Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 2.1
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
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insulin like growth factor 2(IGF2) insulin like growth factor 2(IGF2) Related Genes Homo sapiens
CYTOBAND 11p15.5,
GENERIF_SUMMARY Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2 ) gene variant is associated with overfeeding-induced metabolic changes. Insulin sensitivity decreased ., Contribution of residues A54 and L55 of the human insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) A domain to Type 2 IGF receptor binding specificity, These data indicate that the translational machinery encounters major parts of IGF II-leader 1., Association of H19 promoter methylation with the expression of IGF-II gene in adrenocortical tumors., Human insulin-like growth factor II leader 2 mediates internal initiation of translation, Loss of genomic imprinting of IGF2 is strongly associated with cellular proliferation in normal hematopoietic cells., altered IGF-II and IGFBP-1 expression at the fetomaternal interface may be important in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia, cDNA probes were used to analyze the gene expression of IGF-II 6 in luteinized granulosa cells from different-sized follicles after ovarian hyperstimulation., determination of blood levels in adult patients with severe liver disease before and after orthotopic liver transplantation, igf2 expression regulates hemangioma growth and involution, Caucasians with the IGF2 A/A genotype exhibit higher fat mass than G/G individuals, Brain tumor invasiveness in degrees from respect of the arachnoid membrane progressing to frank brain invasion correlated with increases in IGF-II and IGFBP-6 expression., Autocrine production of IGF-I and IGF-II may via IGF-IR play a significant role in the growth and megakaryocytic differentiation of K562 cells., Data suggest a causal relation between telomere shortening and reduced expression of KGF and IGF-II in human fibroblasts., The dependence of the methylation of a region of this gene depends on the primary methylation imprint about 90 kilobases away., Glucose transporter gene expression in the jejunum in response to insulin-like growth factors in rat pups, data demonstrate for the first time that serum levels of IGFs (including free fractions) and IGFBPs are not increased in euthyroid Graves' patients with active thyroid eye disease, IGF-II was expressed in human hepatoma cell lines., effect of relaxin on cellular proliferation in WISH cells is likely through the transcriptional up-regulation of IGF-II, mitogenic effects on Malassez cells in the normal periodontal ligament, Overexpression of IGF2 was found to play an important role in carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer., Alterations in the IFGII imprinted region occur in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma., investigated the utility of loss of IGF2 imprinting as a marker of colorectal cancer risk, IGF2 is maternally imprinted thus is expressed only through the paternal allele, also IGF2 is over expressed in ovarian tumors., Human insulin-like growth factor II gene (IGF2) is overexpressed, and its imprinting is disrupted in many tumors, including Wilms' tumor., Data suggest that insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is complexed in vivo with intact insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-2) and with processed IGFBP-2 fragments, which do not impair the activity of IGF-II on cell survival., circulating IGF-II levels may play a role in body weight regulation and development of obesity in men and women with normal glucose tolerance, p53mt249 stimulates IGF-II dependent IGF-IR signaling by upregulating the expression of both ligand (IGF-II) and receptor (IGF-IR) through an autocrine and/or paracrine loop, PTEN modulates IGF2-mediated signaling. The phosphoprotein phosphatase activity of PTEN downregulates IGF-2 expression in hepatoma cells., 214 transcripts were similarly regulated by insulin and IGF-II through Insulin Receptor A, whereas 45 genes were differentially transcribed, IGF2, a potent growth factor, may play a role in the development or progression of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney., AT-rich DNA sequences located in the vicinity of previously characterized differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the imprinted Igf2 gene are conserved between mouse and human., PLAG1 regulates promoter P3-dependent transcription of IGF2 in hepatoblastomas., Serum IGF-I shows positive correlations with myoblast retrieval in control patients that is lost in malignancy., Both first- and second-phase insulin secretion were not significantly different between the various IGF-I or IGF-II genotypes., In human fetuses, IGF-I and IGF-II levels increase longitudinally throughout pregnancy., Our findings support the hypothesis that LOI of IGF-II is an epigenetic trait polymorphic in the population and suggest that LOI of IGF-II may play a role in colorectal cancer., Fibroblast proliferation, differentiation into myofibroblasts, & increased collagen synthesis are regulated via a CTGF-dependent pathway in concert with either EGF or IGF-2., IGF-II, IGF-II gene APA I polymorphism can not serve as a candidate gene marker for screening rheumatoid arthritis patients in Taiwan., IGF-II enhances the expression of VEGF in HaCaT cells by increasing HIF-1alpha levels., The C and D domains of IGF-II promote higher affinity binding to the IR-A than the equivalent domains of IGF-I., free IGF-II but not IGF-I may have a role in progression of breast cancer, variation within IGF2, a gene known to influence developing muscle, affects muscle mass and muscle function in later life., CRD-BP has a dominant role in proliferation of human K562 cells by an IGF-II-dependent mechanism independent of its ability to serve as a c-myc mRNA masking protein, novel mechanism for IGF2 imprinting regulation, that is, the reduction of CTCF expression in the control of IGF2 imprinting, IGF-2 may play a role in the selective recruitment of basophils in vivo., plasminogen binds with high affinity to IGF-II and IGF-binding protein-3, there is a disturbed regulation of the IGF-2/H19 locus in myeloid leukemias which is not caused by loss of imprinting, mature IGF-II is more effective in down-regulating the IGF-IR than pIGF-II, Here, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, we show that IGF2 is highly expressed in both proliferating and involuting phase hemangioma, but is not detectable in other vascular lesions., humans with loss of imprinting (LOI) of the IGF2 gene show a shift in differentiation in the normal colonic mucosa, observed, subsequent to knocking down CRD-BP/IMP1, decreased c-myc expression, increased IGF-II mRNA levels, and reduced cell proliferation rates, The IGF2(67 amino acids) is single-chain polypeptides structurally similar to proinsulin., there is no finite M6P/IGF2R dimerization domain, but interactions between dimer partners occur all along the extracytoplasmic region of the receptor, PTEN may inhibit antiapoptotic IGF actions not only by blocking the IGF-IGFR-induced Akt activity, but also by regulating expression of components of the IGF system, in particular, upregulation of IGFBP-3, IGF-II plays a role in colonic carcinogenesis from ulcerative colitis by interacting with interleukin 5., In sedentary, clinically stable maintenance hemodialysis patients as compared to sedentary normal individuals, the mRNA levels for IGF-IEa, IGF-II, and the IGF-I receptor are decreased in vastus lateralis muscle, C-domain of IGFBP-2 plays a key role in binding regions of IGF-I and -II that are also involved in binding to the type-1 IGF receptor, IGF II is an early indicators of fetal growth as measured in seconsd semestser amniotic fluid., Resveratrol regulates IGF-II and IGF-II mediates RSV effect on cell survival and growth in breast cancer cells., Polymorphisms of the IGF2 gene is associated with predisposition to high body mass index and obesity, PAPP-A increased the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts, its myogenic effect is governed by its proteolytic activity, and it promotes skeletal myogenesis by increasing the amount of free IGFs., SYT-SSX1 induces insulin-like growth factor II expression in fibroblast cells., A highly significant association was observed between the IGF2 ApaI G allele and scores on the Eating Attitudes Test overall and each of its subscales, IGF-II expression was found to be higher in tumors with poor prognosis., Association of 11q loss, trisomy 12, and possible 16q loss with loss of imprinting of insulin-like growth factor-II in Wilms tumor, Results suggest that loss of imprinting (LOI)of IGF2 in colorectal carcinoma and LOI in the background mucosa play important roles in carcinogenesis., Elevated IGF2 expression is a frequent event in serous ovarian cancer and this occurs in the absence of IGF2 loss of imprinting., Interplay between placental and fetal Igf2 regulates both placental growth and nutrient transporter abundance., IGF-I and -II are chemotactic factors for mesenchymal progenitor cells; IGFBP-5 both modulates the IGF-I effect and directly stimulates migration of human mesenchymal progenitor cells, IGF2 polymorphisms were found to be strongly associated with the clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic HBV infection, analysis of hypomethylated P4 promoter induction of expression of the insulin-like growth factor-II gene in hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese population, IGFs co-activate proliferative and apoptotic pathways in LIM 1215 cells, which may contribute to increased cell turnover., heterotrimeric G protein-dependent ERK1/2 activation is mediated by IGF-1 and IGF-2 by transactivating sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors, High plasma levels of IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGFBP-3 were associated with good prognosis in patients with advanced NSCLC., The risk of IGF-II gene imprinting loss is higher in female twins and has no relationship with assisted reproductive technology and zygosity., IGF-II was shown to be a growth factor of hepatoblastoma via IGF-I receptor and PI3 kinase which were good candidates for target of molecular therapy, In newborns of Chinese Han population, 21.6% showed IGF2 loss of imprinting (LOI) in cord blood, and IGF2 LOI may have some influences on fetal growth. Paternal age is associated with LOI., IGF2 gain of imprinting and H19 loss of imprinting are common in hepatocellular carcinoma., IGF2 may participate in carcinogenesis of esophageal cancer through its over-expression. IGF2 loss of imprinting., Implication of IGF2 duplication in overgrowth and Wilms'tumorigenesis., Variation in DNA methylation of the IGF2/H19 locus is mainly determined by heritable factors and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cis, rather than the cumulative effect of environmental and stochastic factors occurring with age., The results provide further evidence that IGFBP-2 and IGF-II in breast milk are relevant factors for the early development of preterm infants., IGF2-PIK3R3 signaling axis is involved in promoting the growth of a subclass of highly aggressive human glioblastomas that lack EGF receptor amplification., IGF-II and IGFBP-2 differentially regulate PTEN in human breast cancer cells, There was a significant difference in birth weight standard deviation scores among the three neonatal +3123/Apal genotypes of the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene, indicating that the IGF2 gene variant is associated with fetal growth., novel binding surface on IGF-II critical for IGF2R binding, We did not confirm the previously reported associations between IGF2 polymorphisms and body mass index, but common variation in the IGF2 gene may be associated with adult height, These results demonstrate that the InsR regulates choriocarcinoma cell invasion through activation by IGF-II., Severely deficient in a case of insulin-resistance syndrome (Rabson-Mendenhall type)., methylation varies among three IGF-II promoters in ovarian cancer and that this variation seems to have biologic implications as it relates to clinical features and prognosis of the disease., A panel of markers including at least RUNX3, CACNA1G, IGF2, and MLH1 can serve as a sensitive and specific marker panel for CIMP(Cpg island methylator phenotype)-high., that endogenous IGF-1 and IGF-2 receptors can independently initiate ERK1/2 signaling and point to a potential physiologic role for IGF-2 receptors in the cellular response to IGF-2, IGF-II metabolism may play a role in atherogenesis in in schizophrenic Arab subjects, Duplication of the paternal IGF2 allele in trisomy 11 and elevated expression levels of IGF2 mRNA is associated with congenital mesoblastic nephroma, Different members of Rho GTPase family regulate IGF-II-mediated EVT cell migration differentially, depending upon whether it signals through IGF1R or in an IGF1R-independent manner., Demonstrate significant relationship between paternally transmitted haplotypes at INS-IGF2 locus and newborn IGF-II levels, but no association with maternally transmitted haplotypes., Upregulation of IGF-2 expression is associated with oral cancer., Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) pregnancies are associated with normal value of IGF2 mRNA., analysis of IGF2 and H19 loss of imprinting in bladder cancer, Endometrial IGF-I and -II are differentially regulated during decidualization and by human chorionic gonadotropin., IGF-II may represent an excellent target for interferon gamma-treatment and specific siRNA-mediated therapeutic intervention in human hepatoma., common genetic variants in the IGF2-INS-TH cluster modify susceptibility to idiopathic Parkinson's disease, In 30% of patients, differentially methylated IGF2/H19 imprinting center region (ICR1) on chromosome 11p15 was found to be hypomethylated, as determined by Southern blot analysis of an HpaII restriction site close to third CTCF-binding site within ICR1, Genetic variants in the IGF-II genes is not associated with breast cancer, Methylation-imprinting defects at the IGF2-H19 locus can result from inherited mutations of the imprinting center and have high recurrence risk or arise independently from the sequence context and generally not transmitted to the progeny., Higher early levels of the human milk IGF system might contribute to maturation of the infant gut., IGF-2 mRNA was expressed in congenital hemangiomas at a level comparable with that detected in common infantile hemangioma over 4 y of age., Data show that vitamin C suppresses proliferation of the human melanoma cell line SK-MEL2 via the down-regulation of IGF-II production and IGF-IR expression, which is followed by the activation of p38 MAPK and the inhibition of COX-2 expression., IGF2 is epigenetically regulated and has roles in development and disease [review], Review of the insulin-like growth factor-II signaling pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma., Of the informative human hepatocellular carcinoma samples 47.06% (8 of 17) demonstrated a gain of imprinting of IGF2, and 21.74% (5 of 23) of the informative HCC samples demonstrated a loss of imprinting of H19., IGF2 helps predict disease outcome in GIST patients., IGF-II differentially regulated the intracellular translocation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), a critical process in breast cancer progression to hormone-independence, three WT1 subtypes were correlated with WT1, IGF2, and CTNNB1 genetics, increased local IGF-II expression in SSc-associated pulmonary fibrosis both in vitro and in vivo as well as IGF-II-induced ECM production through both phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase- and Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent pathways., IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 mRNA expression and tissue levels of IGF peptides are regulated by different mechanisms, Propose that IGF-II, mainly through the insulin receptor is involved in functional leydig cell differentiation., Markedly elevated IGF-II and IGFBP-2 serum levels in patients with non-seminomatous germ cell cancer, showing a significant decrease after successful therapy and an increase in recurrent disease., Activation of IGF-II/IGF-IR signaling is likely a progression switch selected by function that promotes tumor cell dissemination and aggressive tumor behavior., Results indicate that IGF2 promoter proximal sequence hypomethylation is highly prevalent in cancer and detected more frequently than loss of imprinting., The presence of IGF-2 ApaI polymorphism in partners of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) women could affect IGF-2 level of expression in placenta and embryo and represent a risk factor for RSA susceptibility., Results decribethe loss IGF2/H19 imprinting,loss of heterozygosity of IGF2R and CTCF, and incidental H. pylori infections in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma., Data suggest a positive role of the IGF2 expression level, as reflected by the methylation index, in the determination of body and placental growth in epimutation-positive patients, except for the brain where IGF2 is expressed biallelically., IGF-II transcripts were overexpressed in both pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas and adenomas., Competitive equilibrium binding assays revealed significantly reduced specific binding to the insulin, IGF-I, and IGF-II and their receptors in both the anterior cingulate and vermis of alcoholic human brains., Our findings indicate that colorectal cancers with demethylation of the insulin-like growth factor II gene are distinct from normal imprinting tumors, both in clinical and genetic features., Loss of insulin-like growth factor 2 imprinting is associated with the development of prostate cancer, Women with localized, early-stage breast cancer show elevated circulating free IGF1 and IGF2, reduced total IGF2 and alterations in IGFBPs, A break point 184 kb upstream of the paternally derived IGF2 gene resulted in reduced expression in some mesoderm-derived adult tissues causing intrauterine growth retardation, short stature, lactation failure, and insulin resistance., Neuraminidase caused the desialylation of both PDGF and IGF-1 receptors and diminished the intracellular signals induced by the mitogenic ligands PDGF-BB and IGF-2., IGF2 was overexpressed in childhood adrenocortical tumors with maternal, but not paternal, allele loss of heterozygosity at 11p15. It did not relate to clinical outcome., Expression of the IGF2 ligand is associated with translocation-negative tumors and may serve as a diagnostic aid in distinguishing rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes., Data identify a novel transcriptional activity at both the human and the mouse H19/IGF2 imprinted loci., hypomethylation at the Igf2 locus in the liver could be predictive for the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C virus cirrhosis, locally generated IGF2 at either ischemic or tumor sites may contribute to postnatal vasculogenesis by augmenting the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells, Report overexpression of IGF2 in pancreatic islets of nesidioblastosis patients., In humans, low birth weight correlates with hypomethylation of the IGF2 promoter., We suggest that CDH1 cytoplasmic immunolocalization as a result of increased IGF-II levels identifies those nonmuscle invasive presentations most likely to recur, we found 12 childhood hematoblasoma tumours (22%) with LOH in IGDF2, 9 (17%) with loss of imprinting (LOI) and 33 (61%) with retention of imprinting (ROI)., findings demonstrate that hypomethylation of H19 or IGF2 alone appears to be sufficient to cause Silver-Russell syndrome(SRS); germ cell mosaicism & vertical transmission from an affected father to his child shows a recurrence risk for epimutations in SRS, Insulin-like growth factor-II and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 may be novel prognostic markers in metastatic ovarian carcinoma., Effects of different CMV-heat-inactivation-methods on IGF-2 in human breast milk., Serum levels of IGF-1, IGF-2, ALS, and IGFBP-3 were reduced in children with congenital disorders of glycosylation., The function of the Gly1619Arg non-synonymous amino acid modification of domain 11, was evaluated., Significantly higher IGF2 expression is associated with adrenocortical carcinomas compared to adrenocortical adenomas., Loss of genomic imprinting of the IGF2 gene in PBL appears to be a stable epigenetic phenomenon in most colorectal cancer patients and may be a risk factor for colorectal cancer predisposition, Increased high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor II is associated with giant phyllodes tumor of the breast with hypoglycemia., We identified pro-IGF-IIE[68-88] as a marker that may be used in the surveillance of GIST., methylation defects at the IGF2-H19 locus can result from inherited mutations of the imprinting center and have high recurrence risk or arise independently from the sequence context and not transmitted to the progeny, IGF-II (insulin-like growth factors-2) can enhance KCC1 (KC1 co-transport-1) gene expression in cervical cancer cells through signal transduction pathways, data demonstrated that preptin is involved in bone anabolism mediated by ERK/CTGF in human osteoblasts and may contribute to the preservation of bone mass observed in hyperinsulinemic states, such as obesity, Tissue markers of hypoglycemia, Data suggest that inheriting the IGF2 CTG haplotype from a paternal allele results in reduced feto-placental growth, but it is not associated with the methylation status of IGF2/H19., IGF2 protein expression among mesenchymal tumors is largely consistent with gene expression studies and suggests a potential for molecular therapy targeting the IGF signaling pathway system in these neoplasms., IGF-1 was significantly positively associated with birth weight and birth length in Boston, but not Shanghai. In contrast, stronger positive, though statistically non-significant, associations of IGF-2 with birth size were only evident in Shanghai, The combined analyses of both polymorphism revealed that the genotypes IGF-2 (GG)/ PON-1 (TT) and IGF-2 (AA)/ PON-1 (TT) were more frequent in the PCOS group, whereas the genotype IGF-2 (AA)/ PON-1 (CC) did not occur in the PCOS group at all., hypomethylation of the IGF2-P3 promoter correlates with expression of P3 transcripts in osteosarcoma., data indicated that Hcy could induce hypomethylation of the sixth CTCF-binding sites upstream of H19, which is an important regulating area for the imprinting expression of IGF2 and H19, Methylation of IGF2 might be a useful biomarker for classification and staging of pancreatic endocrine tumors., Report aberrant epigenetic modifications in the CTCF binding domain of the IGF2/H19 gene in prostate cancer compared with benign prostate hyperplasia., In the parent-of-origin specific association analysis, in which only the paternally inherited allele was incorporated, the 1156T>C single nucleotide polymorphism showed significant association with IGF-binding protein 1 levels, This study population does not support the hypothesis that colon cancer can be predicted from the different degrees of methylation in the IGFII gene from lymphocyte DNA., The DNA methylation status of 47 CpGs located in differentially methylated regions (DMRs), IGF2 gene and in the 3rd and 6th CTCF-binding sites of the H19 DMR in human sperm from men with normal semen and infertile patients, was analysed., The results suggest that upregulation of the IGF pathway in pediatric undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas is a critical early event in the development of sarcomas., the presence of IGF-2 in the nucleus of cells cultured from human fetal thymus and its association with the insulin-linked polymorphic region in the chromatin of these cells, combination of SDF-1, PTN, IGF2, and EFNB1 mimics the DA phenotype-inducing property of SDIA and was sufficient to promote differentiation of hESC to functional midbrain DA neurons, The loss of imprinting of IGF-2 could be involved in the development of breast cancer., results indicate that the levels of placental insulin-like growth factor 2 and insulin-like growth factor I receptor may be involved in the development of macrosomia, Preliminary X-ray analysis of the complexes between a Fab and two forms of human insulin-like growth factor II at 2.2 A resolution, is reported., IGF2 loss of imprinting is present in high frequency in Chinese gastric cancer patients, especially those with gastric corpus cancer., The expression of factor IGF-II and its receptor, IGF-1R was significantly higher in breast carcinoma having Loss of Heterozygosity at WT1 locus., M6P/IGF2R is involved in the regulation of CREG-mediated IGF-II endocytosis, Body mass index contributes to racial differences in IGF2, analysis of the loss of imprinting of the insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) gene in esophageal normal and adenocarcinoma tissues, These results suggest that positive feedback regulation of bFGF and IGFs leads to proliferation of UCB-MSCs., Periconceptional folic acid use is associated with epigenetic changes in IGF2 in the child that may affect intrauterine programming of growth and development with consequences for health and disease throughout life, Serum IGF-II levels, which appeared to be negatively correlated with elevated E2, decreased in polycystic ovary syndrome patients early after hMG & hCG administration when monitored for 24 h, while no such changes were observed in IGF-I & IL-6., Expression profiles of human VIGILIN, H19, and IGF2 mRNA increased with cell-cycle prograssion., cohesin has a critical role in maintaining CTCF-mediated chromatin conformation at the at the IGF2-H19 locus locus and disruption of this conformation coincides with changes in IGF2 expression., frequent combined aberrant methylation of the IGF2-H19 locus and LINE1 in the vast majority of ovarian carcinoma samples suggests that these changes are important events in tumorigenesis, results suggest that IGF2 participates in colorectal neoplasms tumorigenesis through 2 different forms of aberrant gene expression, Mature IGF-II prevents the formation of "big" IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex in the circulation of healthy human controls., Analysis of the IGF2 imprinting control region uncovers new genetic defects, including mutations of OCT-binding sequences, in patients with 11p15 fetal growth disorders, DNA methylation at IGF2 is significantly correlated with brain weight, FGF-2 levels were detected in patients with tumors of different histological structure., expression level of imprinted gene IGF2 in the endometrium of women with unexplained infertility was increased compared with controls., There is a significant association between the 6815 A/T IGF2 gene variant and high systolic blood pressure in obese children. Homozygote subjects for the T6815 allele showed a higher risk to develop hypertension than those carrying the A6815 allele, IGF-II and the anti-apoptotic proteins differential expression among AA and CA patients may contribute to the breast cancer survival disparities observed between these ethnic groups., IGF-2 gene polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility and pathological development of hepatocellular carcinoma., loss of imprinting of IGF-II is significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer, Integrative genomic analysis showed enrichment of activation of IGF signaling in the Proliferation subclass of hepatocellular carcinoma, We investigated methylation patterns in the promoter regions of ABCB1, ATM, BRCA1, CDH3, CDKN2A, CXCR4, ESR1, FBXW7, FOXC1, GSTP1, IGF2, HMLH1, PPP2R2B, and PTEN75 in well-described pre-treatment samples from locally advanced breast cancer, IGF2 increased in both mid-aged and replicative senescent cells, but increased obviously in premature senescent cells compared to young cells. In the promotor region, the methylation level for IGF2 was detected only in replicative senescent cells., miR-483-3p has a role in cancer at the IGF2/483 locus, ICR1 methylation status is a necessary and sufficient condition to drive the imprinting of IGF2 and H19 present in embryonic as well as in extra-embryonic tissues., Significant loss of methylation in exon 9 CpG cluster of IGF2 in breast tumor tissues was observed when compared to normal tissue., there is a significant association betwwen igf-ii and decreased cancer mortality, IGF2 was found to be one of the candidates for acquired CDDP-resistance., Brief, high intensity exercise does alter IGF-II bioactivity, loss of imprinting at the IGF2 locus leads to an increase of IGF2 expression as the one associated with gain of 11p15.5 and results in increased expression of proliferation-related genes and an expansion of the intestinal crypt progenitor cells in mice, IGF2/ApaI polymorphisms in patients with cutaneous melanoma, Gene expression pattern of IGF2 imprinted genes in spontaneous miscarriages or fetal deaths.(, Maternal IGF2 has a significant positive correlation with preeclampsia., Cell lines with IGF2 LOI (HCT-8, HT-29 and H-522) that were infected with AdDC312-EGFP produced the EGFP protein. However, in cells in which imprinting was maintained (MOI) (MCF-7 and GES-1), no EGFP protein was produced., IGF-2 is a trophic factor for oligodendrocyte lineage cells and is one of a group of mediators contributing to the effects of glatiramer acetate-reactive T helper (Th) type 2 cells on oligodendrocyte progenitor cultures in vitro., Results identified polymorphisms in IGF2R, IGF2, and near H19 that are associated with birth weight., IGF2*A allele and CDH1*C allele were correlated with leiomyoma susceptibility, which may be associated with leiomyoma development., in vitro conception is associated with aberrant methylation patterns at the IGF2/H19 locus, Case Report, ASCL1-pathway is responsible for the up-regulation of IGF2 during neuroblastoma differentiation., The high morbility of the FGR with hypertentive disorder complicating pregnancy has no relationshipswith the imprinting status of IGF-II and H19 genes., Data indicate after 3 cycles of treatment IGF-1 significantly declined, IGFBP-1 significantly increased, and IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 were not significantly changed., Relevance of insulin-like growth factor 2 in the etiopathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy, Long range interactions regulate Igf2 gene transcription during skeletal muscle differentiation, The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between levels of IGF-II or IGFBP-3 in cervical scrapes with cervical cancer and precancerous lesions., Genetic variation with IGFII and IGFBP-3 may influence endometrial cancer risk in Caucasians., The study suggests that DNA methylation regulates IGF-II promoter-specific expression in ovarian cancer, preptin concentrations increase in maternal serum of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, a significant relationship between IGF-II, MMP9 and ventricular septal defects which might be used as diagnosis and prognosis indicators for this defect, genetic association studies, Data suggest that LOI of IGF2 may be a potentially important clinical epigenetic marker to identify individuals at increased risk for gastric malignancy., These cases define a novel aetiology of the growth retardation in SRS, namely, dissociation of IGF2 from its enhancers., with the CTCF site downstream of the enhancers. The two alternative chromatin conformations are differently favoured in BWS and SRS likely predisposing the locus to the activation of IGF2 or H19, respectively., High IGF2 is associated with colorectal adenocarcinoma., in breast cancer cells, IGF-2 activates ER-alpha and ER-beta, and modulates their translocation to nucleus, membrane organelles and mitochondria; IGF-2 actions are mediated by the IGF-1R and the insulin receptor, LOI of IGF2 occurs not only adjacent to prostate tumor foci, but is widely prevalent in distant areas within the peripheral zone. These data show a widespread epigenetic field defect in normal tissues that might be employed to identify prostate cancer., expression of IGF-II and MMP-9 mRNA were significantly elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in liver tissues of patients compared with healthy controls, IGF1 might inhibit insulinogenic differentiation of HEAC, whereas IGF2 enhances differentiation, and enhancement of IGF2 appears to be mediated via IR, CTCF epigenetically governs allelic gene expression of IGF2 by orchestrating chromatin loop structures involving PRC2, The authors conclude that during hepatitis B/C virus infection, O-beta-GlcNAc of IGFBP-6 at Ser 204 diminish their binding with IGF-II, increase IGF-II cellular expression and promote cancer progression., Double phosphorylation promotes IMP2 binding to the IGF2 leader 3 mRNA 5' untranslated region, and the translational initiation of this mRNA, IMP3 as a glioblastoma-specific proproliferative and proinvasive marker acting through IGF-2 resulting in the activation of oncogenic PI3K and MAPK pathways, Methylation variation at IGF2 differentially methylated regions and maternal folic acid use before and during pregnancy, IGF2 expression was low in normal and dysplastic squamous epithelium but was increased 1.97-fold in malignancy., IGF2 derived from SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells induces the osteoclastogenesis of human monocytic precursors, In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection did not affect DNA methylation at H19/IGF2 ICR1 in the placenta., Associations were found between risk of breast cancer and linkage disequilibrium blocks in IGF2 for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, HTRA1 for BRCA1 carriers, and MMP3 for BRCA2 carriers., Low doses of IGF-II induce hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and metabolic effects, improving mitochondrial function, without affecting testosterone and IGF-I levels., High IGF2 mrna is associated with rabdomyosarcoma., IMP-3 acts in part through the IGF-II pathway to promote cell survival in response to ionizing radiation, molecular dynamics simulation was performed on the IGF-II/IGF2R complex to describe the features of the protein-protein interaction in detail; identified the key residues in the IGF-II/IGF-2R interaction; results from the calculation were consistent with reported experimental mutagenesis studies, The cytoprotective effects of IGF-II are related to mitochondrial protection leading to increased ATP production reducing free radical generation, oxidative damage and apoptosis., Results suggest the involvement of the IGF2 imprinted gene in placental function and fetal growth and the possible association of epigenetic alterations with the pathophysiology of fetal growth restriction., In placentas from pregnancies with IUGR an overexpression of the IGF-2 and the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 genes was found., We genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R, IGFBP1, IGFBP3, IGFBP5, IRS1, IRS2, and IRS in pancreatic cancer patients, Findings confirmed a major role of maternal age in addition to IGF-II, IL-6 and TNF-alpha in Intra-Uterine Growth Restricted (IUGR) pregnancies., The present study aims to establish the levels of acylated ghrelin, desacylated ghrelin, obestatin and preptin, during pregnancy and the postpartum period in pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and healthy pregnancy women., Polymorphic variation (4 SNP) in paternally transmitted fetal IGF2 is associated with increased maternal glucose concentrations in pregnancy., IGF2 and IMP3 had different expression patterns, which might be associated with angiogenesis. However, cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of IGF2 and IMP3 might play different roles in the angiogenesis of osteosarcoma., Class I homozygosity at 5'VNTR is a significant risk factor of T1DM and acts independently from HLA haplotype in determining the actual risk of diabetes in children., The placental lectins have no effect on the binding of IGF-II to IGF II Receptor., The SNP in IGF-II genes (-13021C)may be an important risk factors for the recurrence of HCC., Specific hypomethylated CpGs at the IGF2 locus act as an epigenetic biomarker for familial adenomatous polyposis colorectal cancer., This study has lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms of IGF-II binding and activation of the IGF-1R and IR-A., Data suggest that tumor-derived IGF-2 in the microenvironment maintains angiogenesis in the presence of IGF-1R-targeted antibodies allowing tumor progression., Adaptive increases in IGF2 and IGF1 are found in insulin receptor-deficient individuals., This study aimed at establishing and clarifying the effect of cord serum insulin, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, cortisol and IL-6 concentrations on birth length and weight., Retinoic acid regulates prolidase activity in human dermal cells via IGF receptor signaling in photoaged cells., findings suggest as causative in SRS a defective mechanism necessary for establishment or maintenance of imprinting marks, which affects imprinted loci in general with low specificity and the IGF2/H19 locus with high specificity, These findings do not provide evidence for a substantial influence of these common polymorphisms in the GH/IGF axis on objectively measured physical capability levels in older adults., Prospective associations of insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 with physical performance in Caerphilly Prospective Study and cross-sectional insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 in the Boyd Orr cohort, were examined., irrespective of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) status, women with impaired glucose tolerance had higher serum preptin levels compared with women with normal glucose tolerance; preptin levels are related with glucose tolerance status, but not with PCOS status, Findings suggest that IGF2 plasticity may be mechanistically important in early childhood overweight or obese status, Heavy smokers carrying susceptible IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP3 polymorphisms have a higher risk of lung cancer., IGF-1R and IGF-1 are expressed in the majority of chordomas but IGF-1 expression is much stronger than IGF-2 expression., IGF2R polymosphisms modulate serum IGF2 levels in a sex-specific manner and may increase cancer risk., variation in IGF2 differentially methylated regions is an important mechanism by which circulating IGF2 concentrations are modulated, DNA methylation, particularly in the vicinity of a key CTCF-binding site (CTCF3) in the imprinting control region (ICR) upstream of H19, is strongly correlated with cerebellum weight., IGF2 is a novel regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis., IGF-IR-mediated activation of intracellular signaling may play a critical role during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in necrotizing enterocolitis., Patients with hypermethylated IGF2 in blood leukocyte DNA showed a significantly better survival rate., Data indicate that genetic variants in folate pathway genes showed associations including infant MTRR 66G>A genotype and maternal MTHFR 677C>T genotype with IGF2 methylation., this study suggests that heparin and IGF-II, but not IGF-I, may be important regulators of trophoblast survival in early and late pregnancy., There was no evidence of any dietary associations with IGFBP-3 or IGF-II., Data indicate an inverse association between the insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-II) Apa1 A-variant and colon cancer risk (OR = 0.49, 95 % CI 0.28-0.88) in Whites only., VEGF may play a regulator role in human ovarian physiology by modulating the expression of IGF-II and IGFBP-5 in luteinized granulosa cells., Tobacco smoking during pregnancy decreases the pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and insulin growth factors I and II levels., IGF2 hypomethylation is associated with very low birthweight, preocious pubarche and insulin resistance., IGF-2 is involved in the development of breast cancer, and its expression varies in different tissues (benign breast lesions, breast cancer and tumor-adjacent tissue)., Prenatal famine and genetic variation showed similar associations with IGF2/H19 methylation and their contributions were additive, significant IGF2 hypermethylation (20 +/- 10 vs. 14 +/- 7%; p<0.05) and SNURF hypomethylation (23 +/- 6 vs. 32 6%; p<0.001) was found in Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy patients vs. controls., downregulation of IGF-II expression resulted in the viability alteration, proliferation inhibition, and apoptosis occurrence of HepG2 cells., genetic association studies, With the combination of stabilized beta-catenin and elevated Igf2 expression, adrenal glands were larger, displayed earlier onset of hyperplasia, and developed more frequent macroscopic adenomas., study investigated DNA methylation of the imprinted IGF2/H19 locus; data suggest aging more than population genetics is responsible for the inter-individual variability in DNA methylation patterns; DNA methylation variability appears to be highly region-specific, Gestational diabetes up-regulates MT1-MMP in the feto-placental endothelium, and insulin and IGF-II contribute., These observations suggest a decrease of Igf2 methylation from cirrhosis to HCC in patients with HCV infection, which may be an additional risk factor for HCC., IGF2 DNA methylation could represent a cornerstone in linking birth weight and fetal metabolic programming of late onset obesity, Our data add IGF2 in breast cancer to the list of cancer-relevant miR-100 targets, Data suggest that only a fraction of circulating insulin-like activity is due to insulin itself; serum IGF-I and IGF-II may substantially contribute to insulin receptor signaling., The average serum level of IGF-2 in the 60 patients with HCC was 136.5 +/- 87.3 pg/ml., PLAG1 binding to the IGF2 P3 promoter and IGF2 expression is cell type-specific, and that the PLAG1 transcription factor acts as a transcriptional facilitator that partially overrides the insulation by the H19 ICR., p53 activation following ionizing radiation led to a decrease in IGF2 expression., It was assumed that the ApaI polymorphism of the IGF2 gene influences the human cognitive functions, acting possibly via modulation of the IGF-II level in the central nervous system., The genotype frequencies did not differ statistically between low birth weight (AA = 16.22%, AG = 43.24%, GG = 40.54%) and control (AA = 20% AG = 35%, GG= 45% groups) and the allele frequencies were not significantly different (p > 0.05)., These findings implicate an important role of IGF2 in expanding hemangioma stem cells and preventing terminal adipocyte differentiation., Secretion of IGF-II is affected by TNF-alpha only, IGF2 gene expression in rhabdomyosarcoma tumors., Microdeletions in the IGF2/H19 imprinting control region affect binding to CTCF., None of the folate cycle genotypes in the mother or infant were related to the methylation of IGF2, PEG3, or LINE-1., IGF-II isoforms possess unique biological properties that may enable them to escape normal sequestration avenues and remain bioavailable in vivo to sustain oncogenic signaling, Investigated the feasibility of using the IGF2 imprinting system for targeted gene therapy of colorectal cancer., Epigenetic alterations in the IGF-II gene regulate its transcription and expression and are closely associated with hepatocellular carcinoma development and progression., Allele-specific expression for H19, IGF2 and IGF2R in first trimester (6-12 weeks gestation) and term placentae, were quantified., There is a substantial amount of research linking IGF2 to growth disorders, cancer and to a much lesser degree cardiovascular disease. Some studies on IGF2 and tumor growth have yielded conflicting results, for instance regarding its effect on apoptosis., This work reveals the fundamental importance of IGF-II in the mature podocyte for glomerular health across mammalian species., IGF2 increases de novo steroidogenesis in prostate cancer cells, Serum preptin levels are decreased in osteoporosis and osteopaenia patients and positively correlated with bone mineral density., Hypomethylation at the IGF2 differentially methylated region was associated with paternal obesity; data indicate a preconceptional impact of paternal obesity on the reprogramming of imprint marks during spermatogenesis., IGF-II is an activator of osteoblasts, although with less force compared to IGF-I, but not the activator of the osteo-erosive population, demonstrating its overall effect on the cells of the bone in favour of a new bone formation., HIF2A and IGF2 expression correlates in human neuroblastoma cells and normal immature sympathetic neuroblasts., IGF-2 gene activity is significantly increased in leiomyoma tissue compared to normal myometrium., Microglia are important sources of both neurotrophic growth factors IGF1 and IGF2; microglial activation phenotypes can influence growth factor expression., down-regulation of E2f3 with age helps drive the dramatic decline in Igf2 expression in postnatal organs, and E2F3 overexpression in cancer induces IGF2 overexpression, Results showed that IGF2 ApaI and IFG2 receptor Gly1619Arg gene polymorphisms are not associated with male infertility., results imply that IGF2 imprinting status has no obvious impact on its expression. There may be some unknown important factors other than imprinting status driving IGF2 expression., Data indicate that loss of imprinting (LOI) of H19 was observed for 4% of individuals in cord blood and 3.3% in placenta, and for IGF2 of 22% of individuals in the cord blood and 0% in placenta., This is the first report to implicate IGFBP-6 as a suppressor of cellular proliferation and IGF-II as an inducer of cellular contractility in this connective tissue disease., findings suggest that the intronic SNP rs4320932 affects patient survival and chemotherapy response via alteration of DNA conformation, but not through regulation of IGF-II expression, Data indicate that insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene is a promising candidate gene to study for a greater understanding of the cause of neural tube defects (NTDs)., We found that IGF-2 and IGFBP2 synergistically increased neurite outgrowth via enhanced early signaling through the IGF type 1 receptor., Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with methylation at IGF2-imprinting control regions suggests parent-of-origin association., study suggests a potential gene-epigene interaction between a T allele in the IGF2 imprinting control region (ICR)1 and methylation of ICRs of IGF2, and fetal growth, the IGF2 gene and its gene product may be important determinants of longitudinal weight trends in type 2 diabetes., altered DNA methylation at imprinted domains including IGF2/H19 and PEG1/MEST may mediate the association between human papillomavirus infection and invasive cervical cancer, preeclampsia induced a decrease in methylation level at IGF 2 DMR, Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IGF2, CCL2, and ELN genes may be associated to the degree and recovery time of non-contact soft tissue injuries., H19 CBS6 hypermethylation is related to the loss of genomic imprinting of IGF2, data demonstrate that aberrant IGF2 imprinting in tumor cell lines is related to the loss of histone H3K27 methylation suppression mark in the gene promoter, higher baseline IGF-II and IGFBP-2 predict increased HDL concentration over time, implicating IGF-II in modulation of circulating HDL-cholesterol concentrations., the expression of CLDN1 and IGF2 indicate a poor prognosis in stage N2 non-small cell lung cancer, This study has confirmed that adrenocortical carcinoma overexpress signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and insulin-like growth factor 2, Our results indicate that IGF2 and IGFBP6 appear to govern various regulatory feedback mechanisms in periodontal ligament cells, This is the first report of a long non-coding RNA regulated by insulin/IGFs., A modified recombinant hNAGLU fused to the receptor-binding motif of IGF-II (rhNAGLU-IGF-II) enhances its ability to enter cells using the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, which is the receptor for IGF-II at a different binding site., IGF2 DMR0 hypomethylation was associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma., IGF2 and H19 DNA methylation is associated with fetal and infant growth., IGF-2 induction of AHR promotes the expression of CCND1 and the proliferation of MCF-7 cells., Insulin-like growth factor 2 immunoreactivity is diffuse in the majority of benign liver nodular lesions but in only a minority of hepatocellular carcinomas., results suggest that polymorphic variants of the IGF2 genes modulate gastric carcinogenesis. Moreover, when the IGF2 and IGFBP3 variants are evaluated together, a greater effect on GC risk is observed, Our findings show that IGF2 mRNA levels at 12 weeks gestation could provide a useful predictor of future fetal growth to term, potentially predicting SGA babies, ZFP57 regulates the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), which has a critical role in ZFP57-induced anchorage-independent growth, High IGF2 expression is associated with adrenocortical tumors., IGF2 has a role in imprinting through NF-kappaB activation and oxidative stress, Data indicate that the inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1)-IGF-II-IGF-IR-AKT signaling cascade plays an important role in esophageal cancer progression., IGF-2, IGF-2R, and IRS-2 genes polymorphisms and their combinations are associated with risk of HCC, CSF and blood plasma levels of IGF-II and some of its binding proteins are changed in patients with Alzheimer's disease, High IGF2 is associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma., results reveal the functional relevance of vigilin and CTCF, and show that the CTCF-vigilin complex contributes to regulation of Igf2/H19, IGF2 increased the protein levels of hippocampal BMP9, NGF, BDNF, NT3 and IGF1 and of doublecortin, a marker of neurogenesis., High expressions of IGF2 and FGFR3 are significantly associated with tumour progression., Low expression of IGF-1 and high expression of IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 in the placental tissue depending on preeclampsia severity were detected., High IGF2 mRNA expression is significantly associated with ovarian cancer progression., There was a significant association between IGF2 methylation and genotype, but no significant association between genetic or epigenetic variability and metabolic parameters in the present study., Maternal first trimester urinary concentrations of phthalate and phenol biomarkers are correlated with DNA methylation and allele-specific expression of IGF2 and non-coding gene H19 in placenta samples., The gene expression pattern of CDKN1C, H19, IGF2, KCNQ1 and PHLDA2 genes was evaluated using RT-PCR., data highlight the importance of IGF-II in fetal growth and suggest that gender differences should be taken into consideration when evaluating prenatal growth., IGFII and N33 methylation status may be related to gastric carcinogenesis., These observations confirm the active role of IGF2 in adrenocortical tumor growth., As in Dupuytren's disease, beta-catenin levels and IGF2 expression are elevated in Frozen Shoulder Syndrome., Report association between histopathological findings and IGF2 differentially methylated region hypomethylation in serrated colorectal neoplasms., This review explores the association between birth weight, working memory and epigenetic signatures in IGF2 and related genes, Data suggest that signaling/feedback via insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2) is important during neurogenesis and in maintaining homeostasis of the central nervous system. [REVIEW], The blood proteins IGF1, IGF2, IBP2, IBP3 and A2GL have been proposed as indirect biomarkers for detection of GH administration and as putative biomarkers for breast cancer diagnosis., Loss of imprinting of insulin-like growth factor 2 is associated with increased risk of primary lung cancer., Data indicate that methylation levels at insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)/H19 long non-coding RNA (H19) imprinted regions were associated with maternal body mass index (BMI)., Exhaustive methylation analysis revealed uneven profiles of methylation at IGF2/ICR1/H19 11p15 loci in Russell Silver syndrome., upregulation of IGF2/Igf2 is likely controlled by hypermethylation of H19 DMR1 in human NTDs, however, in acute external RA-induced NTD mice it is potentially determined by more open chromatin structure, fluid shear stress induces the synthesis of Insulin growth factor-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) B and D, which in turn transactivate MMP-12., Both flanks of the IGF-II C domain play important roles in the greater ability of IGF-II to bind and activate IR receptors than IGF-I., IGF-II was associated with birth weight and expressed at high levels, which suggests that IGF-II may continue to play an important role after birth. H19 DMR methylation may be involved in controlling IGF-II expression, Expression of IGF2 in several HCC cell lines was lower than in normal cell lines, Hypomethylation of the differently methylated imprinting center region 1 between the IGF2 and H19 loci on chromosome 11p15 is associated with Russell-Silver syndrome., These studies reveal a GATA2-IGF2 aggressiveness axis in lethal prostate cancer and identify a therapeutic opportunity in this challenging disease, Imp2 regulates the activity of IGF2, which further activates PI3K/Akt signaling., The present study revealed the pleiotropic impact of the single clustered hepatic metastamiRs miR-96-5p and miR-182-5p on IGF-1R, and an inducing effect on IGF-II and IGFBP-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma., Positive expression of IGF2 in spinal giant cell tumor was associated with increased microvessel density and expression of IMP3., IGF2 on chromosome 11p is overexpressed in 100% of the examined paediatric adrenocortical tumours., GF2 gene may be aging-related gene and involved in Osteoporosis., Biologic roles of estrogen receptor-beta and insulin-like growth factor-2 in triple-negative breast cancer., There was a positive correlation between the IGF2 levels of and those of inflammatory mediators in HIV Infections., The IGF2 gene was variably methylated in monozygotic twins discordant for depressive disorder., Data indicate insulin like growth factor 2 (IGF2) as one of the top upregulated transcripts before and during early in vitro osteogenic differentiation., Overexpression of IGF2 led to beta-cell dedifferentiation and endoplasmic reticulum stress causing islet dysfunction., High IGF2 expression is associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma., IGF-II, TGF-beta1 and VEGF-A and its receptor in malignant tumor tissue, as well as increasedplasmin release from proenzyme and MMP-3 activationis apparently associated with the formation of pathogenic mechanism of vasculature development, Therefore, our results suggest that IGF-II can promote cartilage integrity and halt knee joint destruction in Osteoarthritis, We hypothesised that the associations between increased maternal distress symptoms and changes in placental gene expression including IGF2 and genes regulating fetal glucocorticoid exposure are more pronounced in SO pregnancy., High Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 Gene Expression is associated with Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma., Ox-LDL induces NF-kappaB activation and IL-6 expression via IGF2 activation in macrophages., Data provide evidence that IGF2 expression is frequently increased in ovarian cancer tissues, and high expression of IGF2 may be a significant prognostic factor for poor survival in ovarian cancer patients., There is a positive loop interaction between FSH and IGF-2 that is critical for human granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation., Serum IGF2 was increased in hepatocellular carcinoma patients compared to patients with liver cirrhosis, but lower than in healthy controls., We propose that these interactions occur at the IGF2 and H19 gene cluster and are involved in the formation of loops between the IGF2 and H19 promoters and the enhancer, and thus the expression of the corresponding genes, cord blood levels significantly reduced in intrauterine growth restriction, IGF2 variant (c.191C-->A, p.Ser64Ter) with evidence of pathogenicity in a family with four members who have growth restriction. Dysmorphic features are consistent with a role of deficient IGF-II levels in the cause of the Silver-Russell syndrome., PAPP-A in ascites and tissue-associated PAPP-A serve to increase IGF bioactivity and, thereby, to stimulate IGF-IR-mediated ovarian tumor growth., We conclude that recombinant adenovirus-mediated siRNA targeting CD147 based on the IGF2 LOI system inhibited the growth of the LOI cells in vitro and in vivo, which would provide a novel approach for targeted CRC gene therapy., Differential IGF2 and H19 expression characterize pheochromocytomas and adrenocortical carcinomas. Aberrant DNA methylation is found throughout the IGF2/H19 locus. Somatic copy number changes of chr11p15.5 are abundant and correlate with overexpression., SUZ12 is a key molecule in the regulation of monoallelic expression of IGF2., IGF2 expression in infantile hemangioma is strongly related to the expression of a cancer testes and suspected oncogene BORIS., suggest that molecular subtypes of the LIN-28B/let-7a/IGF-II axis associate with heterogeneous progression, Low-oxygen tension can modify the IGF-1 or IGF-2 signaling via the IGF-1R and IR in placental mesenchymal stem cells., the evidence of strong associations between methylation of insulin-like growth factor 2/H19 and macrosomia induced by intrauterine hyperglycemia., IGF2 gene is imprinted, with expression from only the paternal allele.,
OMIM_DISEASE Growth restriction, severe, with distinctive facies,
SP_COMMENT disease:Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia [MIM:176730]., function:Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver., function:Preptin undergoes glucose-mediated co-secretion with insulin, and acts as physiological amplifier of glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Exhibits osteogenic properties by increasing osteoblast mitogenic activity through phosphoactivation of MAPK1 and MAPK3., function:The insulin-like growth factors possess growth-promoting activity. In vitro, they are potent mitogens for cultured cells. IGF-II is influenced by placental lactogen and may play a role in fetal development., mass spectrometry: PubMed:12586351; PubMed:15359740, online information:Clinical information on Eli Lilly insulin products, online information:Insulin entry, online information:Insulin-like growth factor 2 entry, online information:Protein of the 20th century - Issue 9 of April 2001, pharmaceutical:Available under the names Humulin or Humalog (Eli Lilly) and Novolin (Novo Nordisk). Used in the treatment of diabetes. Humalog is an insulin analog with 52-Lys-Pro-53 instead of 52-Pro-Lys-53., similarity:Belongs to the insulin family., subunit:Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds.,