Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 2.1
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
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microRNA 21(MIR21) microRNA 21(MIR21) Related Genes Homo sapiens
CYTOBAND 17q23.1,
GENERIF_SUMMARY miR-21 is upregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma., miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in the vascular walls after balloon injury.Modulating an aberrantly overexpressed miRNA, miR-21, via antisense-mediated depletion (knock-down) had a significant negative effect on neointimal lesion formation., miR-21 was significantly upregulated in both psoriasis and atopic eczema as compared with healthy skin. It was expressed by both structural and inflammatory cells of the skin., Aberrant expression of miR-21 can contribute to hepatocellular carcinoma growth and spread by modulating PTEN expression and PTEN-dependent pathways., miR-21 induces invasion/intravasation/metastasis., miR-21 links hypoxia with cell cycle regulation and is deleted in human epithelial ovarian cancer., for the first time, we have shown that expression of miR-21 positively correlates with clinical stage, lymph node positivity and the development of distant metastasis in patients with CRC., Alterations in miRNA-21 expression levels or function may be involved in dysregulation of angiotensin II signaling and abnormal aldosterone secretion by adrenal glands in humans., mir-21 functions as an oncogene by a mechanism that involves translational repression of the tumor suppressor Pdcd4, Since exogenous miR-21 expression moderately induced endogenous miR-21, an evolutionarily conserved double-negative feedback regulation would be operating as a mechanism to sustain miR-21 expression., miR-21 was overexpressed in 92% (34/37) of the gastric cancer samples examined, miR-21 contributes to glioma malignancy by downregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibitors, which leads to activation of MMPs, thus promoting invasiveness of cancer cells., The combination of assays presented here supports a role for miR-17-92 polycistron and miR-21 in the maintenance of the malignant transformation of hepatocytes, results suggest that overexpression of mature miR-21 is an independent negative prognostic factor for overall survival in NSCLC patients, findings suggest a potential regulatory pathway in which H. pylori infection upregulates expression of miR-21, which in turn downregulates RECK, and then leads to the development of gastric cancer, Mir-21 is a putative oncogenic microRNA in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC)., miR-21 may serve as a molecular prognostic marker for breast cancer and disease progression., miR-21 as an important oncogene that targets a network of p53, TGF-beta, and mitochondrial apoptosis tumor suppressor genes in glioblastoma cells., Elevated miR-21 expression may facilitate breast cancer progression, and TGF-beta may up-regulate its expression, K15M may contribute to Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus-mediated tumor metastasis and angiogenesis via regulation of miR-21 and miR-31, which we show here for the first time to be a specific regulator of cell migration., Inhibition of miR-21 increases endogenous levels of PDCD4 in cell line T98G and over-expression miR-21 inhibits PDCD4-dependent apoptosis, Unsaturated fatty acids inhibit PTEN expression in hepatocytes by up-regulating microRNA-21 synthesis via an mTOR/NF-kappaB-dependent mechanism., miR-21 is significantly upregulated in the majority of non-invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. Expression correlates with histological features of progression., miRNA-21 was hyperexpressed in all human astrocytic tumor samples, high expression of mir-21 indicates a more aggressive phenotype in breast cancer, results demonstrate that E(2) represses the expression of an oncogenic miRNA, miR-21, by activating estrogen receptor in MCF-7 cells., MicroRNA-21 targets PDCD4 at the posttranscriptional level and regulates cell proliferation and invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma., overexpressed in human cholangiocarcinoma, These data suggested that miR-21 could promote apoptosis resistance, motility, and invasion in prostate cancer cells and these effects of miR-21 may be partly due to its regulation of PDCD4, TPM1, and MARCKS., miR21-mediated inhibition of endogenous WNT1 and JAG1 expression was important for proper monocyte-derived dendritic cell differentiation, miR-21 acts as a positive, though indirect, regulator of FOXP3 expression in Treg, miR-21 is up-regulated via the MAPK (ERK1/2) pathway upon stimulation of HER2/neu signaling in breast cancer cells, Results show that an A-G mutation at 29-nt downstream of pre-miR-21 led to a conformational change of the secondary structure close to the stem reaching into the pre-miR-21 and a relative reduction of the mature miR-21 expression in vivo., miR-21 expression is increased in pancreatic cancer cells and that miR-21 contributes to the cell proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer, Mir-21 expression in the sputum specimens was significantly higher in non-small cell lung cancer patients than cancer-free individuals, miR-21 was detectable in precancerous adenomas. The frequency and extent of miR-21 expression increased during the transition from precancerous colorectal adenoma to advanced carcinoma, miR-21 is an independent prognostic indicator for tongue squamous cell carcinomas (TSCC), and may play a role in TSCC development by inhibiting cancer cell apoptosis partly via TPM1 silencing., Mir-21 was found to be overexpressed in laryngeal carcinoma tissues and expression of miR-21 may contribute to the malignant phenotype of laryngeal carcinoma by maintaining a low level of BTG2., Differential expression of microRNA 181b and microRNA 21 in hyperplastic polyps and sessile serrated adenomas of the colon., miR-21 represents a promising target for therapeutic manipulation to increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in treating glioblastoma., miR-21 may have a potential role in regulating the malignancy and metastatic abilities of prostate cancer cells and in self-renewal of stem cells by regulating the expression of BMPRII, These results suggest that aberrantly increased expression of miR-21, which is enhanced further by the activated EGFR signaling pathway, plays a significant role in lung carcinogenesis in never-smokers, as well as in smokers., Results indicate that HA binding to CD44 promotes PKCepsilon activation, increases the phosphorylation of the stem cell marker, Nanog, leads to microRNA-21 (miR-21) production and PDCD4 reduction., Reducing expression of miR-21 or miR-155 led to up-regulation of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), or Src homology-2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1)., human microRNA-21 (hsa-miR-21) showed a 4.4-fold higher expression in cholesteatoma as compared with normal skin/Identified up-regulation of hsa-miR-21 concurrent with down-regulation of potent tumor suppressor proteins PTEN and programmed cell death 4., Inhibition of miR-21 in HeLa cervical cancer cells caused profound suppression of cell proliferation, and up-regulated the expression of the tumor suppressor gene PDCD4., Data show that Protein levels of tumor suppressor targets of the miRNAs were increased by antisense to miR-21 (PTEN and RECK) and miR-221 (p27)., The miR-21 expression is independent predictors of colon cancer prognosis and may provide a clinically useful tool to identify high-risk patients., demonstrate that the role of miR-21 in the adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells is mediated through the modulation of TGF-beta signaling., Underexpression of microRNA-21, human is associated with colon cancers., The over-expression of miR-21 may play a role in the development and progression of colorectal cancer., miR-21 regulates PDCD4 expression after LPS stimulation., miR-21 is not a central player in the onset of prostate cancer., Aberrant microRNA production is an early event in the development of PanIN. The findings indicate that miR-21 warrants further investigation as a marker for early detection of Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma(PDAC)., miR-21 inhibitor might interrupt the activity of EGFR pathways, independently of PTEN status, miR-21 may play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of chronic myelogenous leukemia, and antisense inhibition of miR-21 may therefore be useful as CML therapy., Anti-miR-21 oligonucleotides sensitize leukemic K562 cells to arsenic trioxide by inducing apoptosis., overexpressing miR-21 had decreased apoptosis and increased eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide production in endothelial cells., Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog PTEN is negatively regulated by miR-21 at post-transcriptional level via binding to 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of PTEN mRNA in non-small cell lung cancer cells., MiR-21 might play a role as an oncogene in the tumorigenesis and development of ovarian epithelial carcinoma., Studies indicate that loss of tumor suppressor miR-206, and the overexpression of oncogenic miR-21 have been observed in many breast cancers., miR-21 could promote invasion in breast cancer cells via its regulation of TIMP3, data thus indicating the potential of miR-21, miR-143 and miR-181a as a novel diagnostic or prognostic biomarker for non small cell lung cancer., miR-21, miR-182 and let7-5a were over-expressed, and miR-145 and miR-155 were under-expressed in a breast, a prostate, and a glioblastoma cancer cell line., Foxo3a is able to up-regulate FasL expression through down-regulating miR-21, PDCD4 and microRNA-21 have a role in human gastric cancer, miR-21 expression levels were significantly higher in patients with poor prognosis and predicted overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Studies indicate that colon cancer (SW480) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines exhibited a slight increase in miR-21 after 48 h of hypoxia., High miR21 is associated with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck and the esophagus., MicroRNA-21 simultaneously regulates multiple programs that enhance cell proliferation, apoptosis or tumor invasiveness by targeting PTEN, PDCD4, and RECK in hepatocellular carcinomas., miR-21 expression has a key role in regulating cellular processes in osteosarcoma, likely through regulating RECK, we identified that two miRNAs (miR-21 and miR-148a) overexpressed in CD4+ T cells from both patients with lupus and lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice, which promote cell hypomethylation by repressing DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression, Overexpression of miR-21 in human circulating angiogenic progenitor cells impairs migratory capacity., These data provide evidence that miR-21 may allow stratification for adjuvant therapy., Our findings suggest a direct role of miR-222 and miR-21 in conferring resistance to fludarabine chemotherapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, miR-21 plays a key role in regulating cell apoptosis in gliomas and may serve as a target for effective therapies., present study highlights the involvement of miRNAs, particularly miR-21 in monocyte differentiation to DCs and identifies potential miR-21 target genes, a higher expression of miR-21 and lower expression of miR-143 in colorectal cancer tissue in comparison with adjacent normal colon tissue (P < 0.0001; P < 0.0001, respectively)., miR-122 expression inversely correlated with fibrosis, liver transaminase levels and patient age. miR-21 was induced approximately twofold, and miR-122 was downregulated on infection of cultured cells with the HCV J6/JFH, thus establishing a link to HCV., High miR-21 is associated with lymph node metastases in squamous cell esophageal carcinoma., Data suggest that miR-21 is a central mediator in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and a potential target for developing novel therapeutics in treating fibrotic diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis., miR-16, miR-21, and miR-146a were significantly downregulated in cigarette smoke-exposed placentas compared to controls and associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes., Results indicate that miR-21 plays a significant role in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration by regulating multiple gene targets., miR-21 expression in cord and increased TGFBR2 expression is associated with antenatal IgE production and development of allergic rhinitis, STAT3 is not only a downstream target of IL-6 but, with miR-21, miR-181b-1, PTEN, and CYLD, is part of the positive feedback loop that underlies the epigenetic switch that links inflammation to cancer., Results identify miR-21 as a novel IFN(interferon) target gene that functions as a key feedback regulator of IFN-induced apoptosis., Data show that TIAM1, a guanidine exchange factor of the Rac GTPase, is a direct target of both miR-21 and miR-31., Data show an association between the loss of PDCD4 expression, tumorigenesis and invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and also identify a mechanism of PDCD4 down-regulation by microRNA-21 in oral carcinoma., We found consistent overexpression in vestibular schwannoma of miR-21 when compared with normal vestibular nerve tissue, subset of miRNAs altered during MYCN knockdown-mediated differentiation of neuroblastoma cells; Mir-21 was up-regulated, but inhibition of mir-21 did not prevent differentiation; unable to establish role for this miRNA during differentiation of the cells, a known tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer. Confirmed that miR-21 was significantly overexpressed in human EOC tissues and cell lines. Demonstrated knockdown of miR-21 significantly increased PTEN expression, a known tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer., The miR-21 is primarily a stromal microRNA, which when measured by image analysis identifies a subgroup of stage II colon cancer patients with short disease-free survival., miR-21 targets and down-regulates the core mismatch repair (MMR) recognition protein complex, human mutS homolog 2, miR-16 and miR-21 are directly regulated by the transcription factor NF-kappaB and yet nicotine-promoted cell proliferation is mediated via EP2/4 receptors., miR-21 could be a predictor of disease progression and a possible therapeutic target in part by upregulating PDCD4 in pancreatic cancer., Spry2 expression is downregulated and miRNA-21 is upregulated in the clinical samples of colon cancer, which correlates with clinical stage of disease., Data show that MiR-21 was overexpressed in vitro and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and promoted the cell proliferation, might target PTEN at post-transcriptional level, and regulated the cancer invasion in Kazakh's ESCC., identification of three novel direct miR-21 targets, miR-21 directly inhibits the expression of thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB), an important tumor suppressor gene, and inhibits thyroid hormone-THRB pathway, A novel role for miR-21 in the brain, not only as a potential signature of neurological disease but also as a crucial effector of HIV induced neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration., the mechanism of miR-21 antineoplastic drug resistance involves the PI3K/Akt pathway and changes following PTEN protein expression., Knockdown of miR-21 in human breast cancer cell lines inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth as well as in vitro migration., miR-21, miR-122 and miR-223 are elevated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or chronic hepatitis and these miRNAs have strong potential to serve as novel biomarkers for liver injury but not specifically for HCC., The relative quantification of miR-205 and miR-21 seems to be a promising diagnostic tool for lung neoplasms., Accumulation of miR-21 and miR-181a in bone marrow appears to be associated with prognosis in breast cancer patients, Data suggest that the post-transcriptional regulation of Spry2 by miR-21 has an essential role on the malignant progression of gliomas., miR-21 expression was significantly upregulated in preneoplastic/neoplastic colon samples, consistent with PDCD4 downregulation, MicroRNA-21 targets tumor suppressor genes ANP32A and SMARCA4., Among the proliferation class, miR-517a is an oncogenic miRNA that promotes tumor progression. There is rationale for developing therapies that target miR-517a for patients with HCC., miR-21 promotes proliferation and invasion in cultured cells, Our study revealed for the first time increased expression of miR-21 in endometrial cancer., miR-21 as a new angiogenesis inhibitor through repression of RhoB, increased miR-21 expression is associated with disease progression and survival in stage I lung cancer, Narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy significantly decreased expression of miR-21 in the epidermis of psoriasis patients., Data show that upregulation of Bcl-2 directly induced by miR-21 is associated with apoptosis, chemoresistance and proliferation of MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells., These findings provide the evidence of the correlation between miR-21 level and adipocyte number in the white adipose tissue, High microRNA 21 is associated with colorectal cancer., Studies indicate that miR-21 was upregulated and mir-197 was downregulated in glioblastoma., The high expression of mature MIR21 was associated with lymph node positivity in ESCC patients, A fusion transcript (RPS6KB1-VMP1) recurrently expressed in 30% of breast cancers is associated with clinical consequences and may indicate genomic instability altering the expression of oncogenic components such as MIR21 and RPS6KB1., These data verified the oncogenic role of miR-21 in Transitional cell carcinomas, miR-21 overexpression contributes to trastuzumab resistance in HER2(+) breast cancers and antagonizing miR-21 demonstrates therapeutic potential by sensitizing the malignancy to anti-HER2 treatment., High expression of serum miR-21 is associated with lung cancer., Our findings suggest that miR-21 detection has a prognostic value in patients with cancer, especially in HNSCC and digestion system cancers., MicroRNA profiling reveals that miR-21, miR486 and miR-214 are upregulated and involved in cell survival in Sezary syndrome, Data demonstrate that miR-21 induces tumor angiogenesis through targeting PTEN, leading to activate AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, and thereby enhancing HIF-1alpha and VEGF expression., this study demonstrates an inverse relationship between miR-21 and PDCD4. Which indicates that miR-21 post-transcriptionally downregulates PDCD4 by mRNA degradation through ginding to its target site with perfet complementarity., The overexpression and inhibition of miR-21 or miR-27b in HuH7 cells significantly decreased and increased the PPARalpha protein level, respectively, but not PPARalpha mRNA level., Upregulated miR-21 affects PDCD4 expression and regulates aberrant T cell responses in human SLE., miR-21 expression was upregulated in response to ionizing radiation (IR) in U251 cells and a miR-21 inhibitor enhanced IR-induced glioblastoma cell growth arrest and increased the level of apoptosis., mir-21 overexpression and downregulation of Pdcd4 is associated with glioblastoma., Data suggest the presence of a positive feedback loop that enables the sustained induction of miR-21, thus contributing to the proinflammatory responses of vascular endothelium under oscillatory shear stress., Results demonstrate that miR-21 promotes keratinocyte migration and boosts re-epithelialization during skin wound healing., study suggests a novel post-transcriptional mechanism for regulation of miR-21 expression at maturation from pre-miR-21 to mature miR-21, Data show up-regulation of hsa-miR-720 and hsa-miR-21, and down-regulation of hsa-miR-671-5p, High miR-21 is associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma., novel Nanog/Stat-3 signaling pathway-specific mechanism involved in miR-21 production is significant for the formation of future intervention strategies in the treatment of HA/CD44-activated HNSCC, having both low miR-16 and low miR-21 expression in the placenta predicts a greater increase in odds for small for gestational age than having just low miR-16 or miR-21 expression (p<0.02), suggesting an additive effect of both of these miRNA, mir-21 plays a crucial role in many biological processes including development, immunity, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and diseases [review], investigated microRNA-21 expression changes in myeloma cells that adhered to bone marrow stromal cells, Upregulation of miR-21 in NSCLC serum was correlated with TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, the status of serum miR-21 expression might be also an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC patients., Plasma microRNA-21 level in the 126 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma was significantly higher than in patients with chronic hepatitis and healthy volunteers (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively)., Neurotensin signaling activates microRNAs-21 and -155 and Akt, promotes tumor growth in mice, and is increased in human colon tumors., The hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha/miR-21/tropomyosin 1 pathway may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis obliterans., Findings indicate that miR-21 plays a key role in regulating cell apoptosis by targeting multiple genes in renal cell carcinoma, Data suggest that dysregulation of miR-21 plays a critical role in resistance of breast cancer to doxorubicin, at least in part via targeting PTEN., our results define miR-21 as a major regulator of Th1 versus Th2 responses, Increased miR-21 is associated with melanocytic lesions., Data show that expression of miR-21 in HEK293 and several colorectal cancer cell lines is inversely correlated with ras homolog gene family, member B (RhoB) expression., miR-21 and miR-181b hold great potential as prognostic biomarkers in late stage gastric cancer., miRNA-21 is dramatically up-regulated in cancer cells of various origins, it also acts as a pro-survival factor in cardiovascular diseases, Results indicate that miR-21 may contribute to improve clinical stratification according to growth rate of breast cancer., Increased expression of miR-21 was seen in OLP compared to normal oral mucosa. Results indicate a role for the studied microRNAs in changes seen in OLP., Data show that 4-OHT reduced PDCD4 mRNA in MCF-7 cells consistent with the increase in miR-21 induced by 4-OHT., identify direct transcriptional regulation of miR-21 by TCF4 and suggest a role for miR-21 in cancer cell proliferation and invasion upon activation of beta-catenin/TCF4 signaling, Overexpression of miRNA-21 is associated with the biological behavior of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma via the downregulation of PDCD4 and TIMP3, resulting in tumor progression and an adverse clinical course., The level of miR-21 correlates with the tumor differentiation and nodal status by ISH., Studies indicate that miR-21, miR-196a, and miR-217 are among the diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic microRNA profiling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma., Take together, these results suggest that miR-21 participates in CSE/H(2)S-mediated-SMC differentiation by targeting SP1., miR-21 showed higher expression levels in tumors obtained from bilateral breast carcinoma patients as compared to unilateral neoplasms., The serum miR-21 level is a marker for necroinflammatory activity., miR-21 plays an important role in regulating stemness by modulating TGFbetaR2 signaling in colon cancer cells., miR-21 functionally interacts with the 3'UTR of CCL20 mRNA., miRNA profiles of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma correlated with clinicopathologic features including lymph node status, tumor grade and independent prognostic utility including miR-21 and miR-34a following resection., Ectopic expression of miR-21 overcame TGF-beta' growth-inhibitory effect and the knockdown of miR-21 potentialized this effect, but perturbation of miR-21 levels had little effect on epithelial to mesenchymal transition., the status of microRNA-21 might be an independent prognostic factor for patients with cutaneous melanoma, and microRNA-21 has the potential of being a novel molecular target for the treatment of human cutaneous melanoma, These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4., miR-34a and miR-21 cooperate in downregulation of the HNF4A mRNA., Bone morphogenetic protein 4 promotes vascular smooth muscle contractility by activating microRNA-21 (miR-21), which down-regulates expression of family of dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) proteins., PTEN-mediated miR-21 regulation is achieved by inhibiting the interaction between the Drosha complex and RNH1, revealing previously unidentified role of PTEN in the oncogenic miR-21 biogenesis, SIDT1, facilitates rapid, contact-dependent, bidirectional small RNA transfer between human cells, resulting in target-specific non-cell-autonomous RNAi, miR-21 might play an important role in the proliferation and apoptosis of ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells through negatively controling the expression of PDCD4., Re-expression of miR-21 is responsible for migration and invasion by activating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and enhancing the characteristics of tumor stem cells in MCF-7 cells., The expression of mir-21 and mir-143 were measured in 142 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) cervical biopsy tissue blocks., Data suggest that overexpression of miRNA-21 and reduced or loss of PDCD4 expression may play a role in the development and progression of gastric cancers., miR-21 may play an important role in the development and progression of lung cancer through JAK/STAT signal pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, cell cycle, PPAR signaling pathway, apoptosis pathway and other pathways, microRNA-21 promotes tumor proliferation and invasion in gastric cancer by targeting PTEN., PDCD4 mRNA levels were negatively regulated by miR-21in each tumor stage of colorectal cancer (CRC)., targets vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway in leprosy, This study investigated the role of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and let-7a microRNA in paediatric and adult cholesteatoma., These data showed that miR-21 was significantly overexpressed in colorectal cancer tumour tissue and was associated with advanced colorectal cancer., By knocking down the expression of endogenous miR-21 in U266 myeloma cells, we observed reduced growth, an arrested cell cycle, and increased apoptosis., miR-21 is up-regulated and PTEN is down-regulated, and their expressions are reversely correlated in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas., miR-21 promotes migration and invasion in HCC through the miR-21-PDCD4-AP-1 feedback loop, suggesting that targeting the miR-21-PDCD4-AP-1 loop may represent a promising strategy in the management of HCC., Suppression of tumor suppressor PDCD4 expression may be one of the important regulatory pathways of miR-21-mediated cell proliferation and decrease of apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer., miR-21 may be involved in the formation of radioresistance of glioma cells., correlation between miR-21 expression and clinical characteristics of renal cancer., Study shows that the expression of miR-222, miR-328, miR-197, and miR-21 combined in a predictive model is accurate at differentiating malignant from benign indeterminate thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration (FNA)., These findings suggest that ursolic acid inhibits cell growth via causing apoptosis in U251 cells by a ursolic acid-triggered TGF-beta1/miR-21/PDCD4 pathway., Serum miRNA-21 is considered to be a novel biomarker for diagnosing ESCC, and it can also be used as a response marker during chemotherapy for ESCC patients., Modulation of miR-21 expression shows potential as a new therapeutic option to limit abdominal aortic aneurysm expansion and vascular disease progression., mir-101 and mir-21 target PLAP-1 to regulate its expression during osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs., A network-based bioinformatic approach coupled with confirmatory in vivo data delineates a central regulatory role for miR-21 in pulmonary hypertension., compared expression of miR-21 in epidermal cells and dermal T cells between psoriasis and healthy skin and found elevated levels of miR-21 in psoriasis in both cell types, This study highlights the potential of the detection of miR-21 in peripheral blood as a novel tool for monitoring circulating tumor cells in gastric cancer patients, we demonstrated that the formation of Cancer stem cell-like cells undergoing process of Epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like associated with overexpression of HIF-1alpha, both of which are regulated by miR-21., Data show that miR-21, miR-221, and miR-181b were increased in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma compared to benign pancreatic lesions by both qRT-PCR and microarray., The expression level of miR-21 in 44 paired samples of tumoral and non-tumoral colon tissues diagnosed for colorectal cancer, was examined., Circulating miR-21 and miR-375 could be reliable prognostic markers for ESCC. These plasma markers might facilitate clinical decision-making to select prospective candidates, which need meticulous follow-up, Data suggest that MiR-21 and PDCD4 may be candidate novel therapeutic targets against the development or progression of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST)., The expressions of miR-21, miR-155 and miR-210 in plasma of lymphoma patients were higher than those in the control group., DNA damage-induced NF-kappaB activation has a role in promoting cancer metastasis following genotoxic treatment, and NF-kappaB-dependent miR-21 induction may contribute to both therapeutic resistance and metastasis in breast cancer, show that EGF/Ras efficiently induces the miR-21 primary transcript, but this does not rapidly and simply translate into higher mature miR-21 levels, The data suggested that miR-21 is involved in the regulation of the synthesis of COL4A1, a component of the basement membrane surrounding the GC layer and granulosa-embedded extracellular structure., Overexpression of miR-21 in human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) inhibited hADSC-induced tumor growth, and inhibition of miR-21 increased it., DowUpregulation of miR-21 is associated with prostate cancer transformation and progression., decreased Grhl3 expression contributes to tumor progression and upregulation of the oncomir miR-21 in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin., present data suggest that EBNA2 might contribute to EBV-induced B-cell transformation by increasing oncomiR-like miR-21 and by affecting the antiviral responses of the innate immune system through downregulation of its key regulator miR-146a, Increased circulating miR-21c is associated with malignant pleural mesothelioma., these results reveal a regulatory interplay between miR-21, JAG1 and E2 that is important for advancing understanding of how the oncogenic potential of miR-21 and JAG1 manifests in different sub-types of breast cancer., MicroRNA-21 expression is regulated by beta-catenin pathway. This regulation is STAT-3 dependent., expression of MiR-21, MiR-205, and MiR-342 was analyzed in ER-positive and/or PR-positive group (group I); HER2-positive group (group II); and ER/PR/HER2- negative (group III) breast cancer; expression of miR-21 was similar in all 3 groups; miR-205 and miR-342 expression were down regulated in group III, miR-21 is the most frequently deregulated microRNA in malignancy, and it has oncogenic potential downstream of STAT3., MiR-21 was significantly overexpressed in human solid cancerous serum relative to normal control., We believe that miR-21 may be important in prostate cancer progression through its regulation of RECK, a known regulator of tumor cell invasion., Data indicate that expression of miR-21 was observed in undifferentiated, prometastatic mouse tumours and in human tumours characterized by p53 mutations and distant metastasis., Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the therapeutic function of fish oil diet that blocks miR-21, thereby increasing PTEN levels to prevent expression of CSF-1 in breast cancer., Data show that miR-21 regulates activation of mTOR in renal cancer cells., Differential expression of microRNAs miR-21, miR-31, miR-203, miR-125a-5p and miR-125b and proteins PTEN and p63 in verrucous carcinoma of the head and neck., these results should shed light on the potential immunopathological role of miRNA-21* regulating the in vitro apoptosis of eosinophils and development of novel molecular treatment of allergic inflammation., Reduction of miR-21 repressed human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression in a STAT3-dependent fashion, subsequently inhibiting glioblastoma cell growth., In patients with acute kidney injury circulating microRNAs are not removed by dialysis. As only traces of miR-21 and -210 are detected in dialysate and ultrafiltrate, microRNAs in the circulation are likely to be transported by larger structures, Elevated leiomyoma miR-21 levels are predicted to decrease PDCD-4 levels, thus leiomyomas differ from other tumors where loss of PDCD-4 is associated with tumor progression., Overexpression of miR-21 is positively correlated with level of plasma beta2-microglobulin and staging of multiple lyeloma., left atria of patients with atrial fibrillation are characterized by increased expression of microRNA-21 and decreased expression of its downstream target Sprouty1., antagonism of miR-21 reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype through targeting PTEN, via inactivation of AKT and ERK1/2 pathways, and showed a novel mechanism which might relieve the malignant behaviors of breast cancer., microRNA-21 expression is up-regulated in human cholangiocarcinoma and PTEN, PDCD4 are direct effectors of microRNA-21., our results suggest that miR-21, miR-205, miR-30d, and miR-24 may serve as potential novel non-invasive biomarkers for diagnosis of lung cancer, MiR-21 expression was inversely correlated with hMSH2 expression in human lung cancer cell lines., High mir21 is associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma., miR-21 promotes tumorigenesis and key targets of miR-21 in mediating this function were SOD3 and TNFalpha., Deregulation of miR-143 and miR-21 may reflect histological features and biological behavior of different pancreatic cancers., Downregulation of miR-21 is associated with primary glioblastoma., We explored the most effective schedule of the miR-21 inhibitor (miR-21i) and Temozolomide (TMZ) combined treatment in human glioma cells., study reports detection of miR-21 dysregulation in circulating plasma of colorectal cancer patients, These results uncover an essential role of TGFbeta-induced expression of miR-21, which targets PTEN to initiate a non-canonical signaling circuit involving Akt/mTORC1 axis for mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein synthesis., A role was determined for microRNA-21 as a regulator of the fibrotic process in aortic stenosis patients., Circulating microRNA-21 might be a useful biomarker in glioblastoma., Upregulation of miR-21 is associated with breast cancer., miR-21 expression was associated with lymph node status and histological type in lung cancer., PDGF-B may enhance tumor proliferation by modulating the expression of oncomiRs and tumor suppressor miRNA-21 in U87 human GBM cells., The expression level of miR-21 in carcinoid tumors with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than in carcinoid lung tumors without lymph node metastasis., The tumorigenic role of miR-21 in non-small cell lung cancer development through modulation of the PTEN signaling pathway., MIR21 plays a role in the radioresistance of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma via PTEN suppression., Urinary miR-21 expression correlates with the rate of renal function decline in chronic kidbey disease., Data indicate that miR-30b/c and miR-21 target respectively the 3' untranslated region of caspase-3 and TAp63 mRNAs., Aldose reductase inhibition prevents colon cancer growth by restoring phosphatase and tensin homolog through modulation of miR-21 and FOXO3a., MicroRNAs miR-21a and miR-93 are down regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with type 1 diabetes., The miR-21 signal was predominantly observed in fibroblast-like cells located in the stromal compartment of the tumours., miR-21 has a role as a new circulating marker of inflammation and aging, and shows age realted differences, Circulating microRNA-92a and microRNA-21 as novel minimally invasive biomarkers for primary breast cancer., results revealed a novel function for miR-21 and suggested that suppressed miR-21 may contribute to impaired bone formation by elevated TNF-alpha in estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis, Our results show that miR-21 is a pivotal molecule for circumventing radiation-induced cell death in malignant glioma cells through the regulation of autophagy and provide a novel phenomenon for the acquisition of radio-resistance, miR-21 plays important roles in regulating proliferation and apoptosis mediated by stretch., In human free tissue flaps, significant upregulation of miR-193-3p, miR-210, and miR-21 was detected at 72-hour reperfusion., High MiR-21 expression is associated with glioma., Letter, miR-21 is an independent prognostic biomarker in invasive pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms., Down-regulation of miR21 can enhance the radiosensitivity of TE-1 cells, which might result from the inactivation of wnt/beta-catenin signal pathway and a decreased p75NTR(+) cell proportion., High MiR-21 expression is associated with colorectal cancer., Decreased Fas/FasL signaling mediates miR-21-induced chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer., our results provide evidence that miR-21 is uniformly overexpressed in GBM and constitutes a highly promising target for multimodal therapeutic approaches toward GBM., miR-21 might be involved in renal cell carcinoma cell invasion by regulating TCF21-mediated KISS1 gene expression., High expression of miR-21 is associated with radiation resistance by compromising cell cycle progression in breast cancer., PDCD4 nuclear down-regulation (which parallels miR-21 up-regulation) is involved in the molecular pathway of inflammatory bowel disease-associated carcinogenesis., The ERK-MAPK signaling pathway is regulated by Sprouty2 expression via a miR-21-mediated mechanism during mesenchymal stem cell differentiation., Mutation of mir-21 might be involved in the oncogenesis and differentiation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma., The level of circulating miR-21 could be a reliable prognostic marker in the plasma of patients with gastric carcinoma., Findings demonstrated that the three-miRNA signature of miR-21, miR-199a-3p, and miR-143, could discriminate cases of osteosarcoma from controls, CDF, a curcumin derivative, increases expression of VEGF, IL-6 and miR-21 and hypoxia-induced aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer cells, resveratrol's anti-tumor actions in prostate cancer could be explained, in part, through inhibition of Akt/miR-21 signaling pathway, MicroRNA-21 regulates the sensitivity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells to the CHOP chemotherapy regimen., The serum level of miR-21 was significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma than in control subjects. High serum miR-21 was significantly correlated with advanced Enneking stage and chemotherapeutic resistance., High serum miR-21 is associated with breast cancer., miR-21 is associated with prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy and the differential expression of miR-21 is more prominent in obese than in non-obese cases, miR-21 regulation of BCL-2 expression is inhibited by resveratrol in pancreatic cancer cells, Data indicate that miR-21 potentiates TGF-beta signaling in hematopoietic cells via downregulation of SMAD7., MicroRNA-21, which negatively regulates CSE expression, was increased in placentas with abnormal Doppler waveforms., study identified two miRNAs (miR-21* and miR-203 that are differentially expressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues with BRAF(V600E) and revealed their associations with clinicopathological features, Overexpression of microRNA-21 during tumorigenesis of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma contributes to tumor growth and metastasis., miR-21 promotes robust fibrogenic EMT of EMCs, in part by directly targeting PDCD4 and SPRY1., Findings indicate that in vivo antagonism of miR-21 exerts anti-multiple myeloma activity, providing the rationale for clinical development of miR-21 inhibitors for multiple myeloma., High miR-21 expression is associated with lung cancer., miR-21 has a key pathogenic role in kidney fibrosis, Feedback regulations of miR-21 and MAPKs via Pdcd4 and Spry1 are involved in arsenite-induced cell malignant transformation., Mechanistic studies reveal a P2X7 receptor-dependent mir-21 angiogenesis pathway that may be involved in the development of psoriatic lesions., High miR-21 is associated with glioblastoma., MiR-21 could obviously downregulate the expression of MSH2., These results show that miR-21 is an indicator of an aggressive breast cancer phenotype and that it may be a new therapeutic target in the treatment of breast cancer in the future., findings suggest that miR-21 is a cellular senescence- induced miRNA that contributes to induction and/or maintenance of a senescence-like cell-cycle arrest in normal human cells, In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma miR-21 expression is increased. miR-21 down-regulation inhibits cell growth, invasion and induces cells to apoptosis by targeting FASL, TIMP3 and RECK genes., Inhibition of miR-21 induced biological and behavioral alterations in DLBCL, including proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis., miR-21, miR-150, and miR-146a have low expression in most primary tumors with significantly increased expression in omental lesions, with concomitant decreased expression of predicted mRNA targets based on mRNA expression., MiR-21 is overexpressed in RCC tissue and modulates the growth, apoptosis and cell cycle progression of RCC cells and regulates the expression of PDCD4 and TPM1., Overexpression of microRNA-21 indicates chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer., Overexpression of miR-21 is associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma., results demonstrate that plasma levels of selected miRNAs are potential biomarkers to differentiate localized PCa and mCRPC., miR-21 plays a necessary role in cardiac valvulogenesis, in large part due to an obligatory downregulation of PDCD4, Data indicate that miR-21 induced the degradation of RhoB mRNA, which led to the depletion of RhoB and the impairment of tight junctions in intestinal epithelial cells., this study reported for the first time that HBx downregulates PDCD4 and upregulates miR-21 expression, Data showed decreased expression of miR-21, miR-26a, miR-29a, and miR-142-3p in CD4 T cells and peripheral blood from tuberculosis patients., results showed significantly higher serum miR-21 levels in epithelial ovarian cancer patients than healthy controls. increased serum miR-21 expression was correlated with advanced FIGO stage, high tumor grade, and shortened overall survival., MicroRNA-21 may play an important role in cholangiocarcinoma invasion and metastasis, suggesting that MicroRNA-21 should be further evaluated as a biomarker for predicting cholangiocarcinoma prognosis., levels of miR-21 and miR-92a in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and advanced adenoma were significantly higher than those in healthy controls; data indicate that miR-21 and miR-92a serum levels have potential value for early detection of CRC, results indicate that miR-21 is upregulated during hepatitis C virus infection and negatively regulates IFN-alpha signaling through MyD88 and IRAK1, miR-21 is an important mediator in LX-2 cell activation; the fibrogenic effects of miR-21 on hepatic stellate cell activation are mediated through PTEN/Akt pathway, TGF-beta regulated the expression of miR-21 and fibrosis-related genes, and decreased Smad7 expression in scleroderma fibrosis., miR-21-mediated suppression of both hSulf-1 and PTEN led to activation of AKT/ERK pathways and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma, promoting tumor growth., The results of this study revealed the aberrant expression of miR-21 in side population cells and showed that miR-21 regulates the expression of multiple target proteins that are associated with tumor dissemination., miR-21 promoted the proliferation, migration and inhibited apoptosis of Eca109 cells through activating ERK1/2/MAPK pathway., Urinary and plasma miR-21 are associated with severe acute kidney injury and other poor postoperative outcomes of cardiac surgery., Increased miR-21 expression correlated with poor prognosis for white stage IV colorectal cancer patients., mechanistic study showed that miR-21 protected endothelial cell against high glucose-induced endothelial cytotoxicity probably by inhibiting the expression of DAXX., study demonstrated the APC gene mutation rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Taiwan was lower than other countries; inactivation of APC gene in CRC was not only due to gene mutation but also correlated with miR-21 upregulation, Studies indicate that three miRNA biomarkers miR-21, miR-155, and miR-200 have been repetitively identified in pancreatic cancer tissue., miRNA-21 may be considered as a potential novel target for future development of specific therapeutic interventions in non-small cell lung cancer, Ectopic stromal miR-21 expression is associated with increased epithelial invasiveness., Data indicate a significant correlation in miR-181b, FOS and miR-21 expression glioma tissues., High miR-21 expression is associated with tumor growth and progression., High miR-21 expression in the microenvironment is associated with colorectal tumors., Our data indicate that Let-7g and miR-21 profiling combined with the determination of K-Ras mutational status may be considered a useful biomarker for a more effective molecular characterization and clinical management of NSCLC patients, Data indicate that berberine could inhibit miR-21 expression and function in ovarian cancer by an enhancement of its target PDCD4, an important tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer., Results showed miR-21 downregulation decreased cellular viability and proliferation, and increased programmed cell death., findings have shown that MMP-8 is able to modify the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells because of its ability to proteolytically cleave decorin and regulate miR-21 levels, Data indicate that the pattern of B cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) protein expression was exactly the opposite of miRNA-21 expression in lung cancer cells., miR-21 and miR-221 may serve as novel biomarkers for atherosclerosis and stroke., Our findings suggest that miR-21 promotes tumor cell growth, at least in part, by down-modulating the potential tumor suppressor KRIT1., The relative expressions of miR-205-5p, miR-205-3p, and miR-21-3p in tissues and serum among non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients, were assessed., Milk exosomes, which regularly contain microRNA-21, most likely represent a genetic transfection system enhancing mTORC1-driven metabolic processes.[Review], we conclude that reactive oxygen species promotes gastric carcinogenesis via upregulating miR-21 expression which in turn downregulates the expression of PDCD4 in gastric cancer cells, Thus, analyzing expression of miR-21 and miR-146a from plasma samples of breast cancer patients might be useful in the diagnosis of breast cancer., The expression of hMSH2 and PDCD4 in miR-21-inhibiting T98G cells., Authors identify miR-21 in this GAS5-RISC complex, implying that miR-21 and GAS5 may regulate each other in a way similar to the microRNA-mediated silencing of target mRNAs., miR-21 could promote metastasis in breast cancer via the regulation of TIMP3 translation, EF24 is a potent anticancer agent and selectively targets NF-kappaB subunit RelA signaling and miR-21 expression., Silibinin fully reversed the EMT-related high miR-21/low miR-200c microRNA signature and repressed the mesenchymal markers SNAIL, ZEB, and N-cadherin observed in erlotinib-refractory tumors., miR-21 controlled the expression of cyclin D1 through NFkappaB-dependent transcription in renal cancer cells., Data indicate miR-21 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumor-associated fibroblasts is associated with decreased overall survival and promotes tumor cells invasion., miRNA-21 inhibition enhances RANTES and IP-10 release in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and causes increased lymphocyte migration., MiR-21 overexpression was significantly correlated with the DKK2-/beta-catenin- immunohistochemical phenotype., MiR-203 may act as novel tumor suppressor in esophageal cancer through down-regulating the expression of Ran and miR-21., Interleukin-6 up-regulates miR-21 levels via activating STAT3 in HBE cells exposed to arsenite., High expressions of serum exosomal miR-21 is associated with pancreatic cancer., A feedback loop exists between miR-21 and the EGFR signaling pathway., miR-21 has potential diagnostic value with a moderate sensitivity and specificity for gastric cancer, It may be involved in expressional regulation of HCV receptor proteins during HCV infection and antiviral therapy., Results suggest that the AR and miR-21 axis exerts its oncogenic effects in prostate tumors by downregulating TGFBR2, hence inhibiting the tumor-suppressive activity of TGFbeta pathway., We aimed to evaluate the effects of sex, sex hormones, and polycystic ovary syndrome and their interactions with obesity on the expression in the circulation of these miRNAs., MIR21 is a potential colorectal cancer biomarker [review], miR-21 is a microenvironment signaling molecule that contributes to tumor growth and cancer progression., microRNA-21 is increased in lung epithelial cells during lung fibrosis, and it promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition., Generated Rm21LG transgenic mice for the conditional co-expression of miR-21 and luciferase mediated by Cre/lox P system., findings suggest that circulating miR-21 may not suitable to be a diagnostic biomarker, but it has a prognostic value in patients with cancer, In accordance to the observed similarity between TGF-beta variants and miR-21 gene expression alterations in bladder tumors, treating 5637 bladder cancer cell line with TGF-beta recombinant protein caused a significant upregulation of miR-21., Our data provide evidence for a dual role of miR-21 in CD4+ T cells; Regulation of T-cell survival is confined to activated memory T-cells, while modulation of potential homing properties, through downregulation of CCR7 protein expression., MicroRNA-21-3p, a berberine-induced miRNA, directly down-regulates human methionine adenosyltransferases 2A and 2B and inhibits hepatoma cell growth., miRNA-21 was significantly higher in plasma and in EBC of the NSCLC patients and miRNA-486 was significantly lower, MicroRNA-21 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell proliferation through repression of mitogen-activated protein kinase-kinase 3., Plasma miR-21 is a novel diagnostic biomarker for Biliary tract cancer, and may be useful in distinguishing between Biliary tract cancer and benign biliary disease patients., High miR-21 expression in tumors was associated with poor survival in both the stage II/III Japanese (p = 0.0008) and stage II German (p = 0.047) cohorts., miR-21 is a key player in oncogenic EMT, its overexpression is controlled by the cooperation of genetic and epigenetic alterations, and its levels, along with ITGbeta4 and PDCD4 expression, could be exploited as a prognostic tool for CRC metastasis., Overexpression of miR-21 suppressed trastuzumab-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer., Sirt2 is critical in human glioma via NF-kappaB-miR-21 pathway and Sirt2 activator may serve as candidate drug for glioma therapy., the miR-21/PDCD4/AP-1 autoregulatory loop is one of the main driving forces for hepatic fibrosis progression., the roles of miR-21 in acute kidney injury, miR-21 could be a potential tumor miR by regulation of PTEN, and a novel prognostic factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma., an increasing number of evidence has demonstrated that miR-21 is up-regulated in breast cancer, and miR-21 holds immense promise in serving as a novel biomarker for diagnosis of breast cancer, high expression of miR-21 might predict poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer., These results demonstrate that miR-21 may play an important role in the 5-fluorouracil resistance of colon cancer cells., The aim of this study was to monitor serum levels of two microRNAs (miR-21 and miR-141) and three kallikreins (hK3/PSA, hK11, and hK13) before and 1, 5, and 30 days after radical prostatectomy., Decreased Let-7g levels impair endothelial function and increase the risks of cardiovascular diseases through targeting TGF-beta and SIRT-1 signaling., These findings suggest that miR-21 might specifically function by regulating Sox2 expression in human mesenchymal stem cells and might also act as a key molecule determining MSC proliferation and differentiation., MIR21 directly modulates cell function and signaling pathways in ways other than inhibition of protein translation., miR-21 may be a candidate independent marker for gliomas, especially those with high pathological grades, and this could also be a potential therapeutic target for molecular glioma therapy., The CLU-1 isoform is the predominant growth-suppressive variant in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and is targeted by miRNA-21., Inhibition of microRNA-21 and microRNA-196b inhibited in vitro leukemic colony forming activity and depleted in vivo leukemia-initiating cell activity., Identify a novel mechanism of interaction between TGF-beta1 and miR-21 in the regulation of FasL protein, which is involved in keloid formation., Elevated macrophage miR-21 promotes efferocytosis and silences target genes PTEN and PDCD4, which in turn accounts for a net anti-inflammatory phenotype., miR-21 expressed in the serum of Chinese patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was associated with clinical stage, molecular subgroup, and prognosis estimates., This study provides further data for the identification of a miRNA profile for glioblastoma and suggests that different-grade neoplasia could be characterized by different expression of specific miRNAs., A combined expression level of miR-21 and miR-126 accurately predicted cancer-specific survival in two independent renal cell carcinoma cohorts., The effect of celastrol on apoptosis of gastric cancer cells was due to miR-21 inhibiting the PI3K/Akt-dependent NF-kappaB pathway., It has been suggested to be candidates for biomarkers in various diseases including Crohn's disease (CD)., growth conditions especially expected in more malignant tumors result in microRNA-21 upregulation explaining the observed increase in higher staged lung cancer tissue, but not in lung cancer-derived cells., MiR-21 upregulation induced by promoter zone histone acetylation is associated with chemoresistance to gemcitabine and enhanced malignancy of pancreatic cancer., High plasma miR-21 expression is associated with differentiation degree and lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer., Enhanced expression of miR-21 is associated with podocyte and tubular cell injuries in patients with IgA nephropathy., MiR-20b, -21, and -130b inhibit PTEN expression resulting in B7-H1 over-expression in advanced colorectal cancer., High miR-21 expression levels are associated with invasive breast cancers., Serum miR-21 is a potential biomarker of epigenetic therapy in myelodysplastic syndromes patients., HIF-1alpha may promote the EMT development through regulating fibrotic gene expression during I/R injury in human renal TECs, and miR-21 could be among the important regulatory pathways in the process, Serum miR-21 increases in response to ionizing radiation (IR). This study is the first step in demonstrating the utility of miR-21 as a biomarker of exposure to IR., The levels of serum miR-21 and miR-181a may be valuable for evaluating the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in heavy smokers., Inhibition of miR-21 by locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified anti-miR-21 compounds ameliorated disease pathology in patient-derived psoriatic skin xenotransplants in mice and in a psoriasis-like mouse model., miR-21 is high on the list of non-coding, small, regulatory RNAs that promote renal fibrosis and emerges as a serum biomarker for kidney diseases, but many questions await answers. [review], miR-21 might be a biomarker for plaque instability by suppressing target gene RECK to promote the expression and secretion of MMP-9 in macrophages, Data indicate the potential of miR-21 and the PTEN/Akt pathway as therapeutic targets in intervertebral disc degeneration., HA/CD44-induced c-Jun signaling plays a pivotal role in miR-21 production leading to Bcl-2 upregulation and chemoresistance in triple negative breast cancer cells, Knockdown of miR-21 in the HXO-RB44 cell is capable of inhibiting cancer progression in retinoblastoma., Our data suggest that miR-21 could modulate chemosensitivity of TSCC cells to cisplatin by targeting PDCD4, and miR-21 may serve as a potential target for TSCC therapy, miR-21 may augment T cell immune response by a positive feedback mechanism., MicroRNA-21 may play an oncogenic role by directly targeting programmed cell death (PDCD)4 in the cellular processes of papillary thyroid carcinoma., miR-21 is aberrantly expressed in many diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus patients in central China., miR-21 is overexpressed in gastric cancer and its aberrant expression may have important role in gastric cancer growth and dissemination by modulating the expression of the tumor suppressors PTEN and PDCD4, The present meta-analysis suggests that circulating miR-21 expression is associated with poor survival in patients with cancer and could be a prognostic biomarker for those patients., the present study found that STAT3 (-/p) expression was positively correlated with miR-21 in 60 oral squamous cell carcinoma samples., High level of miR-21 has a negative impact on overall survival of esophageal cancer., Cholangiocarcinogenesis and tumor progression are regulated by a novel interplay between COX-2/PGE2 and miR-21 signaling, which converges at 15-PGDH., In the training set, six serum miRNAs (miR-21, let-7g, miR-31, miR-92a, miR-181b, and miR-203) had significantly different expression levels between the CRCs and healthy controls., miR-21 targeting and regulating FasL-mediated apoptosis will bring us the possibility of a new tumor immunotherapy via breaking tumor immune privilege, Ectopic expression of micro-RNA-1, 21 and 125a in peripheral blood immune cells is associated with chronic hepatitis B infection., miR-21 is located in the carcinoma cells, stroma and blood vessels of tumors, and its expression specifically in the stromal compartment has a negative prognostic value in oral squamous cell carcinoma., the upregulated miR-21 by nicotine promoted EMT transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) dependently, Expression of miR-21 is increased in colorectal cancer tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues., Higher miR-21 expression in invasive breast carcinomas is associated with positive estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status in patients from Serbia., target genes of miR-21 were involved in eight possible signaling pathways, When compared to controls, patients with ankylosing spondylitis had significantly higher levels of miR-21, PDCD4 mRNA, and CTX. MiR-21 expression was negatively correlated with PDCD4 in patients with AS who were taking neither NSAID nor DMARD., miR(21/10b) ratio is an independent prognostic factor for clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which could be useful to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from increased surveillance., Silencing miR-21 in radioresistant NSCLC A549 cells sensitized them to IR by inhibiting cell proliferation and enhancing cell apoptosis through inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway., MicroRNA-21 regulates hTERT via PTEN in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts., miR-21 is involved in MNNG-induced gastric carcinogenesis in vivo and in vitro via FASLG/BTG2 pathway., MicroRNA-21 promotes tumour malignancy via increased nuclear translocation of beta-catenin and predicts poor outcome in APC-mutated but not in APC-wild-type colorectal cancer., Dehydroepiandrosterone increased ERbeta and AR recruitment to the miR-21 promoter., miR-21 was found up-regulated in squamous cell carcinoma cancer tissues, High serum miR21 levels are associated with atherosclerosis., Upregulation of miR-21 s associated with cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer., High Serum microRNA-21 is associated with lung carcinoma., The meta-analysis indicates that a single miR-21 may not be sufficient to identify lung cancer and that more miRNAs should be used to detect lung carcinoma., miR-21 overexpression can contribute to TGF-beta1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by inhibiting target smad7., PDCD4 and miR-21 are involved in OSC oncogenesis, Data indicate that programmed cell death4 (PDCD4) is a target of microRNA-21 (miR-21)., these findings demonstrate that miR-21 suppression enhances the sensitivity of lung cancer cells to cisplatin (DDP) in vitro and in vivo., It plays an important role in inflammation and dysregulated miRNAs may be responsible for pathogenesis of Crohn's disease., Exosomal miRNA21 is involved in cell-cell communication during carcinogenesis induced by sodium arsenite in bronchial epithelial cells., miR-122, miR-21, and miR-221 are involved in liver regeneration and might contribute to spontaneous recovery from acute liver failure., High expression of miR-21 in triple-negative breast cancers was correlated with a poor prognosis and promoted tumor cell in vitro proliferation., Type 1 diabetic pediatric patients revealed a significant deregulation of miR-21, miR-126, and miR-210 in plasma and urinary samples, which might indicate an early onset of diabetic-associated diseases., MCP-1 induces migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, and intrahepatic metastasis of HCC ells through the induction of their miR-21, Exercise training attenuates HDL-induced reduction in pro-angiogenic miR-126/miR-21 expression chronic heart failure patients., Studies suggest that miR-21 can be considered as a powerful biomarker in HIV-related lymphomas., miR-21 is enriched in serum exosomes which provides increased sensitivity of detection than whole serum. Exosomal miR-21 may serve as a potential biomarker for HCC diagnosis., Study suggests an important role of myofibroblast differentiation in the malignant progression of phyllodes tumors that is driven by increased miR-21., miRNA-21, as a proto-oncogene, involved in the process of development and drug resistant of multiple myeloma. Overexpression of miRNA-21 leads to the abnormal change of JAK/STAT-3, NF-kappaB expression., HIF-1alpha-miR-21 feedback contributes to the adaptation of cardiomyocytes to hypoxia, The TGFB1-miR-21-reactive oxygen species pathway of bystander cells has an important mediating role in radiation-induced bystander effects in H1299 cells., high miR-21 levels reduce rictor-PDCD4 interaction to increase phosphorylation of Akt and contribute to metastatic fitness of renal cancer cells., Data suggest that down-regulation of miR-486-5p and miR-139-5p, in conjunction with up-regulation of miR-21, may represent a useful signature for the identification of high-risk breast cancer patients., miR-21 was up-regulated in 35 of 45 nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues compared with that in the matched non-tumor tissues, Stromal miR-21 is closely related to tumour progression in Gastric cancer, Recent progress on the role of miRNAs in cancer suggests that miR-21 and let-7 antagonize each other in the Ras and NF-kB pathways., PAPD5 and PARN mediate degradation of oncogenic miRNA miR-21., High miRNA-21 expression is associated with an unfavourable recurrence-free cancer-specific survival in colon cancer., Results show that up-regulation of miR-21 and down-regulation of Pten in patients with non-small cell lung cancer negatively correlate with shorter disease-free survival and poor sensitivity to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors., Data indicate insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) as a miR-21 target gene in glioblastoma and suggest that the oncogenic miRNA miR-21 down-regulates the expression of IGFBP3, which acts as a tumor suppressor in human glioblastoma., MiR-21 is critically essential for PHF8 function in human lung cancer cells., miR-21 is instrumental in this process as well as in the orchestration of the biological activity of adult angiogenesis-promoting cells, miR-21 simultaneously regulates multiple programs that enhance cell proliferation, apoptosis and tumor invasiveness by targeting PTEN, RECK and Bcl-2 in GSQCLC., High Serum levels of miR-21 is associated with pathological response to chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer., Compared values of exosomal miR-21 and HOTAIR in serum of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) patients with those of polyps of vocal cords., Chronic atrial fibrillation increases miR-21 expression in human atrial myocytes and decreases I(Ca,L) density by downregulating CACNA1C/CACNB2 expression., miR-21, increased in alcoholic liver injury and regulated by IL-6/Stat3, is essential for transformation, survival, and liver fibrosis., Hypomethylation of MIR21 is associated with Crohn's Disease., In American-Indian patients with diabetic nephropathy (n=48), albumin-to-creatinine ratio was positively associated with miR-21 expression in glomerular fractions (r=0.6; P<0.001) but not tubulointerstitial fractions (P=0.80)., Using a blood test based on detection of serum miRNAs that distinguishes early NSCLC patients from healthy volunteers, miR-17, 21 and 192 expression levels were found to be significantly higher in the stage I NSCLC patients than the healthy volunteers., Findings shed new light on the complex regulation of L1CAM in cancers and advocate the use of L1CAM/miR-21-3p for diagnostic application., The results of the present study suggested miR-21 expression level could be a novel potential biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma prognosis, miR-21 clearly plays an important role in ischemia/reperfusion injury., MiR-21 may thus serve as a novel regulator in T-cell differentiation and homoeostasis, and provides a new therapeutic target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis ., Circulating MIR-21 and PTEN might represent new complementary tumour markers for oral squamous cell carcinoma., Results show that miR-21 was overexpressed in all tested head and neck squamous carcinoma cell lines, and regulated cellular proliferation possibly through downregulation of the tumor suppressor PDCD4., These results indicated that serum miR-21 levels could serve as a reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for colorectal adenocarcinoma., The levels of circulating miRNA-21-5p, miRNA-361-5p and miRNA-519e-5p in ischemic stroke and pulmonary embolism were elevated, whereas the decreased level of plasma miR-519e-5p was only detected in acute myocardial infarction., serum miRNAs 21 and 221 expression profiling tests may be used as specific noninvasive molecular biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis., GAS5, plays a critical role in the regulation of miR-21 during osteoarthritis., Antisense-mediated knockdown (anti-miR) revealed that miR-206/21 coordinately promote RAS-ERK signaling and the corresponding cell phenotypes by inhibiting translation of the pathway suppressors RASA1 and SPRED1., miR-21 interacts directly with the 3'-untranslated repeat sequence of ACVR2B mRNA. miR-21 is a mechanosensitive gene that plays an important role in the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells exposed to stretch., This report shows that p57(Kip2) is a novel target of miR-21 in prostate cancer and revealing a novel oncogenic function of this microRNA., miR-21 detection has a prognostic value in patients with gastric cancer., Study suggests a potential use of miR-21 and miR-133a as sensitive and plasma biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis., stromal miR-21 expression is an independent prognostic factor in HPV-negative tumors and miR-21 may play different roles depending on HPV infection status., High serum MIR21 levels are associated with colorectal cancer., Results suggest that miR-21 and miR-29a are essential for the pro-tumor functions of myeloid cells through the CSF1-ETS2 pathway., Evidence reveals that HBx protein differentially modulated the expression of miR-21, miR-222 and miR-145 in patients with advanced liver disease or hepatoblastoma., miR-ISH added to the biological interpretation of miR expression in DLBCL compared with miR array data, but miR-155 and miR-21 ISH did not add prognostic information in this series., Human miR-21 acts as a molecular switch to regulate aerobic glycolysis in bladder cancer cells., Plasma cell-free miR-21 levels were associated with maternal BMI and neonatal birth weight but not with placental weight. Circulating cell-free miR-21 levels in maternal plasma were independent of fetal gender., Results show that in metastatic breast cancer, up-regulated levels of miR-183, miR-494 and miR-21 were associated with a poor prognosis., High expression of miR-21 is associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava., High microRNA-21 expression is associated with colorectal cancer., MiR-21 overexpression was associated with enhanced ERK1 signaling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in liver fibrosis., miR-21 is a negative modulator of signal transduction downstream of T cell receptors in T-lymphocytes.miR-21 is a negative modulator of T-cell activation., High MIR21 expression is associated with cervical cancer., Incresed MIR21 expression is associated with glioma., increasing expression of miR-21 with consequent downregulation of the tumour suppressor gene PDCD4., TNF-alpha-induced release of microparticle-encapsulated miR-126, miR-21, and miR-155 from human aortic endothelial cells, was examined., In medullary thyroid carcinoma miR-21 regulates PDCD4 expression and the miR-21/PDCD4 pathway correlates with clinicopathological variables and prognosis., this study demonstrated that miR-21 silencing reversed lung cancer cell MDR by modulation of MDR-related gene expression and inhibition of the AKT signaling pathway., 20 genes within the NF-kappaB signaling cascade as putative targets of miRs-21-3p and -27a-5p, implicating these two miRNAs as modulators of NF-kappaB signaling in endothelial cells, Elevated miR-21 expression was significantly associated with poor survival in breast cancer patients., This in vitro study demonstrates important interactions among miR-21 expression, keloid fibroblast apoptosis, cell proliferation, and some related proteins, Activation of miR-21 by STAT3 induces proliferation and suppresses apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by targeting PTEN gene., MiR-21 is a possible driver gene other than PPM1D for 17q23-25 amplification in CCC., MiR-21 might be a potentially useful biomarker for predicting cancer prognosis in future clinical applications., These results suggest that Cdc25a promotes human cytomegalovirus replication and elevation of Cdc25a levels after human cytomegalovirus infection are due in part to human cytomegalovirus-mediated repression of miR-21., miR-21 in osteosarcoma cells is a significant modulator of the anti-tumor effect of CDDP, these findings suggest that measurement of the plasma miR483-3p level is useful for discriminating PDAC from IPMN, and that the plasma miR21 level predicts outcome of PDAC patients., MiR-21 up-regulation mediates glioblastoma cancer stem cells apoptosis and proliferation by targeting FASLG., miR-21 was upregulated in Kazakh's esophageal squamous cell cancer patients and played a negative role in regulating PDCD4., High stromal expression of miR-21 is associated with biochemical failure in prostate cancer., Following psychological stress, MIR21 was upregulated in peripheral blood in heavy alcohol drinkers but not in moderate drinkers., Results show that mir-21 is highly expressed in colorectal cancer cells (CRC) and may be a valuable biomarker for prediction of poor prognosis in CRC patients with Dukes' stage B, C and D., The overall diagnostic value of miR-21 is not very high for cancer diagnosis., miR-21 is expressed in the stroma of triple-negative breast cancer, Introduction of miR-21 largely abrogated CASC2-mediated inhibition of glioma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and promotion of cell apoptosis., Estrogen sensitive, circulating MIR21 could be potential, early biomarkers for age-associated physiological deteriorations., These results reveal a gradient of miRNA over the first one hundred microns from the leading edge and show the involvement of miR-21 in the complex regulation of transforming growth factor beta modulated epithelial migration., Low miR-21 expression is associated with recurrence in rectal cancer., Suggest novel role of leptin-NADPH oxidase induction of miR21 as a key regulator of TGF-beta signaling and fibrogenesis in experimental and human NASH., High expression of miR-21 was possibly correlated with large size tumor and advanced cancer stage., Data reveal a role for miR-21-3p in regulating HDAC8 expression and Akt/Gsk3beta pathway in cardiac hypertrophy., STAT3/miR-21 axis could be a candidate therapeutic target for OSCC chemoresistance., miR-21 in maternal serum is differentially expressed between macrosomia and controls, and miR-21 could be used as a candidate biomarker to predict macrosomia., miR146a and miR21 were significantly upregulated in atherosclerotic plaque, and cooperated to accelerate VSMC growth and cell cycle progression by targeting Notch2 and Jag1., The diagnostic accuracy of miR-21 tends to be higher in Asian populations., Results demonstrate existence of a functional loop involving Let-7a, STAT3 and miR-21 which were found potentially regulated by viral oncoprotein E6., It elevated expression of miR-21 may play a vital role in the development of fibrosis by promoting the proliferation of interstitial fibroblasts and increasing the abnormal deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM)., these findings suggest that deregulated miR-21 expression may contribute to disease pathogenesis in NPM1-mutated AMLs., Nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived miR-21 induces IL-10-expressing B cells; the latter is capable of suppressing CD8+ T-cell activities., Data indicate that deregulation of transcription factor AP-1 and microRNA-21-mediated axis led to an enhanced cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)., Role of microRNA 21 in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation, primary tumor in colon cancer releases high concentrations of miR-21 in the mesenteric vein but these concentrations are later diluted in the circulatory system, the present study revealed the aberrant expression of STAT3 and miR21 in hepatocellular carcinoma side population cells., Data indicate that lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5A RBP2 (JARID1A; KDM5A) epigenetically downregulated micrRNA-21 (miR-21) in blast transformation of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)., Data suggest that miR-21-3p can induce cisplatin resistance in ovarian tumours, potentially by targeting the NAV3 gene., This data shows that increased expression of miR-21 enhanced the invasive potential of melanoma cell lines through TIMP3 inhibition., Our results identify FBXO11 as a novel miR-21 target gene, and demonstrate that the oncogenic miRNA miR-21 decreases the expression of FBXO11, which normally acts as a tumor suppressor, and thereby promotes tumorigenesis., Administration of antisense of miR-21 through an intraductal infusion system significantly decreased miR-21 levels and increased FoxO1 levels in implanted PDAC, resulting in a significant decrease in PDAC growth., data indicate that miRNA-21 regulates hTERT expression via the PTEN/ERK1/2 signaling pathway, therefore controlling CRC cell line growth. MiRNA-21 may serve as a novel therapeutic target in CRC, miR-21 regulates triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by targeting HMGCR, miR-21/FoxO1 axis appears to be a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting the growth of Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, miR21 may represent a negative regulator involved in the downregulation of SPRY2 in MM., MiR-21 Regulates MiR-34b/c Expression via PTEN/AKT/FOXO3a Signaling Pathway., Taken together, our results demonstrated that PSMB4 regulated MM cell growth in part by activating NF-kappaB-miR-21 signaling, which may represent promising targets for novel specific therapies., miR-34a, miR-21 and miR-23a were elevated in CAD patients, which means that these miRNAs might serve as biomarkers of CAD development and progression., MiR-21 affects Smooth muscle cells phenotypic switch, increases proliferation and decreases apoptosis in Pulmonary arterial hypertension., miR-21 is a key regulator of fibrogenic epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocytes via PTEN/Akt pathway., miR-21 promotes malignant behaviors of colon cancer cells by regulating RASA1 expression via RAS pathways., the current study suggested an underlying mechanism that miR-21 directly target HEPN1 and inhibit its expression during the carcinogenesis of HCC. HEPN1 may thus be a candidate as a therapeutic target for patients with HCC., results indicated that miR-21 can predict unfavorable prognoses in breast cancer patients, especially in Asians, STAT3 was a direct target of miR-21 in macrophages. Silencing the STAT3 gene abolished PGE2-mediated expression of M2 genes in miR-21-/- macrophages., miR-21 is elevated in the sera of both asthma and eosinophilic esophagitis patients., The levels of miR-21, miR-199a-5p, and miR-200c were significantly increased in sera of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients., miR-21 and its target PI3K-AKT-GSK3beta pathway played an important role in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by stabilizing beta-catenin, MiR-21 controls in situ expansion of CCR6 regulatory T cells through PTEN/AKT pathway in breast cancer, miR-21 overexpression or WWP1 knockdown in endothelial progenitor cells significantly activates the TGFbeta signaling pathway and inhibits cell proliferation., These data establish a clear role for miR-21 in the maintenance of tumorigenic phenotype in hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo., Recently, microRNA-21 is found to be aberrantly expressed in colorectal cancer and has been recognized to perform significantly in CRC, where it can regulate different target genes and pathways involving tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis., Normal thyroid tissues and most benign goiters were negative for miR-146b-5p and miR-21., High MIRN21 expression is associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma., down-regulated expression in mature dendritic cells, negatively regulates CCR7 expression through binding to its target site, High expression levels of miR-21 were closely related to adverse clinical features, diminished survival, and poor prognosis in ICC patients., Three promising exosomal microRNA biomarkers were identified, discriminating prostatic neoplasm patients from control, MiR21 downregulated SPRY2 gene expression and decreased cell proliferation and invasion of MM cells in vitro., In elderly women, only TGF-betaRIota expression correlated negatively with miRNA-21 expression in PBMCs. miRNA correlated positively with handgrip strength., Targeting inhibition of miR-21 and miR-95 can inhibit tumor growth through elevating PTEN, SNX1, and SGPP1 expression and inhibiting Akt phosphorylation., Notably, miR-21 regulated the potential anticancer effects of icariin on cell proliferation and apoptosis by targeting PTEN, RECK and Bcl-2 in the ovarian cancer A2780 cells, miR-21 can influence PI3K-AKT signaling via its direct regulation of p85alpha in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma., Regulation of TFAM by hsa-miR-155-5p impacts mitochondrial biogenesis in the diploid setting but not in the DS setting., miR-21 regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation in orbital fibroblasts from thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy patients, and acts as a mediator in TGF-beta1-induced collagen production., In atherosclerosis, miR-21 is increased in the aorta and associated with vitamin D deficiency., Micro RNA expression may be an independent risk factor for patient with myocardial infarction., MiR-21, miR-34a, miR-198 and miR-217 are diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, Data show that microRNA miR-21 plays an oncogenic role in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by modulating the PI3-Kinase/AKT protein/mTOR protein/forkhead box O1 protein (FOXO1) pathway at multiple levels resulting in strong prognostic implication., We found that poor response to IVF is associated with altered miRNA expression in cumulus cells, specifically with elevated expression of miR-21-5p., altered expression of miR-21, miR-29c, miR-148 and miR-203 are related to neoplastic transformation and progression of the disease, miR-21, miR-145, and their networks play critical roles in regulating cancer stem cell growth and/or differentiation in the colon cancer and progression of chemo-resistance., Data show that microRNA miR-21 and miR-223 that were up-regulated in cancerous tissues, were significantly reduced in post-operative plasma samples., Although no influence of microRNA-21 and microRNA-148a on the response of esophageal adenocarcinoma to neoadjuvant therapy was seen, upregulation of microRNA-21 might represent an escape mechanism of tumor cells., MicroRNA-21 expression efficiently predicts preoperative chemoradiotherapy pathological response in locally advanced rectal cancer., The present study showed the upregulation of miR-21 in invasive cervical cancers, and confirmed the promotion of miR-21 with regard to the proliferation, migration and invasion in cervical cancer cells via inhibiting the PTEN expression., These results suggest that physiological concentrations of DHEA activate a GPER intracellular signaling cascade that increases pri-miR-21 transcription mediated at least in part by AP-1 and androgen receptor miR-21 promoter interaction., Role of exosomic miR-21 and miR-155 in the cross-talk between NBL cells and human monocytes in the resistance to chemotherapy, through a novel exosomic miR-21/TLR8-NF-small ka, CyrillicB/exosomic miR-155/TERF1 signaling pathway., miR-21 plays an important role in promoting the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma, we demonstrate that miR-21 regulates T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell survival via repression of the tumor suppressor Pdcd4., beta-catenin and miR-21 were concordantly expressed in GBM cell lines. SFN downregulated miR-21 by inhibiting the Wnt/beta-catenin/TCF4 pathway. SFN strengthened TMZ-mediated apoptosis in a miR-21-dependent manner., Low MiR-21 expression is associated with recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer., Fibroblasts treated with HeLa cell culture media showed up-regulated expression of miR-21., Nickel accumulation in lung tissues is associated with EGFR mutations, miR-21 expression, and a poor outcome in lung cancer never-smoking patients., miR-21, miR-29a, and miR-125b may have a role in colorectal neoplasms, miR-21 and let-7a function as clinically relevant integral components of STAT3 signaling., Results indicated that miR-21 expression was elevated in asymptomatic high-risk individuals and breast cancer patients with advanced clinical stages suggesting it as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for breast cancer., Data suggest that circulating miR-21 can serve as a good biomarker for gastric cancer (GC) and could be used in diagnosis of early (stage I) and late GC (stage IV)., Concomitant loss of miR-15/miR-16 and gain of miR-21 aberrantly activate TGF-beta and Hedgehog signaling, that mediate local invasion, distant bone marrow colonization and osteolysis by prostate cancer cells, The Role of miR-21 in Cancer, The immuno-microRNAs miR-21-5p show a disease specific signature, which suggests these microRNAs as possible biological autoimmune markers of myasthenia gravis., upregulation of miR-21 expression, thus targeting PTEN and the PI3K pathway is how trimetazidine counteracts the apoptotic effect of hypoxia/reperfusion, In arsenite-transformed HaCaT (HaCaT-30T) cells, down-regulation of STAT3 by siRNA blocked the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and decreased their neoplastic properties that were antagonized by over-expression of miR-21., the increased miR-21 expression in patients with iCIMT made us conclude that this miRNA might be involved in the early stages of atherosclerotic process in hypertensive patients., Results suggested that a selective packaging of miR-21 in exosomes may contribute to the antileukemic effect of Curcumin in CML., Our results support a prognostic role for miR-21 in esophageal cancer ., PDCD4 is critical in mediating apoptosis in glioblastoma multiforme, and is downregulated by miR-21. (Review), These findings suggest that miR-21 and PDCD4 might be potential biomarkers for malignant melanoma and might provide treatment targets in the future., miR-21 was found to be overexpressed and BTG2 was found to to be downregulated in HepG2 liver cancer cells., Kallistatin's heparin-binding site is crucial for preventing TGF-beta-induced miR-21 and oxidative stress, while its active site is key for stimulating the expression of eNOS., miR-21 overexpression within MM-microenviroment plays a crucial role in bone resorption/apposition balance, Unprecedentedly, HuR was also found to bind to miR-21 directly, preventing its interaction with the PDCD4 3'-UTR, thereby preventing the translation repression of PDCD4., miR-21 silencing could suppress proliferation/migration/invasion, arrest the cell cycle and induce apoptosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells., Ghrelin inhibition of ethanol-induced gastric epithelial cell apoptosis is mediated by miR-21 activation of PI3K/Akt signaling., MicroRNA-21 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition, promoting invasion/migration of cholangiocarcinoma cells., In squamous cell tongue carcinoma, intratumor injection of AS-miR-21 significantly inhibited growth. this was accompanied by decreased photon signals, rare necrosis foci, smaller and weakly stained nuclei, atypia reversal and tumor angiogenesis reduction., S100P/RAGE signaling pathway regulates expression of microRNA-21 in colon cancer cells, Findings suggest that microRNAs miR-21 and miR-1225-5p may serve as biomarkers of peritoneal recurrence after curative gastric cancer (GC) resection., Data suggest that microRNAs miR-10b, 21, 200c, 373 and 520c may control both metastasis and stemness potential., the expression levels of miR-21 and miR-221 in gastric cancer samples were significantly higher than in paired non-cancerous samples, Together, our findings suggest an important role for miR-21 in the progression of HCC, which negatively regulated Navigator-3 in the migration of HCC., MicroRNA-21 regulates proliferation and migration of bladder cancer cells and cross talk with PTEN and p53 in bladder cancer., Increased miR-21 and nestin mRNA levels were found in anaplastic meningiomas, in which recurrence is, Our study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values of microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for prostate cancer (PCa)., These findings indicate that miR-21 is required for maintaining the imatinib-resistant phenotype of chronic myeloid leukemia, microRNA gene expression plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease., These findings support the feasibility of future efforts for diagnosis and gene therapy for prostate cancer that are based on IL-6, miR-21, and PDCD4., miR-21 upregulation is associated with aggressive progression and poor prognosis in cervical cancer., Suggest that increased expression of miR-21 was significantly correlated with tumor progression and could be a novel potential biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma prognosis., Serum miR-21 and miR-34a are potentially useful diagnostic biomarkers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma., study suggests that T-cell activation itself may induce a sequence of gene expressions that is self-limited by miR-21, miR-21 has a role in upregulating PTEN, RECK and PDCD4 in glioma, Data suggest that hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) induces gene expressions of microRNAs microRNA-7, -21, and -107 to target the 3' untranslational region (3' UTR) of maspin mRNA., miR-21 regulated SOD2, suggesting that miR-21 might mediate bystander responses through its regulation on SOD2., expression of miR-21 was significantly up-regulated and miR-199-a was significantly down regulated in serum of patients with HCC., Hepatocellular carcinoma miR-21 participates in the acquired resistance of sorafenib by suppresing autophagy through the Akt/PTEN pathway., STAT3 and miR-21 are cooperative regulators of stemness, migration and tumor initiation in lung-derived brain metastasis, miR-21 regulates major cellular processes including cell growth, migration, invasion and apoptosis suggesting that its impairment may lead to placental disorders., Circulating miR-146a and miR-21 may be novel biomarkers predictive of left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction., Over-expression of miR-21 is associated with clinico-pathologic characteristics in breast cancer., Analyses determined that mir-21 expression significantly increased in esophageal cancer tissues and in TE-13 cells, and that this phenomenon was not associated with staging or lymph node metastasis., specific miRNAs such as miR-21 and miR-210 can predict poor survival rates in breast cancer patients. [meta-analysis], Successful attempts were made in applying the approach to detect miR-21 in human serum samples of breast cancer patients., Dysregulation of miR-21 has an important role in tumor growth and invasion by targeting PDCD4., In summary, this study demonstrates a link between SphK1/sphingosine-1-phosphate and TGF-beta-induced miR-21 in renal tubular epithelial cells., Study suggests that miR-21 can negatively regulate the frequency of circulating Treg cells through a TGF-beta1/smad-independent signaling pathway in peripheral blood mononuclear cells., Interaction axis between miR-21 and PTEN-SMAD7 promotes renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy., MiR-21 can mediate the drug resistance to 5-fluorouracil by inhibiting its target PDCD4, which can regulate the expression of ABCC5 and CD44 genes., Colorectal tumor MIR21 expression is inversely associated with densities of various T-cells., Serum miR-21 is increased in polycystic ovary syndrome patients., miR-21 might be complementary to alpha fetal protein in hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis, Overexpression of miR-21 is associated with disease stage and treatment outcome of B-NHL. This potentially involves negative modulation of PTEN., MicroRNA-21 links epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inflammatory signals to confer resistance to neoadjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer patients., epigenetic regulatory pathways involving micro RNAs may modulate the host immune system in major trauma., Down-regulation of mir21 is associated with skin lesions., The experiment demonstrated that the expression of miR-21 is related to a disorder, and the TGF-beta/miR-21/Smad7 and TGF-beta/miR200b/Zeb1 pathways might participate in the pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar (HS)., Lipopolysaccharide induces low expression of miRNA-21 which consequently causes the up-regulation of the downstream gene OAS1 and eventually triggers apoptosis in hFOB1.19 cells., miR-21 in exosomes leads to STAT3 activation, which increases VEGF levels in recipient cells, a process involved in angiogenesis and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells, Our data suggest that miR-21 expression is increased in breast cancer and plays an important role as a tumor gene by targeting STAT3, which may act as a double-response controller in breast cancer., Mir-21/Sox2 axis was found to delineate glioblastoma subtypes and prognosis., microRNAs -122, -192 and -21 are expressed in serum of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, microRNA-21 (miR-21) acts as an oncogenic driver of Clear cell renal cell carcinoma., MiR-21 modulates human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration in asthma through regulation of PTEN expression., PIK3R1 knockdown abrogated antimiR21-induced effect on breast cancer cells., A novel role of STAT3/miR-21 axis and CDK5/CDK5R1 (p35) in metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma., These findings suggest that miR-21 is linked to glioma angiogenesis, that miR-21 is unlikely to regulate PTEN, and that miR-21-positive tumor cells do not possess stem cell characteristics., MicroRNA has a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis., all types of diseases suggesting that it plays an important role in cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The present mini review highlights the recent investigations related to the importance of miR-21 in different types of Diabetes mellitus, MiRNA-21 Expression Decreases from Primary Tumors to Liver Metastases in Colorectal Carcinoma, The expression of tissue and plasma miR-155 were significantly up-regulated in patients with LSCC., This study describes the regulation of PDCD4 specifically in tonsil SCC by miR-499 and miR-21 and has documented the loss of PDCD4 in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, TIMP3 was validated as a direct target of miRNA-21 by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Silencing with small interfering RNA against TIMP3 promoted angiogenesis and increased MMP2 and MMP9 expression at the protein level., serum miRNA-21 is stable and detectable in serum of asthmatic children, which could promise potential biomarker in diagnosis as well as in response to therapy of asthma., TGFBIp expression is positively regulated by TGF-beta1 in corneal fibroblasts, whereas TGF-beta1-induced miR-21 and miR-181a negatively regulate TGFBIp expression., MIRN21 microRNA, miR21 is transferred from cancer-associated adipocytes (CAAs) and fibroblasts (CAFs) to the cancer cells, where it suppresses ovarian cancer apoptosis and confers chemoresistance by binding to its direct novel target, APAF1., miR-720 is elevated in serum of patients with ADAM8-high TNBC and, in a group with other miRNAs downstream of ADAM8, holds promise as a biomarker for early detection of or treatment response of ADAM8-positive triple-negative breast cancer, Our data illustrate the feasibility of miRNA analysis by NGS in small individual aqueous humor samples. Intraocular cells as well as blood plasma contribute to the extracellular aqueous humor miRNome., Circulating miR-21 increases in wheezing children.,