles in the context of mutant KRas-driven tumours., NRAS mutations define a distinct subset of lung cancers with potential sensitivity to MEK inhibitors., findings implicate the HMGA2-IGFBP2-NRAS signaling pathway as a critical oncogenic driver in embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma, these studies have identified Wee1 as a key target of XL888, suggesting novel therapeutic strategies for NRAS-mutant melanoma., The presence of NRAS or BRAF mutations in a mutually exclusive pattern in roughly half (47%) of conjunctival melanomas and the pattern of CNAs argue for conjunctival melanoma being closely related to cutaneous and mucosal melanoma, NRAS or KIT mutations and cyclin D1 amplification can be found in a proportion of primary melanomas of the sinonasal tract., We observed 3 cases with N-ras mutations in codon 12 (3.6%), 2 cases in codon 13 (2.4%), and 1 case in codon 61 (1.2%)., low BRAF as well as NRAS expression levels were associated with a longer progression-free survival in the total population, Nras(G12D/+) mutation promotes leukemogenesis., NRAS mutations are associated with myelodysplastic syndromes., The frequency of NRAS mutations is lower in the Asian population than in Caucasian patients with primary and metastatic melanomas., Data suggest that NRAS activation occurs at the plasma membrane and suggest that depalmitoylation, and thereby removal of NRAS from the plasma membrane, contributes to down-regulation of signal transduction involving Ras proteins., We found that inherited variants od CDKN2A have no effect of ther prevalence of BRAF/NRAS mutations in melanoma., NRAS mutation is associated with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia., BRAF, NRAS, and c-Kit molecular analyses among patients affected by nail apparatus melanoma were investigated., Co-amplification of these candidate genes or the CCND1 amplification along with either BRAF or NRAS mutations might be more important for prognosis than the presence of these alterations alone., This study investigated the impact of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PI3KCA and TP53 status on outcome of elderly metastatic colorectal cancer patients, Melanomas arising in SSD skin have higher mutation loads and contain a spectrum of molecular subtypes compared with BRAF- and NRAS-mutant tumors indicating multigene screening approaches, The study found a high concordance of NRAS mutation status between paired metastases diagnosed at different time points., Findings show that KIT and BRAF mutations are only rarely present in SNMMs, whereas NRAS mutations seem to be relatively more frequent., the presence of a BRAF- or NRAS mutation in a nevus was not associated with the risk of malignant transformation., Comparison of 136 melanoma patients with NRAS exon 1 (18%) and exon 2 (82%) mutations found an association with primary tumor histology (P = .0096) only., Prevalence and distribution of pathogenetic mutations in BRAF and NRAS genes were evaluated in multiple melanoma lesions from patients with different geographical origin within the same Italian population., mutation in acral lentiginous melanoma of Swedish patients, Finding of somatic activating HRAS and NRAS mutation in bone, the endogenous source of FGF23, provides the first evidence that elevated serum FGF23 levels, hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia are associated with pathologic Ras activation., mutations in KRAS codon 61, KRAS codon 146, BRAF, NRAS, or PIK3CA detected in Asian patients were not predictive of clinical benefits from cetuximab treatment., KRAS/NRAS mutation predicts early lung recurrence and worse survival after curative resection of colorectal liver metastases., RAS mutations predict a lack of response to anti-EGFR therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer., NRAS mutations were associated with poorer overall survival of patients with pediatric B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia., analysis of the NRAS mutation, which is the sole recurrent somatic mutation in large congenital melanocytic nevi, Report role of NRAS oncogenetic risk classification in the prognosis of adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia., Study suggests TRIM33 and NRAS-CSDE1 as candidate genes for autism, and may provide a novel insight into the etiology of autism, NRAS mutations are associated with proliferative thyroid lesions., NRAS mutations in myeloma patients were associated with a significantly lower response rate to single-agent bortezomib., MAF has a role in mediating crosstalk between Ras-MAPK and mTOR signaling in NF1, NRAS isoforms differentially affect downstream pathways, cell growth, and cell transformation., prognosis of patients with melanoma expressing constitutively active N-RAS is poor, Somatic N-RAS G38A-->Gly13Asp substitution was restricted to hematopoietic cells, NRAS mutations and KIT amplifications occur in melanomas originating from the vulva or vagina, Missense mutation in NRAS is associated with concurrent juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and T-lymphoblastic lymphoma., Mutations in NRAS predict resistance to anti-EGFR therapies., the outcome of 68 patients with advanced colorectal cancer and RAS, BRAF and PI3KCA status according to ALK gene status, is reported., Mutations of N-ras are present in multiple congenital neavi. A nonsense mutation afects the codon 61 N-ras., mutations in BRAF and NRAS are not mutually exclusive because they were simultaneously present in the same tumor specimens, NRAS mutation is associated with melanoma., In cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia, activating N-RAS mutations in codons 12, 13, or 61 were detected in 22 of 204 patients., This review will point attention on Neuroblastoma-RAS (NRAS) status in metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients (pts) selected for anti-EGFR therapy, This study indicated that mutations of KRAS, PIK3CA and NRAS were rare in advanced gastric cancer., analysis of RAS, RET/PTC, and BRAF mutations in advanced stage of papillary thyroid carcinoma, NRAS mutations were more prevalent than KIT mutations in a series of melanomas arising from the female urogenital tract., NRAS mutations affect metastatic colorectal cancer patients' prognosis and predict lack of response to EGF receptor antagonists., Characteristics and prognosis of colorectal cancer with NRAS mutations are different from those with KRAS or BRAF mutations., RAS mutation, especially a NRAS codon 61 mutation, was significantly associated with the distant metastasis in follicular thyroid carcinoma, The high-resolution melting method developed was shown to be a reliable method for NRAS mutation detection, NRAS mutation is associated with melanoma nodal metastases and an unknown primary site., BET inhibition with I-BET151 appears independent of the BRAF and NRAS mutational status of melanoma, BRAF and NRAS mutation status does not influence survival in metastatic melanoma., our data suggest that the genetic background in melanoma cells influences the response to inhibitors blocking de novo DNA synthesis, and that defining the RAS mutation status could be used to stratify patients for the use of antifolate drugs., amuvatinib has proapoptotic activity against melanoma cell lines, with selectivity observed for those harboring oncogenic NRAS but not BRAF, TBK1 promotes the malignant properties of NRAS-mutant melanoma and its targeting., Clinicopathologic characteristics, survival outcomes, functional impact, and gene expression profiling were similar between patients with KRAS 12/13 and those with NRAS or KRAS 61/146-mutated colorectal cancers, No association was found between NRASQ61R mutation and melanoma risk factors or melanoma-specific survival., NRAS expression and increased MAPK activation drive vemurafenib resistance in V600E BRAF+ve melanoma., NRAS and KRAS mutations have a role in Down syndrome acute lymphoblastic leukemia that lacks JAK2 mutations, RAS mutations in indeterminate thyroid nodules have a role in follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, These results provide a rationale for targeting mutant RAS or PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in the subset of Eedheim Chester disease patients with NRAS or PIK3CA mutations., Ras-tyrosine 32 serves as an Src-dependent keystone regulatory residue that modulates Ras GTPase activity and ensures unidirectionality to the Ras GTPase cycle., acylation state of Ras proteins (H-Ras and N-Ras) controls not only their distribution between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane, but also their distribution within the Golgi stacks., Targeted sequencing on primary, metastatic, and normal tissue from colorectal cancer patients found a high degree of concordance for KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations that were identical in both the primary and metastatic tumors., NRAS mutations are associated with acute leukemia., NRAS mutation is associated with response to chemotherapy in colorectal liver metastases., This work explains the curious predominance in human melanoma of mutations of codon 61 of NRAS over other oncogenic NRAS mutations. we show that physiologic expression of NRASQ61R, but not NRASG12D, drives melanoma formation., report the cases of two children, presenting a melanocytic lesion located on the ear with an exon 3 NRAS mutation, Analysis of the gene-expression patterns of leukemic subpopulations revealed that the NRAS(G12V)-mediated leukemia self-renewal signature is preferentially expressed in the leukemia stem cell-enriched subpopulation., Our findings suggest that NRAS is an oncogenic driver in serous ovarian tumors., Report NRAS mutation status in colorectal neoplasms and neuroendocrine differentiation in primary/metastatic colorectal neoplasms., NRAS expression is required for the proliferative advantage of human AML cell lines in vitro and for the maintenance of mouse Nras-mutant AML in vivo, BRAF and NRAS alterations are preserved during in vitro culture in melanoma in a series of patients in which the c-KIT mutation was not detected, This expert group recommends testing for KRAS and NRAS status in all patients with metastatic CRC being considered for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapy, Results show that mutated NRAS is associated with melanomas that are more aggressive., Study sequenced a large clinical series of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) for RAS and PIK3CA mutations. RAS alterations occurred in 48% of mCRC cases, with mutations within KRAS exon 2 in 43%, KRAS exons 3 and 4 in 3%, and NRAS in 2% of cases. PIK3CA mutations occurred in about 10% of mCRC and were significantly associated with concurrent RAS mutation., suggests that PIK3CA mutations account for a small fraction of PI3K pathway activation and have a limited impact in interfering with the BRAF/NRAS-driven growth in melanoma, The combination of PRi + MEKi can be an effective regimen for blocking proliferation of NRAS mutant melanomas., We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of an immunohistochemistry using a noel anti-NRAS monoclonal antibody on the samples from patients with metastatic melanoma., NRAS mutations are associated with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer., RAS mutations cause vascular tumors including pyogenic granuloma, The CM cell lines, as well as the tumor xenografts and their metastases, were positive for the melanoma markers HMB-45, S100B, and MART-1. Two cell lines and their corresponding xenografts carried a BRAF mutation, the third showed an NRAS mutation., NRAS mutations in advanced melanoma correlate with increased benefit from immune-based therapies compared with other genetic subtypes., NRAS mutation is not associated response to chemotherapy in melanoma., Combination strategies of immune and targeted therapies may also play a role in the future although clinical trials testing these approaches are in early stages., Activated NRAS and aberrant Wnt signaling conspire to drive congenital melanocytic nevus syndrome., NRAS mutations are usually present in the majority of metastatic colorectal cancer cells., studied 269 Chinese (mostly Han) with de novo AML. FLT3-ITD was detected in 51 subjects (23%; 95% CI, 17-28%), R882 mutation of DNMT3A in 17 (6%; 95% CI, 3-9%) and NRAS mutation in 17 (7%; 95% CI, 3-9%)., Among 264 patients, mutations in KRAS exon 2, KRAS exons 3 or 4, NRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA were detected in 34.1%, 3.8%, 4.2%, 5.4% and 6.4%, respectively. Thus, a total of 12.1% of patients without KRAS exon 2 mutations had other RAS mutations, somatic mosaicism for a mutation accounts for disparate phenotypes in RAS-associated leukoproliferative disease, AML with inv(16) and NRAS mutation have a differentiation gene signature, In the title., NRAS gene mutation was significantly associated with lung metastasis., Case Report, NRAS activating mutation is relatively low in Korean colorectal cancer patients., RAS mutation targeting the Korean population showed 45.7% frequency in follicular-derived thyroid neoplasms., ABL phosphorylates tyrosine 137 of H-, K-, and NRAS., Meta-analysis, BRAF, NRAS and KRAS gene mutations in plasma cell dyscrasias may have a role MEK-ERK pathway activation, Mutations in NRAS have been identified in approximately 15-20% of melanomas., Report 3-fold increased risk of death for higher-risk melanomas harboring NRAS or BRAF mutations., NRASQ61K mutation is associated with recurrence in Neuroblastoma., Evaluation of mutations in NRAS exons 2, 3, and 4-can define the patient with metastatic Colorectal cancer that is unlikely to benefit from anti- Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor therapy., The prevalence of oncogenic RAS mutations was higher among Arab Asian children than in other countries. RAS mutations in AML were found to coexist with other genetic aberrations, particularly MLL rearrangement, BRAF mutations are infrequent, whereas C-KIT and NRAS mutations are seen with higher frequency in vulvar melanomas than melanomas of other sites., RAS-positive thyroid nodules, especially in older individuals, frequently demonstrate a benign phenotype.Cytologically benign nodules, even if RAS-positive, may be candidates for a non-operative observational strategy, comparison of the GTPase reaction of the slower hydrolyzing GTPase Ran with Ras, mutations found in face and palm or sole melanoma in Japanese patients, NRASQ61R and BRAFV600E immunohistochemistry coupled with next-generation sequencing allow detection of mutations in melanoma challenging samples., NRAS mutation was associated with a worse disease evolution in a selected cohort of patients affected by pulmonary metastases of malignant melanoma., Studies indicate that KRAS and NRAS mutations are currently recognized as the best predictive factors for primary resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies., Data suggest that Src kinases inhibitors may act with different mechanisms in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) depending on EGF receptor (EGFR)/Ras protein (Ras) mutational profile., let-7 is a tumor suppressor that negatively regulates RAS, also in Ewing Sarcoma, and HIF-1alpha may contribute to the aggressive metastatic behavior of Ewing Sarcoma, NRAS Mutation is associated with response to therapy in Advanced Melanoma., Case report and review analyses showed that NRAS c.179G > A mutation is associated with familial Noonan Syndrome and predispose to hyperpigmented lesions., The neutron crystal structure presented here puts in question our understanding of the pre-catalytic state associated with the hydrolysis reaction central to the function of RAS and other GTPases., study concluded that 26% of patients had detectable FLT3-ITD or RAS mutation at transformation from myelodysplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia, and these mutations were associated with very poor outcome, analysis of HRAS, KRAS and NRAS expression in colorectal tumor cells, Data indicate that mutations in PTEN phosphatase A167T and NRAS protein Q61L, and proto-oncogene protein BRAF V600E were detected in melanoma cell line., Data show that tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 TET2, isocitrate dehydrogenases 1/2 IDH1/IDH2, serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 SRSF2, splicing factor 3b subunit 1 SF3B1, and ras proteins (KRAS/NRAS) are not conserved in dog mast Cell tumors., Data show that 11/105 patients failed all molecular analysis, The patient's resected brain tumor is BRAF V600E mutated, NRAS wild type (WT), and TERT C250T mutated. The patient is a carrier of germline variants in immunomodulatory loci associated with prolonged survival., ABHD17 catalytic activity is required for N-Ras depalmitoylation and re-localization to internal cellular membranes., MC1R status is associated with BRAF(V600E), BRAF(V600K), and NRAS mutations in cutaneous melanomas,
OMIM_DISEASE Colorectal cancer, somatic, Melanocytic nevus syndrome, congenital, somatic, Epidermal nevus, somatic, Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome, somatic mosaic, Thyroid carcinoma, follicular, somatic, Neurocutaneous melanosis, somatic, Noonan syndrome 6, RAS-associated autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type IV, somatic,
SP_COMMENT disease:Defects in NRAS are a cause of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) [MIM:607785]. JMML is a pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome that constitutes approximately 30% of childhood cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 2% of leukemia., disease:Mutations which change AA 12, 13 or 61 activate the potential of Ras to transform cultured cells and are implicated in a variety of human tumors., enzyme regulation:Alternate between an inactive form bound to GDP and an active form bound to GTP. Activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) and inactivated by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP)., function:Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity., online information:NRAS mutation db, online information:RAS proteins entry, PTM:Palmitoylated by the ZDHHC9-GOLGA7 complex. A continuous cycle of de- and re-palmitoylation regulates rapid exchange between plasma membrane and Golgi., similarity:Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family., subcellular location:Shuttles between the plasma membrane and the Golgi apparatus.,