Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 2.1
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hepatocyte growth factor(HGF) hepatocyte growth factor(HGF) Related Genes Homo sapiens
CYTOBAND 7q21.1,
GENERIF_SUMMARY hepatocyte growth factor Downregulates E-cadherin and Desmoglein 1 during melanoma development, Hepatocyte growth factor, Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor inhibits UVB-induced apoptosis of human keratinocytes but not of keratinocyte-derived cell lines via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway., Hepatocyte growth factor is essential for migration of myogenic cells and promotes their proliferation during the early periods of tongue morphogenesis in mouse embryos., Modulation of the c-Met/hepatocyte growth factor pathway in small cell lung cancer, Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are a source of hepatocyte growth factor in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis., Scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor stimulation of glioblastoma cell cycle progression through G(1) is c-Myc dependent and independent of p27 suppression, Cdk2 activation, or E2F1-dependent transcription., Unlike other growth factors, HGF did not show any activity on the fibrinolytic system in both normal and dystrophic myoblasts., regulation of production, subcellular localization and molecular form in neutrophils, play important roles in lung development, lung inflammation, and repair., role in inhibiting anoikis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells by activation of ERK and Akt signaling independent of NFkappa B, a diagnostic marker of thrombus formation in patients with cerebral infarction., A new crystal form of the NK1 splice variant of HGF/SF demonstrates extensive hinge movement and suggests that the NK1 dimer originates by domain swapping., HGF/SF decreased transendothelial resistance (TER) and increased paracellular permeability in human vascular endothelial cells, HGF in combination with vitamin D3 may have an autocrine and/or paracrine effect on the osteogenic maturation of bone marrow stromal cells, as well as on bone repair and remodeling., These results suggest that hepatocyte growth factor and interleukin-6 upregulate each other's receptors, and thus cooperatively enhance tissue invasion., Data show that thymosin beta4 was differentially expressed in HGF-treated HUVECs compared with control., HGF and HGFR have an alternative role activating the via STAT3 transdution and operating on placental tissues, overall in organogenesis alteration conditions, The serum level of HGF represents the degree of the carcinogenic state in the liver of patients with C-viral chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis., Overexpression of HGF/c-met appears to be a biological feedback response to the fibrotic process of systemic sclerosis., HGF induces a strong and transient tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Cbl, resulting in an increased association with Fyn, Lyn, PI-3K, and CrkL., aberrant signaling involvement in rhabdomyosarcomagenesis, plasma kallikrein and FXIa activate pro-HGF in vitro, NK4-transfected clone showed significant inhibition of pancreatic tumor progression in both the orthotopic implantation and liver metastasis models, Hepatocyte growth factor triggers signaling cascades mediating vascular smooth muscle cell migration., HGF may stimulate the progression and growth of tumor cells in vivo by induction of Cox-2, Increased expression of HGF and KGF by buccal mucosal fibroblasts may partly be responsible for the faster wound healing with less scar formation in the oral cavity compared with normal skin., HGF, but not VEGF, serum levels in the coronary circulation correlated with left ventricular remodeling, suggesting HGF interaction in the wound-healing process associated with inflammation after AMI, in human tumor cells, HGF and M-CSF stimulate osteopontin production (which is subsequently used as a substrate for cell adhesion), The production of this factor in kidney increases after unilateral nephrectomy., immunoexpression of hepatocyte growth factor and c-Met in the eutopic endometrium of patients with pelvic endometrioisis is possibly useful to predict greater activity of the ectopic endometrium, These results argue for growth factor-dependent hepatocellular carcinoma development and provide novel and combined prognosis markers after HCC surgery., In the presence of keratinocytes, fibroblasts from buccal mucosa, periodontal ligament, & skin increased increased HGF and KGF production 2-3 times. This may influence the proliferation & migration of junctional epithelium and affect periodontal disease., The hepatocyte growth factor/Met pathway controls proliferation and apoptosis in multiple myeloma., Tetranectin binds to this protein and TTPA., Post-myocardial infarction human HGF gene therapy improved LV remodeling and dysfunction through hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes, infarct wall thickening, preservation of vessels, and antifibrosis in a mouse model, Autocrine and paracrine support of HGF-c-Met system attenuates degeneration of anterior horn cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of neuronal HGF-c-Met system at advanced stage accelerates cellular degeneration and cell death., HGF and VEGF modulate the expression of cell adhesion and migration molecules and induce proliferation in endothelial cells, which may contribute to chronic hepatitis C-associated liver angiogenesis., stimulates eNOS activity by a PI3K/Akt-dependent phosphorylation in a Ca(2+)-sensitive manner in vascular endothelial cells, HGF increased the invasive potential of prostate cancer cells probably through enhancement of cell motility and the production of MMPs and u-PA, Hepatocyte growth factor may be a mediator of heparin-induced osteoporosis., HGF found in articular cartilage is produced by osteoblasts, diffuses into the cartilage, and may be implicated in the osteoarthritic process., Hepatocyte growth factor induces apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in hepatoma cells, Amyloid beta-protein expression and secretion are regulated via activation of ERK1/2 by HGF in cells transfected with APP751., N-terminal domain of HGF inhibits angiogenesis not by disrupting the HGF/c-met interaction but rather by interfering with the endothelial glycosaminoglycans., HGF, SDF-1, and MMP-9 have roles in stress-induced human CD34+ stem cell recruitment to the liver, results show that HGF suppresses TGF-beta1-mediated renal interstitial myofibroblastic activation; and this action of HGF is likely related to a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent blockade of Smad nuclear translocation, After acceleration of regenerative response by HGF, subsequent elevation of TGF-beta1 synergistically controls graft size, regulating uncontrolled proliferation of hepatocytes., hepatocyte growth factor and c-Met/HGF receptor have roles in prostate neoplasm progression, HGF/SF-met signaling may up-regulate oncogenes, signal transduction genes, apoptosis-related genes, metastasis related genes, and down-regulate a number of genes., hepatocyte growth factor values were significantly elevated in pregnancies of small-for-gestational age (SGA) fetuses compared to uncomplicated pregnancies, HGF is modulated by stanninocalcin 1 and has roles in wound healing, tissue regeneration, and angiogenesis, DFNB39, a recessive form of sensorineural hearing impairment, maps to chromosome 7q11.22-q21.12, Retroviral ribozyme transgenes targeting HGF/SF in fibroblasts or its receptor cMET in mammary cancer cells can reduce the growth of mammary cancer and associated angiogenesis by inhibiting paracrine stromal-tumor cell interactions., c-Met and HGF-SF have roles in the growth and progression of human and canine osteosarcoma, Mediates angiogenesis in cultured cancer cells by regulating the expression of hepatocyte growth factor and thrombospondin 1., regulation of expression is affected by stat3 activation, the role of HGF in basement membrane formation during wound healing by immortalized alveolar type II epithelial cells, Serum HGF levels did not change significantly after adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation with right lobe graft., higher levels in vitreous body of people with proliferative retinopathy in vitrectomy, Densisty of HGF in hepatic allograft biopsy specimens compared with those from a control group of healthy patients., Down-regulation of hSulf1 contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis by enhancing heparin-binding growth factor signaling and resistance to apoptosis., Relationship of intercellular adhesion molecule-3 and hepatocyte growth factor with amyloidosis A in chronic renal-failure patients.There was no significant difference regarding the level of positivity for hepatocyte growth factor., HGF/Met system is involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis by promoting stromal cell proliferation and invasion of shed endometria and endometrial lesions via autocrine and paracrine pathways., Shc is a critical angiogenic switch for VEGF production downstream from the HGF and ErbB2 RTKs., Decreased HGF may be related to vascular endothelial cell damage in the development of pregnancy induced hypertension., Quantitative-histogram scores of HGF in cuboidal or columnar cells surrounding red lesions showed statistically significant correlation with accumulation of macrophage in cells; no similar correlation was demonstrated for black lesions., two convergent proinvasive agents secreted by myofibroblasts, namely hepatocyte growth factor and the TGF-beta-upregulated extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-C, are each necessary though not sufficient for neoplasm invasion, HGF polymorphism may be a candidate susceptibility loci that affects the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in japanese population., a decrease of insulin-like growth factor 1 along with an increase of hepatocyte growth factor may reflect an underlying biological process that influences cognitive decline as well as carotid atherosclerosis in the elderly, Theca cell-derived HGF may be capable of stimulating the proliferation of granulosa cells and suppressing progesterone synthesis via an activating MAPK pathway., Increased levels of HGF in circulating blood is associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or Hodgkin's lymphoma, C/A polymorphism in intron 13 of the HGF gene is associated with susceptibility to essential hypertension in lean or female subjects., The HGF/c-met signaling system may have an important role in hMSC recruitment sites of tissue regeneration., autocrine/paracrine role of HGF in glial cell responses during proliferative vitreoretinal disorders as well as in retinal neovascularization, by stimulating of VEGF release, elevated plasma levels in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and bacterial infections, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activation is catalyzed by multiple myeloma cells secreting the serine protease HGF-activator, early spreading responses to HGF may partly relate to increased paxillin availability for incorporation into, and turnover within, dynamic cytoskeletal/membrane complexes whose rapid and transient adhesion to the matrix drives migration., both Met and HGF are overexpressed in papillary thyroid carcinomas, catalase and hepatocyte growth factor have roles in ceramide-induced apoptosis, Increased serum HGF concentrations correlate with the presence of thrombi in patients with acute coronary syndrome, acute aortic dissection, and pulmonary thromboembolism., Results indicate that hepatocyte growth factor plays a role in regulating dendritic morphology in the developing cerebral cortex., A positive correlation between platelet count in liver cirrhosis and serum level of thrombopoietin and hepatocyte growth factor was observed., By regulating HIF-1 activity and specific gene expression downstream, NF-kappaB may influence the survival threshold, with an impact on the fate of carcinoma cells after prolonged hepatocyte growth factor treatment., HGF and IL-1ra adhesion-dependent release from human blood granulocytes and monocytes involves plasma IgG, complement C3 and beta2 integrin, may have an important role in cyclosporin-induced gingival overgrowth, Mitogenic effects of HGF on hepatocytes may be accompanied by undesired cholangiogenesis and angiogenesis, Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-mediates activation of Met and consequent downstream signaling in the glycosaminoglycan metabolism., Transfected HGF is expressed in hepatic cells and has the activity of promoting cell division and protecting hepatic cells against poisoning., HGF plays an important role in hepatocyte proliferation but contrary to in vitro results, HGF does not play a major role for the progression of hepatocarcinoma cells in vivo., Semiquantitative analysis of HGF mRNA expression between decidua basalis and decidua parietalis showed no statistically significant difference., The autocrine mechanism between over-expressed c-Met and HGF/SF in malignant tumors is part of the process of pleural metastatic spread., Administration of rh-HGF before storage improved cardiac function after prolonged myocardial preservation by preventing apoptosis through c-Met/HGF receptor. May be promising strategy for prolonged heart graft preservation., HGF maintains the hematopoietic microenvironment through stimulating proliferation and adhesion to the extracellular matrix and promoting hematopoiesis through inducing constitutive production of IL-11, SDF-1 alpha, and SCF by stromal cells themselves, The beneficial effect of HGF in chronic renal disease is attributable, at least in part, to a direct anti-inflammatory action, likely via NF-kappaB, on tubular epithelial cells., Exogenous hHGF reduced rat lung expression levels of endothelin-1 & transforming growth factor-beta, pulmonary artery medial wall thickening, and the total collagen deposition in the lung., Correlation between the vitreal levels of scatter factor and VCAM-1 was observed in diabetic patients., This study revealed that HGF is densely found in the carotid fork, and its CSF level is markedly elevated in moyamoya disease, suggesting that HGF may be a key protein for pathogenesis of moyamoya disease., HGF specifically induced the expression of Smad transcriptional co-repressor SnoN but not Ski and TG-interacting factor at both mRNA and protein levels in kidney cells, Suppressed intestinal mRNA expression of T-helper 1 cytokines. Total and CD4-positive T cells, neutrophils, and myloperoxidase activity in intestinal epithelium were diminished by HGF gene transfer, which also prevented weight loss and improved survival., The HGF has a role of signal in colon tumorigenesis that is associated to progression of adenoma into carcinoma., is produced by peritoneal macrophages and is possibly involved in the growth of endometriosis, HGF induces fibronectin expression and its extracellular assembly on the surface of melanoma cells through activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, and induction and transcriptional activation of Early growth response-1 (Egr-1)., Epidermal and hepatocyte growth factors, but not keratinocyte growth factor, modulate protein kinase Calpha translocation to the plasma membrane, in chronic skin ulcers, decreased biological activity of endogenous HGF and overexpression of c-met may have roles in fibrosis and delayed recovery, Hepatocyte growth factor(HGF/SF)facilitates intercellular communication between the epithelial carcinoma and surrounding stromal tissue during metastatic invasion through interaction with its proto-oncogenic receptor, Met, found on carcinoma cells., HGF/MET signalling protects Plasmodium sporozoite-infected host cells from apoptosis., HGF electrogene therapy would prevent liver from radiation-induced liver damage by preventing apoptosis and down-regulation of TGF-beta1., all-trans-retinoic acid augments the induction of HGF production caused by increased intracellular cAMP, inhibition of RANTES expression is mediated by activation of PI3K-Akt-GSK3beta pathway, a novel activity of HGF-the stimulation of NO production-which occurs via eNOS phosphorylation that may in turn be mediated by cross-talk between the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, HGF/SF released FGF-2 in the matrix but did not induce FGF-2 expression in external auditory canal cholesteatoma., Suppression of metastasis of human pancreatic cancer to the liver by transportal injection of recombinant adenoviral NK4 in nude mice, TGF-beta1 inhibits hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/SF) levels in external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC) epithelial cells, HGF is involved in the development and/or progression of gastric carcinoma through an autocrine mechanism, IL-6 and TNFalpha are involved in the production of HGF by endometrial stromal cells and may be involved in the growth of endometriosis by an autocrine mechanism, results reveal a signaling pathway for G1 arrest induced by HGF, hepatocyte growth factor has a role in acute myeloid leukemia, It is concluded that level and duration of MAPK activation by Met receptor are crucial for the induction of a full HGF-dependent mitogenic and invasive program in KS cells., Hepatocyte growth factor promotes lymphatic vessel formation and function., Circulating HGF may counteract thrombogenesis by negatively modulating platelet functions., HGF modulates endothelial K+ channels causing an activation of the eNOS; the increase of nitric oxide is necessary for the phosphorylation of the MAPK inducing the proliferation of HUCVEC., This article reviews the published evidence of the roles hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor plays in prostate cancer progression., Significantly higher serum HGF level is associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, expression of hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors and their receptors is preserved in patients with lung emphysema as compared to patients without emphysema; hepatocyte growth factor mRNA correlates with severity of airflow obstruction in smokers, Recombinant human HGF accelerates the regeneration of severely damaged livers, a situation in which the proliferation of mature hepatocytes is impaired., XIAP expression in colorectal cancer is regulated by hepatocyte growth factor/C-met pathway via Akt signaling, The crystal structure of the beta-chain of HGF was studied., A potential physiological pathway for inactivation of HGF and generation of NK4-like antagonists., The presence of HGF receptors in the processus vaginalis is consistent with a role for HGF in triggering epithelial-mesenchymal transformation during inguinal hernia closure, Overexpression of the hepatocyte growth factor gene results in liver defects in Agille syndrome, p70S6K activation induces expression of MMP-9 associated with hepatocyte growth factor-mediated invasion in human ovarian cancer cells, The consistent expression of HGF and c-met during the perinatal period supports a physiological role for HGF in human lung development., HGF has pivotal role for functional recovery after cerebral infarction through neuritogenesis, improved microcirculation, and prevention of gliosis. Evidence for feasibility of gene therapy in chronic stage of cerebral infarction., Upon injury, skin keratinocytes might produce biologically active HGF in an autocrine fashion. This HGF might have different structural and/or biological properties from HGF produced by mesenchymal cells., Liver cancer patients had a significantly higher level of serum hepatocyte growth factor than normal controls, Since we demonstrated that not only SDF-1, but also HGF and LIF are upregulated in damaged tissues, we postulate that CXCR4+ c-Met+ LIF-R+ TCSC could be mobilized from the BM into the PB, where they play a role in tissue repair/regeneration., HGF abolished the phenotypic conversion of biliary epithelial cells induced by TGF-beta1. These results suggest that HGF ameliorates hepatic biliary fibrosis in part by blocking bile duct epithelial to mesenchymal transition., HGF orchestrates several biochemical pathways, which allow cell survival under cell stress conditions encountered during tumor progression, overccoming the death signal of sustained p38 MAPK activation., A specific upregulation of HGF synthesis by Oncostatin M supports the suggestion that oncostatin M may participate in lung repair through HGF production., As discussed in this review, receptor tyrosine kinase Met and its ligand HGF/SF (hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor) are essential in the signalling pathways required for embryogenesis and tissue regeneration., Granulocytes transport HGF in peripheral blood to injured sites caused by blood coagulation, where HGF may promote tissue repair., This is the first study reporting the association of an HGF gene polymorphism with high myopia., progenitor cells are potent sources of VEGF, HGF, and IGF-I, Promotes survival of RPE(rertinal pigment epithelium) cells and retinal neurons, the inhibition of production of HGF by visible light, especially by blue light, may enhance the phototoxic effects of visible light on the RPE and retinal neurons., HGF/SF has a role in increasing tumor blood volume, Serum HGF levels were higher in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients than in the controls, These results suggest that the sustained phosphorylation of Gab1 through Crk in response to HGF contributes to the prominent activation of Rac1., HGF gene transfection inhibited T helper 2 immune responses and reduced lupus nephritis, autoimmune sialoadenitis, and cholangitis in chronic GVHD mice. HGF may be novel strategy for treatment of SLE, Sjogren's syndrome, and primary biliary cirrhosis., neurons treated with hepatocyte HGF increased expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and GluR1 subunit of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor, These findings suggest that HGF has potent and direct anti-inflammatory effects on the basis of suppression of NF-kappaB activation and downstream endothelial inflammation., HGF-mediated PAI-1 production may provide a novel link between atherothrombosis and metabolic derangements. Targeting HGF signaling pathway may modulate the thrombotic risk in high-risk patients., Mimp expression reduces hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-induced proliferation and scattering by attenuating and altering the downstream signaling of met proto-oncogene., HGF stimulation led to increased agar colony formation of esophageal adenocarcinoma., Novel c-Akt-regulated genes contributing to Scatter factor-mediated antineoplastic drug resistance., Serum levels of HGF/SF are associated with the clinical course of metastatic breast cancer patients with liver metastases., HGF induces genes favoring growth and is mitogenic when HepG2 cells are plated under low density; however, the opposite occurs under high density, In angiographically silent cardiac allograft vasculopathy, circulating HGF may have a protective effect on vascular endothelium and thus attenuate the severity of intimal hyperplasia., HGF up-regulates the expression of the bone morphogenetic protein receptors, BMPR-IB and BMPR-II, in prostate cancer cells, glycosphingolipids, particularly GM2, form a complex with CD82, and this complex interacts with Met and thereby inhibits HGF-induced Met tyrosine kinase activity, as well as integrin to Met cross-talk, Expression of nephrin mRNA as well as nephrin promoter activity was suppressed by a putative dedifferentiation factor of podocytes, hepatocyte growth factor., HGF may facilitate osteophyte development by promoting MCP-1-mediated entry of monocytes/macrophages into the osteoarthritis-affected joint and/or by stimulating macrophage-derived growth factors, HGF secreted by subepithelial fibroblasts contributes to human bronchial epithelial cell differentiation., HGF stimulation of c-Met-overexpressing H69 small cell lung cancer cells (40 ng/ml, 15 min) resulted in an increase of reactive oxygen species, although serine proteases and HGF have quite distinct functions in proteolysis and Met signal transduction, respectively, they share a similar activation mechanism, These results indicate that cytokines and PGE(2) may indirectly mediate epithelial cell proliferation via the regulation of HGF in bronchial stromal cells and that HGF plays a crucial role in proinflammatory cytokine-induced proliferation., Salivary HGF measured at baseline may predict future alveolar bone loss., HGF measured during the early posttransplant period might be a useful parameter for early detection of acute renal allograft rejection, HGF has a role in the IL-1-induced chemokine response of epithelial cells in inflamed mucosal tissues., HGF appears best suited for stimulating production of hyaluronic acid and elastin, which may be essential for normal superficial lamina propria restoration., HGF can directly or indirectly stimulate lymphangiogenesis and contribute to lymphatic metastasis in gastric cancer., Imbalance in c-Met expression between tumour and surrounding normal tissue is associated with aggressive ductal carcinoma in situ phenotype. c-Met and HGF/SF may contribute to tumour development by different means than those controlled by Her2/neu., Upregulation of hepatocyte growth factor plays a role in skin homeostasis after UV irradiation., Reduced levels of HGF are present in African Americans with systemic sclerosis., CREB activation, in concert with Sp1, constitutes a molecular switch that confers the cell type-specific induction of SnoN in response to HGF stimulation, HGF signaling process from Gab1 to PI3K is negatively regulated by PKC-betaII, and its loss is critical for melanoma cells to gain invasive potential., No significant SNP or haplotypic associations were observed for TGFbeta1 or hepatocyte growth factor in autism, CD44 is an important regulator of HGF/c-Met-mediated in vitro and in vivo barrier enhancement, a process with essential involvement of Tiam1, Rac1, dynamin 2, and cortactin., Irradiation enhanced HGF secretion in all 3 tested glioma cell lines (up to 7 times basal levels), Data suggest that HGF-induced effects in some mesothelioma cells are mediated via activation of a novel PI3K/ERK5/Fra-1 feedback pathway, HGF and IL-6 levels in combination with prostate volume were shown to be useful parameters for prostate cancer screening in patients with gray-zone PSA levels., Transduced adipose-derived stem/stromal cells secrete more than 80% less hepatocyte growth factor, which leads to a reduced ability to promote survival, proliferation, and migration of mature and progenitor endothelial cells in vitro., In lung fibroblasts from white SSc patients, HGF down-regulates the accumulation of CTGF via MAPK/MMP-1 and NF-kappaB signaling pathways, whereas collagen down-regulation is mediated mainly by a MAPK/MMP-1-dependent pathway., Recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor suppresses collagen type II-induced T cell priming in mouse spleen and diminishes the severity and incidence of experimental arthritis with up-regulation of IL-10 and suppression of IL-17., These data indicate that HGF may play a role in cell proliferation processes occurring in thyroid glands affected by HT, probably under the regulation of the lymphoid infiltrate., The neuroprotection of HGF depend on ERK1/2 pathway, and, to a lesser extent, PI-3K/Akt pathway., human breast cells are a uniquely permissive environment for HGF transactivation by Src/Stat3 which may allow for the inappropriate activation of HGF transcription during the early stages of breast transformation, This study provides data confirming the role of HGF in wound healing. We have also demonstrated the aberrant expression of the HGF receptor cMet and activation inhibitors (HAI-1 and HAI-2) in chronic wounds., High expression of human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is observed in myocardium through intracoronary gene transfection; HGF can improve mobilization of CD117+/c-Met+ stem cells into ischemic myocardium., HGF and c-MET are potential orchestrators of invasive growth in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma [review], This study was designed to investigate the roles of HGF/c-Met in tumor progression and metastasis in HepG2 and Hep3B hepatoma cell lines, These results suggest that coupling of Grb2 to Gab1 mediates the hepatocyte growth factor-induced strong activation of the ERK pathway, which is required for the inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation., ERK activation with some other pathway(s), activated through the HGF receptor, are required to up-regulate p16 and p21 expression, that of p21 contributes to suppression of Cdk2 activity leading to inhibition of proliferation of HGF-treated HepG2 cells., HGF expression level in lymphocytes after liver transplantation may yield valuable information for evaluation of early graft function., Co-expression of HGF and c-Met in gastric cancer may promote the progression of gastric cancer., These results demonstrated that VPA inhibited two critical processes of tumor-stromal interaction, induction of fibroblastic HGF production and HGF-induced invasion of HepG2 cells., In medulloblastoma, HGF induces cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, apoptosis and increase in cell size in a c-Myc-dependent manner., HGF/c-Met were expressed in serum-starved ARPE-19 cells., IL-1beta is a main bronchoalveolar lavage fluid mediator involved in HGF secretion, which is mediated through a PGE(2)/COX-2-dependent mechanism., the ratio of HGF/TGF-beta1 may play a role in transient nephromegaly in children with Kawasaki disease, Might induce cisplatin resistance via c-Met to activate focal adhesion kinase and down-regulate apoptosis-inducing factor expression., Locally overexpressing hepatocyte growth factor prevents post-ischemic heart failure by inhibition of apoptosis via calcineurin-mediated pathway and angiogenesis, Stimulating human glioblastoma cells with recombinant HGF induces biologically relevant EGFR activation., we speculate that immediate increase of portal pressure, reflecting sinusoidal tensile/shear stress, accelerates liver regeneration through immediate induction of IL-6 and HGF., The constitutive production of HGF by UCSRalpha/HGF-transfected RPMCs can improve peritoneal fibrosis resulting in an increase in peritoneal ultrafiltration volume., results provide evidence that putative genetic factors involved in regulation of HGF variation contribute also significantly to variation of the obesity and blood pressure, NK1 variants have no detectable agonistic activity on, behave as bona fide receptor antagonists by blocking cell migration and DNA synthesis in target cells and have strong prospects as therapeutics for human cancer., Serum HGF might be a diagnostic and prognostic indicator in clear cell RCC, especially for patients with grade 2 or high stage RCC., Hepatocyte growth factor-mediated migration of myeloma cells was dependent on phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, involved the MAPK/Erk signaling cascade and VLA-4 integrins, but did not involve Akt, mTOR or G proteins., Induction of hepatocyte growth factor activator gene expression under hypoxia activates the hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met system via hypoxia inducible factor-1 in pancreatic cancer., These results support a model whereby hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated cell migration also requires a cofilin phosphorylation step that is mediated by PAK4., maleic acid indirectly induced HGF expression from human dermal fibroblasts through activation of ERK and JNK; de novo protein synthesis is required for maleic acid-induced upregulation of HGF mRNA., analysis of the hepatocyte growth factor-binding site in the immunoglobulin-like region of Met, the HGF variants have the potential to become pharmaceutical drugs in the treatment of human, ARHGAP12 inactivates RAC1, thereby impairing cell motility, invasion and adhesion to the extracellular matrix. The gene is transcriptionally suppressed by Hepatocyte Growth Factor in vitro., HGF gene transfer in myocardial infarction caused a near complete recovery of ejection fraction and improved the radial and circumferential ventricular strain., identification of HGF/MET mutations in primary lymphedema, lymphedema/lymphangiectasia, and breast cancer-associated secondary lymphedema suggests that the HGF/MET pathway is causal or alters susceptibility for a broad range of lymphedema phenotypes, assessment of binding of HGF to antibodies, receptors, and the basement membrane and identified binding interactions that are indispensable for the biological activity of HGF, the HGF/c-MET axis has a role in guiding stem cells toward brain injury, the activated form of HGFA is present at high levels in serum and bone marrow of myeloma patients, thus providing a necessary prerequisite for the activation of HGF., Mn2+ regulates myeloma cell adhesion differently than the proadhesive cytokines HGF, IGF-1, and SDF-1alpha, Hepatocyte growth factor inhibits VEGF-FOXO1-dependent gene expression in endothelial cells., A direct role for HGF in the invasive phenotype and motility of nasopharyngeal cancer cells was shown., analysis of HGF-stimulated cell scattering, HGF and c-Met have roles in growth of aggressive adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells, HGF and EGF can interfere with CD95-mediated apoptosis and the action of cytotoxic T-cells through multiple mechanisms in human hepatocytes, transgene expression by transplanted mesenchymal stromal cells, in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration, results in a synergistic therapeutic benefit in a rat model of miocardial infarction, Steric hindrance of the interaction between HGF beta domain binding to Met is sufficient for inhibiting full-length HGF-dependent Met signaling and cell migration., Stabilization of HGF mRNA by hypoxia is mediated, at least in part, by HIF-1., enhances trail-induced apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cells by up-regulating DR5, Preoperative plasma level of Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor is an independent predictor of prostate cancer metastasis to lymph nodes and disease recurrence after surgery, Carcinoembryogenic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)-1 and the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)/uPA-receptor (uPAR) pathway were identified as possible mediators in HGF-induced keratinocyte migration., the proangiogenetic potential of growth factors may account for accelerated tumour growth when residual tumour cells are exposed to high levels of VEGF165 and HGF, TGFbeta1 and hepatocyte growth factor were major mediators of T-cell suppression by MSCs derived from ALL, HD and NHL, Serum levels of active hepatocyte growth factor may be a potential tumor marker for prostate cancer., Hepatocyte growth factor regulates the development of highly pure cultured chief cells from rat stomach by stimulating chief cell proliferation in vitro., as a mediator of SF- and Src-stimulated NF-kappaB activity. Finally, the Src/Rac1/MKK3/6/p38 and Src/TAK1/NF-kappaB-inducing kinase pathways exhibited cross-talk at the level of MKK3., Perinuclear translocation of c-Met is confirmed in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-stimulated cells; an increase in the amount of 50 kDa alpha-chain of c-Met is detected in HGF-stimulated cells., The study does not support the association of high myopia with alleles of rs2229336 in TGIF, rs3759223 in lumican, rs1982073 in TGFB1, and rs3735520 in HGF., an unexpected degree of flexibility in the GAG-HGF/SF interface, allowing a single binding site in the protein to accommodate iduronate-containing sequences of variable sulfation pattern and/or density from different GAGs., NmU may be involved in the HGF-c-Met paracrine loop regulating cell migration, invasiveness and dissemination of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma., Characterization of the enhancing effect of protamine on the proliferative activity of hepatocyte growth factor in rat hepatocytes., elevated HGF is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus not receiving insulin treatment, data suggest that hypoxia induces biosynthesis of PGF(2alpha), which then activates HGF and IL-8 expression. The results provide a reasonable explanation of how PGF(2alpha), HGF and IL-8 exert their effects on cancer cell metastasis, A regulatory element (DATE) located upstream from the transcription start site in the HGF promoter acts as a transcriptional repressor and is a target of deletion mutagenesis in human breast cancer, leading to constitutive activation of the HGF promoter., hepatocyte growth factor production is upregulated in human dermal fibroblasts by the extract of bitter melon pulp, circulating HGF demonstrated high heritabilities and a sexual dimorphism, Endometrial cancer invasion depends on cancer-derived tumor necrosis factor-alpha and stromal derived hepatocyte growth factor., Expression levels of HGF in circulating lymphocytes are not sufficiently specific to diagnose transitory postsurgical complications such as symptomatic infection after liver transplantation., Determine pulmonary and systemic hepatocyte and keratinocyte growth factors in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease., An enhanced activation of the signalling was observed when endothelial cells were stimulated by the combination of VEGF-A and HGF., the relatively infrequent expression of HGF and Met in Wilms' tumor tumorigenesis reflects their roles in nephrogenesis, particularly the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, rather than a dependence on oncogenic signaling pathways., SMYD3 has a role in regulation of c-Met expression and in cell migration and invasion induced by HGF, High glucose concentration in cell culture medium does not acutely affect human mesenchymal stem cell HGF production or proliferation., Our findings reveal a novel pathway of HGF processing during skin repair, Primary human uterine, cervical, and ectocervical stromal fibroblasts constitutively secrete hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), yet only uterine stromal fibroblasts increase HGF secretion in response to estradiol., HGF-stimulated pathways propagate the anti-fibrotic effects in renal interstitial fibroblasts by repression of ECM production, in addition to down-regulation of various chemokines and members of the CCN family., The expressions of HGF and Hpa in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma are higher than that in nonmalignant tissues, and correlate with lymph node metastasis, clinical stages and pathological grading., Serum HGF is increased in Hashimoto thyroiditis, especially associated to thyroid nodules, as compared with healthy non-goitrous individuals., Results show that blocking the HGF/c-Met pathway may be clinically useful for the treatment of HNSCC., This study supports a strong association between the mild to moderate myopia group and Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)and HGF haplotypes., These results indicate that high concentrations of HGF in cerebrobspinal fluid occur in eosinophilic meningitis, and may have a role in protecting against endothelial injury and reducing blood brain barrier dysfunction., Study suggests that AFS cells acquire endothelial cell characteristics when stimulated by growth factors and shear force, and produce angiogenic factors (VEGF, PGF, and hepatocyte growth factor [HGF]) in response to hypoxia., Low-dose simultaneous delivery of adenovirus encoding hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in dogs enhances liver proliferation without systemic growth factor elevation., HGF has a direct effect on glioma cell proliferation and invasion. HGF up-regulates SDF-1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression and contributes to cell invasion., Asef and APC function downstream of HGF and PI3-kinase, and play critical roles in growth factor-mediated regulation of cell morphology and migration, Egr-1 might play an important role in the up-regulation of VEGF and IL-8 induced by HGF and contribute to HGF-mediated angiogenesis, which might be promising targets for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy., HGF and bFGF mRNA expression can be used as useful parameters to evaluate the prognosis of gastric cancer., polyphenols from tea decrease serum levels of prostate-specific antigen, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor in prostate cancer patients and inhibit hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, the angioinhibitory action of NK4 involves impaired extracellular assembly of fibronectin mediated by perlecan-NK4 association, The expression of HGF, SP1 and VEGF are related to biological behavior of serosa-infiltrative gastric cancer., Overexpression of HGF is associated with progressive degeneration of outer hair cells in the cochlea, whereas cochlear deletion of Hgf is associated with more general dysplasia., Study reports the results of a mutation screen for the autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss locus DFNB39 and and found three mutations clustered in intron 4 and exon 5 in the hepatocyte growth factor gene (HGF)., HGF increased the motogenesis and invasiveness of hepatoblasts, but not of human adult hepatocytes, via phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2., HGF is a potent inhibitor of cell apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by upregulating Bcl-2 through both autocrine and paracrine Epstein-Barr virus-independent pathways., Knockdown of PAK1 inhibits HGF-stimulated migration and loss of cell-cell junctions in DU145 prostate carcinoma cells, whereas knockdown of PAK2 enhances loss of cell-cell junctions and increases lamellipodium extension but does not affect migration., Hepatocyte growth factor differentially regulates drug transporter expression in hepatocytes., Elevated hepatocyte growth factor is associated with neuroblastoma., novel cross talk occurs between tumor necrosis factor receptor and TGF-alpha/epidermal growth factor receptor in stimulating human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell hepatocyte growth factor production, Report negative action of hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met system on angiotensin II signaling via ligand-dependent epithelial growth factor receptor degradation mechanism in vascular smooth muscle cells., a novel signaling pathway inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis through HGF/AMPK/USF-1/SHP, HGF protects endothelial cells against gamma ray irradiation-induced damage., Induction of UGT1A1 and CYP2B6 by HGF in HepG2 cells is mediated through suppression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity, Using lung adenocarcinoma samples and cell lines derived from lung adenocarcinomas, we demonstrated that the gene copy number for MET in lung adenocarcinoma tissue samples was increased over EGFR, HGF, and PXN and that it correlated with better prognosis, HGF inhibited TGF-beta1 mRNA expression and reduced collagen III secretion., apoptosis initiates chemoattraction of mesenchymal stem cells via the HGF/c-Met axis, thereby linking tissue damage to the recruitment of cells with regenerative potential., HGF is a very early, good marker of myocardial necrosis and a sensitive short- and long-term prognostic factor in acute coronary syndrome., Co-operating with IL-8, HGF might contribute to a poor prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by inducing angiogenesis through both autocrine and paracrine EBV-independent pathways, HGF is a potential downregulator of TSP-1, through MAPK signaling pathways, leading to the induction of MMP-9 expression and subsequent invasion of SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells., Demonstrate the potential of trimethylene carbonate-based elastomers combined with an osmotic mechanism to release recombinant HGF., These findings present the HGF gene as the first gene significantly associated with hypermetropia as well as providing evidence of significant association with myopia., Myostatin expression and secretion were significantly upregulated in proliferating satellite cells in response to high concentrations of HGF which may reestablish quiescence., HGF is activated by the transmembrane serine proteases matriptase and hepsin, but not by the membrane-associated protease uPA., Results provide evidence that autocrine overactivation of the Met- HGF loop enhances systemic metastases in NSCLC, G-CSF-mediated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) mobilization occurs in part through the HGF/c-Met axis in HSPC and myeloid cells, eliciting increased production of matrix-degrading enzymes and subsequently facilitating egress of HSPC., Uveal melanomas express HGF, c-Met, EGFR, and IGF-1R, This study suggests that natural variation within HGF is involved in the control of retinal arteriolar diameter and may be important in the pathogenesis of microvascular disease in individuals of Chinese descent., MET activation by its ligand, HGF, also induces drug resistance, High HGF expression was associated with advanced clinical stage, lymph node metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma., High hgf expression is associated with lung adenocarcinoma., Co-treatment with HGF and TGF-beta1 enhances keratinocyte migration, accompanied with reactive oxygen species generation through NADPH oxidase, involving Nox-1 and Nox-4 isozymes., The cross-talk and balance between HGF/c-Met signal pathways are critical and necessary in the development of new therapies for lung cancer., circulating HGF is a potential laboratory marker reflecting coagulation activity and DIC prognosis in non-cancer patients and HGF may play a role in a vicious cycle of hypercoagulability., HGF and c-Met are widely expressed in pituitary adenomas and may have a role in their angiogenesis and tumorigenesis, Study describes a model that stroma-derived HGF and hyaluronan influence androgen receptor and CD44 functions in the secretory epithelia during prostate carcinogenesis., Circulating levels of hepatocyte growth factor are associated with increased risk of incident ischemic stroke, independent of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors, among postmenopasal women aged 50 to 79 years., Hepatocyte growth factor protects hepatoblastoma cells from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis by AKT activation, These results indicate that increased serum HGF levels might be a requirement for antidepressant efficacy in patients with panic disorders., HGF levels are associated with the presence of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women., TNF-alpha can enhance human MSCs migration and stimulate their production of HGF. These effects are mediated via a specific TNF receptor and signaling pathways., Genetic modifications of both HGF in fibroblasts and its receptor Met in epithelial cells underscore the importance of this pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma invasion and progression., simultaneous expression of HGF/c-met and three trasducers of tyrosine kinase receptors STAT3, PI3K, RHO in both nodular and extranodular tissues were studied by immunohistochemistry in 50 benign thyroid nodules, 25 associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Activated platelet rich plasma contains HGF which inhibits NF-kappaB activity to prevent inflammation., Immunohistochemistry in muscle from polymyositis and dermatomyositis patients revealed that HGF was expressed predominantly on infiltrating mononuclear cells and that muscle cells expressed the receptor c-met., molecular mechanism of the interactions between the oligosaccharides and pleiotrophin, Results indicate that c-Met/HGF pathway may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention for treatment of EOC., These results demonstrate that, in the cell lines that we used, CD44 receptors play no role in the activation of c-Met, neither during Listeria monocytogenes entry via the function of inlB, nor upon HGF activation., Established a Tet-regulated human HGF gene expression system in NRK52E (rat kidney tubular epithelial) cells., these findings reveal a novel pathway for regulating HGF signaling to the Par proteins through Erk-cdGAP, resulting in tight junction disassembly and cell scattering., In patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, epithelial cells are resistant to Th2-response downregulation by HGF, a moderate expression of HGF in the lamina propria of the human vocal fold and in the basal membrane of the mucosal epithelium, Smad2 loss causes HGF upregulation via loss of Smad2-mediated transcriptional repression and enhanced Smad3/4-mediated transactivation., Transplantation of HGF gene-modified bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) induces powerful neuroprotection on rabbit spinal cords against ischemia-reperfusion injury and is therapeutically more efficient than transplantation of MSCs only., Allosteric peptide activators of pro-hepatocyte growth factor stimulate Met signaling., results suggest that TMPRSS13 functions as an HGF-converting protease, the activity of which may be regulated by HAI-1, HGF/c-Met is critical for beta-cell survival by attenuating NF-kappaB signaling and suggest that activation of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway represents a novel strategy for enhancing beta-cell protection., HGF and IL-11 are upregulated in Polycythemia vera and their overproduction is not a consequence of JAK2V617F, These results suggest that the growth factors HGF and KGF may play a role in enhancing IL-1-stimulated production of IL-8 by epithelial cells during mucosal inflammations., a novel mechanism driving the HGF pathway whereby heparanase stimulates an increase in both HGF expression and syndecan-1 shedding to enhance HGF signaling., HGF-induced inhibition of fibrotic remodeling may occur via multiple direct and indirect mechanisms including the induction of cell survival and proliferation of pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cells, and the reduction of myofibroblast accumulation., HGF and c-Met may play a role in the progression of endometrial cancer, Intramuscular injection of naked HGF plasmid is safe and feasible and can achieve successful improvement of ischemic limbs as sole therapy., the serum-induced increase in cell surface GLUT4 levels is not due to inhibition of its internalization and is not mediated by insulin, PDGF, IGF-1, or HGF, HGF is associated with proteinuria and renal pathological changes in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura., Taken together, it is suggested that human HGF controls and interacts with the promoter region of the Sub2 gene of Plasmodium falciparum., breast cancer cells could alter the nature of its surrounding fibroblasts to secrete HGF to support its own progression through paracrine signaling., HGF protects podocytes from a loss of nephrin, at least in part, through maintaining synaptopodin in nephritic mice with albuminuria., Plasma levels of HGF predict joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis, and this finding suggests that HGF plays a role in RA joint destruction., Through activating the Dll4-Notch-Hey2 signaling pathway, HGF indirectly promotes the proliferation and migration ability of cells, so that offspring artery branches are formed., Soluble CD30 and Hepatocyte growth factor as predictive markers of antibody-mediated rejection of the kidney allograft., Elevated serum HGF and VEGF levels predict a more aggressive biological behavior in laryngeal squamous cell cancer., Hepatocyte growth factor acutely perturbs actin filament anchorage at the epithelial zonula adherens., Hepatocyte growth factor promotes an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile in human abdominal aortic aneurysm tissue, HGF autocrine signaling is not responsible for EGFR-induced c-Met phosphorylation, Hepatocyte growth factor gene therapy is safe and effective for critical limb ischemia in patients with Buerger's disease., low plasma levels are associated with higher response rate to gefitinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, Expression analysis of MET, MACC1, and HGF in metastatic colorectal cancer., HGF promotes the expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate and the invasion ability of pancreatic cancer cells, chronic lymphocytic leukemic cells express a functional hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET) and hepatocyte growth factor enhanced the viability of these cells through STAT3 phosphorylation, A single nucleotide polymorphism in the HGF promoter region may modulate the severity of interstitial lung disease by controlling the transcriptional efficiency of the HGF gene., dose dependently induced tubular structures in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells cultured in gels, HGF is a strong and independent predictor of mortality in advanced heart failure and, in particular, in ischaemic heart failure., Atorvastatin decreases HGF levels in patients with coronary artery disease, possibly contributing to its beneficial effects., Data show that miR-198 targets c-MET via its 3'UTR, and that forced expression of miR-198 decreased c-MET expression and diminished HGF-induced phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK., Transendocardial delivery of HGF is safe and may help to preserve microcirculatory perfusion and improve wall motion in a pig model., In a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction relevant to human disease, intracoronary administration of IGF-1/HGF is a practical and effective strategy to reduce pathological cardiac remodeling., PDGFBB and HGF are related to severity of acute pancreatitis, and together with Ang-2 are related to clinical evolution., Our findings highlight the function of the NK1 splice variant of hepatocyte growth factor in non-tumorigenic human prostatic epithelial cells and provide a picture of the signaling pathways triggered by NK1, HGF-positive serum status had a significant and independent negative effect on progression-free survival among patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer receiving gefitinib or erlotinib and having the wild-type EGFR gene., These data demonstrate that GAB1 is ubiquitinated by CBL and degraded by the proteasome, and plays a role in negative-feedback regulation of HGF/SF-MET signaling., a novel role for Btk in HGF-induced DC inhibition., We demonstrated that the HGF/c-Met pathway induces EMT and inhibition of anoikis in gastric cancer cells. Co-expression of HGF and c-Met has the potential to promote peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer, suggest that abnormality of the HGF/MET pathway occurs during the course of progression from non-invasive to invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma, Genetic variation in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is associated with primary angle closure glaucoma in the Nepalese population., results suggest that miR-200c and miR-27b downregulated by HGF might play an important role for EMT and ECM degradation with HGF autoactivation followed by enhanced invasive characteristics of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, HGF induces vascular smooth muscle cell osteogenic differentiation via c-Met/Akt/Notch3 signalling, highlighting these pathways as potential targets for intervention of vascular calcification., Elevated cancer cell cMET and stromal HGF expression were significantly associated with a worse prognosis, promotes the proliferation of eccrine sweat gland epithelial cells, which is relative to AKT signal channel and beta-catenin, Taken together, these results implicate genetic variation at the HGF locus with keratoconus susceptibility., Bortezomib can down-regulate HGF mRNA expression and inhibit the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in multiple myeloma patients., Immunohistochemical characterization of HGF/C-MET system pathways in benign and malignant histotypes of thyroid nodules., Abnormal expression of HGF and TSP-1 may be related to malignant progression of ovarian cancer and associated in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer., The expression of ezrin, HGF and/or c-met might be closely related to the carcinogenesis, progression, clinical biological behaviors and prognosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma., Protein engineered variants of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor promote proliferation of primary human hepatocytes and in rodent liver., Serum HGF levels may serve as a biomarker for the presence of autocrine tumors and their responsiveness to MET therapeutics., HGF induced functional CXCR4 receptor expression in breast cancer cells. The effect of HGF was specifically mediated by PKCzeta activity., up-regulation of JunB induced by HGF might play an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell invasion through MMP-9 expression., Expression of c-Met is one of the factors that distinguishes normal from malignant plasma cells and indicates that the HGF/c-Met system is activated in multiple myeloma patients., It is suggested that CAFs can promote MCF-7 migration and invasion through HGF in vitro., Perturbations in gene expression of TIMP-1, MMP-1 and HGF were evident in both affected and unaffected skin of the systemic scleroderma patients., HGF is a biomarker and mediator in cardioprotection and cardiovascular regeneration [review], The HGF-beta.mannose receptor complex may provide a new pathway for the enhancement of cell clearance systems, which is associated with resolution of inflammation., Hepatocyte growth factor reduced cardiac fibrosis by inhibiting endothelial-mesenchymal transition and the transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts., HGF strongly and dose dependently induced cell migration. Cell migration was dependent on the two MAP kinase pathways that proceed through MEKERK and p38, respectively, as well as the PI-3 kinase pathway., In a spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 transgenic mouse model, overexpression of HGF attenuates degeneration of Purkinje cells and Bergmann glia., Studies indicate that EGFR signaling in EGFR-mutant lung cancer and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) ligand-triggered bypass signals (HGF-Met and EGFR ligands-EGFR) must be simultaneously blocked to avoid the resistance., findings suggest that transcriptional activation of LEF1 is a mechanism of cross talk between HGF/c-Met and Wnt/beta-catenin pathways and is essential for HGF-induced tumor invasion, The findings indicate that in vivo exposure to apoptotic cells enhances transcriptional HGF production in bleomycin-stimulated lungs, resulting in attenuation of lung injury and fibrosis., To determine if mutation of HGF/MET pathway genes is a mechanism for pathway dysregulation, conducted a mutational analysis of three key components of this pathway, The HGF/c-Met signaling pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of colon cancer., The A allele of HGF rs3735520 was associated with longer vitreous chamber depth in a cohort of Chinese patients with myopia., We conclude that serum levels of HGF, OPN, and SYN correspond to the activity of MM and might become useful in differentiation of MGUS, asymptomatic MM, and overt/symptomatic form of MM., In hepatocellular carcinoma cells, up-regulation of HDAC1-3 reduces expression of miR-449, activating hepatocyte growth factor and altering tumor growth., The interaction between HGF and c-Met increases OPN expression in human osteoblasts via the PI3K, Akt, c-Src, c-Jun, and AP-1 signaling pathway., HGF down-regulated c-Met receptor expression, whereas it up-regulated pro- and active/mature forms of ADAM10 and ADAM17 expression, which resulted in enhanced sMet production, HGF alters the subcellular localization of zonula occludens ZO-1, The abnormal expression of FSCN1 and HGF in the inferior turbinate may be closely correlated with nasal inverted papilloma and its malignant process., There was significant correlation among tumor cell-derived HGF, cell proliferation and microvessel proliferation in gliomas. HGF might influence tumor progression by modulating the cell growth, migration and chemoresistance to drugs., Cell-specific expression of hepatocyte growth factor leads to remodeling of the connective tissue within the septal walls of the lung., Results indicate that polymyxin B (PMB)-induced hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) production and proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts and suggest that activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases is involved in the induction of HGF production., stromal cell secretion of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) resulted in activation of the HGF receptor MET, reactivation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K)-AKT signalling pathways, and immediate resistance to RAF inhibition in BRAF-mutant melanoma, There was decreased expression of hepatocyte growth factor in CSF cells as well as reduced CSF but not plasma HGF levels in multiple sclerosis patients. Patients with active disease had lower hepatocyte growth factor CSF levels than inactive disease., Data suggest that elevated serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) levels were significantly associated with the development of insulin resistance (IR)., Overview of HGF function and effects on epithelial and endothelial cells, proangiogenic effect, and antifibrotic properties. Modulation of HGF may be an attractive target for the treatment of lung fibrosis., levels of HGF and IL-6 in serum could be useful prognostic indicators of the survival of patients with stage III NSCLC undergoing surgery and chemotherapy, a potential association between the CYP19A1 variants and circulating HGF levels, High GCNs of MET and HGF associate with an increased risk of trastuzumab-based therapy failure in HER2-positive MBC., We conclude that KLF4 upregulation by HGF represents a novel mechanism mediating HGF-induced cell scattering and perhaps other associated events such as cell migration and invasion, Enhanced cell replication through increased KLF6 alternative splicing is a novel growth-promoting pathway of HGF that could contribute to the molecule's mitogenic activity in physiologic liver growth and hepatocellular carcinoma., Data show that that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in hypoxia were superior to those cultured in normoxia in inducing expression of both HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) in the cultured medium., study indicated that JNK and P38 MAPK pathways are required in HGF-induced biological responses in hDPCs, an anti-apoptotic role of caspase-cleaved GAB1 in HGF/SF-MET signaling., HGF regulated Src homology domain 2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2 recruitment to EGFR and inhibited LPS-induced inflammation via EGFR degradation., Serum levels of HGF, Bcl-2 or nitric oxide may help in the diagnosis of breast cancer patients and may aid in disease prognosis., Data suggest that HLX1 (H2.0-like homeo box 1) is downstream mediator of HGF-induced cell survival, cell proliferation, and invasive properties of trophoblast cells; thus, both HGF and HLX1 appear to be involved in normal placental development., The binding ability of mouse HGF alpha-chain, or of beta-chain, to human c-Met was lower than that of human HGF., we show for the first time that HGF-induced EGFR tyrosine kinase-inhibition is a very common mechanism in human cancers, Establish a pharmacokinetic model applicable to HGF administration in animals/humans., Met kinetic signature derived from the response to HGF/SF in a cellular model predicts breast cancer patient survival, HGF is upregulated in POEMS syndrome. Elevation of HGF levels is not secondary to VEGF overproduction., Asc-2P increases the proliferation of cultured HCECs through upregulation of HGF production via an HGF/c-Met autocrine loop., The absence of HGF and c-Met polymorphisms in our study groups suggests that polymorphisms in the minimal promoters of these genes are not involved in the pathogenesis of ROP., MET dimerization by the HGF splice variant NK1 may be ligand-mediated with a NK1 dimer at the center of the 2, Targeted HGF gene transfer specifically to alveolar type II epithelial cells decreases bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and may therefore represent a novel cell-specific gene transfer technology to treat pulmonary fibrosis., The show that restoration of F508del-CFTR PM localization by correctors can be dramatically improved through a novel pathway involving stimulation of signaling by the endogenous small GTPase Rac1 via hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)., High hepatocyte growth factor is associated with renal cell carcinoma progression., S1PR1 and ITGB4 transactivation are rate-limiting events in the transduction of HGF signals via a dynamic c-Met complex resulting in enhanced EC barrier integrity, HGF is important in the repair of the dentine-pulp complex potentially participating in several aspects of wound healing., Differences in stromal cell ability to induce angiogenesis are a result of differences in the secretion of HGF., Studies indicate that NK4 hepatocyte growth factor fragement inhibits hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-mediated hepatocyte growth factor receptor MET tyrosine phosphorylation by competing with HGF for binding to MET., NK4 has anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects in cholanciocarcinoma mediated the HGF/Met pathway., HGF enhances migration of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression through the c-Met receptor/PI3K/Akt/PKCdelta/NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway., HGF-induced Met phosphorylation may be an important mechanism of gefitinib resistance in sensitive non-small cell lung cancer, glioblastoma cells express HGF, which contributes to the attraction of mesenchymal stem cells., Suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation with WP1193 reduced HGF expression in DeltaEGFR-expressing GBM cells., We found that HGF coexpression is a key predictor of response to c-MET inhibition among the examined factors and identified an ERK/JAK/p53 pathway activation signature that differentiates c-MET inhibition in responsive and nonresponsive cells, Hepatocyte growth factor inhibits both activation and tumor-promoting properties of cancer-associated fibroblasts., HGF expression is higher in advanced versus no/limited multiple myeloma lytic bone disease. The full-length HGF variant is specifically up-regulated in LBD. NK1&-2 isoforms are produced at 'background' levels., the hHGF lentiviral vector was successfully generated, and the lentiviral vector was able to safely infect hADSCs with high infection efficiency, thereby producing cells that overexpressed hHGF, HGF transfection suppresses PAH induced by shunt flow through enhanced expression of HGF with subsequent regulation of the concentrations of eNOS and ET-1 secreted by endothelial cells thereby promoting angiogenesis in injured lung tissue., HGF synergized with SDF-1 to cause concentration gradient-directed migration of multiple myeloma cells., HGF and Met may exert functions in the development of Synchronous liver metastasis when concurrent with lymph node metastases but had little influence on SLM without lymph node metastasis, We have shown that elevated cHGF can consistently and reproducibly be measured as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of onartuzumab activity., ERK2 but not ERK1 mediates HGF-induced motility in non-small cell lung carcinoma, HGF rs5745718 and rs17427817 are associated with a decreased risk of primary angle-closure glaucoma in the Chinese Han population., HGF is distinctly regulated at the posttranscriptional level from its antagonist isoform, NK2, via microRNA-199., HGF plays a key role in hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation induced by hepatocellular carcinoma-ancer-associated fibroblasts., HGF and SDF-1 are required for effective mobilization and homing of CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells to the liver after hepatic resection., mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord have the ability to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons after transduction with adenoviral vector expressing HGF., GM3 ganglioside promotes HGF-stimulated motility of murine hepatoma cell through enhanced phosphorylation of cMet at specific tyrosine sites and PI3K/Akt-mediated migration signaling., Human macrophages promote epithelial repair through the production of HGF; macrophages from Chrohn's disease (CD) patients have impaired epithelial repair properties owing, at least in part, to defective HGF production., Data indicate that binding between hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-alhpa and tyrosine kinase MET was disrupted by onartuzumab., increased tumor c-MET and HGF expressions were associated with favorable disease attributes but not with survival., increased blood concentrations of biomarkers VCAM-1, soluble Fas and hepatocyte growth factor, separately and in combination, associate with mortality among the aged and are prognostic markers of death, The levels of GRP, Ets-1, and IL-8 were upregulated in cells treated with HGF in a dose-dependent manner., Overexpressed TNF- alpha and HGF in microenvironment were related to poor differentiation and microvascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)., a mechanism whereby HSCs modulate the chemoresistance of hepatoma cells, Coordinated and complementary changes in HGF/MET expression occur in epithelium and stroma during progression of pre-invasive basal-like lesions., Data supports the strong immunomodulatory nature of Mesenchymal stromal cells and demonstrate the role of HGF, a mitogenic molecule, in the expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells., HGF inhibits apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells., suggests that binding of the HGF variants to the cell surface c-Met resulted in the downregulation of MMP-9, and upregulation of MMP-8 protein expressions might be key molecular signals against proliferation, migration, and invasion of A549 cells, Our results strongly suggest that paracrine HGF-induced activation of MET-mediated signaling pathways plays an important role in the pathogenesis of peritoneal carcinomatosis in scirrhous gastric cancer., While EGF activated Gab1 and Shc equally, within the same concentration range, HGF very potently and almost exclusively activated Gab1, having only a minimal effect on Shc, Despite serum HGF levels were found diagnostic value, serum HGF levels had no prognostic value in patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma, HGF, and EGF utilize distinct combinations of signaling pathways to promote migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells., these results demonstrate that HGF/c-Met plays an important role in obesity-associated carcinogenesis., Studies suggest that although serum proto-oncogene proteins c-met (MET) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) may serve as predictive biomarkers for MET therapeutics, data do not support their use as pharmacodynamic biomarkers for onartuzumab., miR-26a could suppress tumor angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through HGF-cMet signaling., HGF-incorporated gelatin hydrogel sheet can be a new therapeutic modality for autoimmune myocarditis., In conclusion, HGF may be associated with the prognosis of patients who undergo radical cystectomy, and the HGF DATE may affect the risk and aggressiveness of bladder cancer by altering HGF expression., These findings provide additional evidence of significant association of the HGF gene with Keratoconus., Sustained effect of KGF on cell survival and proliferation could be attributed to its ability to inhibit p53, retinoblastoma, caspases, and p27(kip) functions in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest., Melanoma specimens with extensive clinical annotation failed to validate HGF immunohistochemistry as a predictor of response to BRAF inhibitors., Dock7 mediates serum- and HGF-induced glioblastoma cell invasion., Upregulation of HGF is associated with subclinical central lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma., Data show bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing NK4 (N-terminal and the subsequent four kringle domains of hepatocyte growth factor) strongly inhibited proliferation and migration of the pancreatic cancer cell line after co-culture., findings indicated that miR-199a-3p target HGF/c-Met signaling pathway which is crucial for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) development and suggest that miR-199a-3p may serve as a potential target miRNA for RCC therapy, these data provide evidence in support of a significant role for HGF-induced c-Met/PI3k/Akt signaling and NADPH oxidase activation in lamellipodia formation and motility of lung endothelial cells., Differential roles for p38alpha and p38beta in the HGF-induced expression of key osteogenic markers., Hgf as an important transactivator of canonical Wnt signaling that is mediated by Met-stimulated, Gsk3-dependent Lrp5/6 phosphorylation, HGFs modulate IL-10 production in monocytes through the ERK1/2 pathway., results suggested that genetic variants in ACAN and MET are associated with HM. Functional roles of ACAN and MET in the development of HM need to be further investigated, HGF and TGF-beta are critical regulators for both tumor-stroma interaction and tumor invasion., induction of HGF synthesis via RNA transferred by microvesicles activating AKT and ERK1/2 signaling is a crucial contributor to the pro-tumor effect, Plasma HGF and EREG levels are associated with resistance to treatment with anti-EGFR antibodies in KRAS wild-type patients with metastatic colorectal cancer., HGF may be a potential prognostic marker in HPV-negative tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma, selected 68 different antibodies that compete with HGF for binding to MET. HGF-competing antibodies recognized 4 distinct hotspots localized in different MET domains, Synergistic signaling of tumor cell invasiveness by hepatocyte growth factor and hypoxia., HGF upregulation contributes to wound repair and epithelial proliferation in macrophages., Data indicate that both hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met are increased after NACT (Neo Adjuvant Chemotherapy)., upregulation of the COX-2/PGE2 and HGF in macrophages following exposure to apoptotic cells represents a mechanism for mediating the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic consequences of apoptotic cell recognition, The serum VEGF, SIL-2R and HGF contents in 81 patients., Study highlights the potential importance of RGMb in propagating pro-angiogenic effects of HGF and BMP-7., Studies show that IQGAP1 functions as a hub linking HGF-induced signaling to microtubules and actin remodeling via EB1-IQGAP1-cortactin interactions., Single nucleotide polymorphism in HGF (rs5745752) is significantly associated with breast cancer risk., In the presence of high HGF, dual inhibition of c-Met and COX-2 may enhance antitumor effects. This combination may have clinical potential in NSCLCs with high HGF/c-Met expression or epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype., Serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was measured and studied in patients with glioma in regards to the response to radiotherapy and disease-free survival., These data demonstrate, that in addition to microtubule-independent Tiam1 activation, HGF engages additional microtubule- and APC-dependent pathway of Asef activation., This SOCS7 knockdown-attributed effect could be due to a precise anti-PLCg-1 role., results demonstrate a novel MT-dependent mechanism of HGF-induced EC barrier regulation via Rac1/PAK1/stathmin-dependent control of MT dynamics, An autocrine HGF/cMET loop sustains multiple myeloma angiogenesis and represents an appealing new target to potentiate the antiangiogenic management of patients with multiple myeloma., Disruption of deoxyadenosine tract element increased HGF signaling via MET and reduced levels of RIPKI1 and colorectal cancer cell necroptosis., Blood Hepatocyte growth factor did not differ significantly between patients with chronic viral hepatitis C and controls., Hepatocyte growth factor was highly expressed in breast cancer cells and was closely associated with lymph node metastasis, prognosis and sensitivity to chemotherapy., Data show that Ash1l and EZH2 methyltransferases protein expression was significantly elevated in fibrotic liver and decreased in mutant matrix metalloproteinase-9 (mMMP-9) and human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) gene transfer treated fibrotic livers., Findings indicate that SHIP2 is a regulator of lymphatic function in humans and that inherited mutations in the INPPL1 gene may act in concert with HGF, and likely MAP3K7, mutations to exacerbate lymphatic phenotypes., HGF mediated resistance to alectinib, but not to crizotinib, via the MET signal, that alectinib activated the MET signal in ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer., expression of HGFalpha or cMet was closely correlated with VEGFC, lymphatic microvessel density and metastases of lymph nodes, indicating HGFalpha, cMet and VEGFC may perform important and collaborative actions in lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis of primary non-small-cell lung cancer, HGF signaling through c-Met may decrease inflammation in endothelial cells and protect against intracranial aneurysm rupture., these results demonstrate potent anti-inflammatory effects by HGF and delineate a key role of Asef in the mediation of the HGF barrier protective and anti-inflammatory effects., A direct link between expression of HGF and biochemical prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy., Genetic variation contributes to the interindividual variation in growth factor levels and explains a modest proportion of circulating hepatocyte growth factor, Ang-2, and Tie-2., These results suggested that the expression of the HGF/cMet pathway in gastric cancer may be a potential predictive factor for disease progression., This is the first report that primary cancer-associated colonic fibroblasts activated by HGF play a critical role in mediation of proliferation and invasiveness of human colonic epithelial cancer cells., MACC1 overexpression predicted worse prognosis after liver resection, which was attributed to the repression of HCC cell apoptosis via a molecular mechanism in which MACC1 accelerated the activation of the HGF/c-MET/PI3K/AKT pathway, Data suggest HGF is up-regulated in placenta/amniotic fluid of obese pregnant women as compared to normal-weight women; HGF may stimulate glucose uptake/metabolism, impair fatty acid oxidation, and enhance de novo fatty acid synthesis/esterification., hepatocyte growth factor has a role in differentiation potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells treated with L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate and fibroblast growth factor-2, Evidence for association was found for both of the tested loci.It was strongest for rs3735520, These results demonstrate that endometrial carcinoma stromal cells stimulate epithelial cell proliferation via the HGF/c-Met/Akt signaling pathway., HGF induction is a crucial contributor to the acceleration of cell dedifferentiation and growth., evidence uncovered essential roles of CRK in invasive bladder cancer through the hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met/CRK feedback loop for epithelial-mesenchymal transition induction, Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene-Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells Augment Sinonasal Wound Healing., Results show that MET and HGF overexpression were significantly correlated in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas or angiosarcomas suggesting an autocrine activation. These proteins may be potential biomarkers fro these types of sarcoma., HGF produced by hAFSCs exerts a cytoprotective role, inducing an increase in caspase-dependent apoptosis in human immune cells., High HGF (and follistatin) expression in tumor tissue from esophageal cancer patients was associated with poor prognosis., Sequential and timely transfection of hepatocyte growth factor and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 ameliorates hyperkinetic pulmonary artery hypertension in rabbits., HGF level may be a new detection method used for the rapid diagnosis of benign and malignant SPNs., Based upon ethnicity-stratified single-variant association analysis and trans-ethnic meta-analysis of 6201 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, discovered 5 common and low-frequency variants, Early treatment with HGF/IgG complexes after myocardial ischaemia with reperfusion may rescue tissue through vasoprotection conferred by c-Met and RYK signalling, HGF and TGFbeta1 of bone-metastasis microenvironment acted co-ordinately, influencing non redundant pathways regulated by Twist program or Snail-transcription factor, with reversible MET switch, Increased miR-16 expression promotes liver fibrosis through downregulation of HGF and Smad7 in hepatitis C patients., reduced serum level in kidney stone patients, relative to healthy subjects; no difference in allele frequency, In donors significantly lower levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, HGF, and TGF-beta were detected in portal blood compared to hepatic vein In patients with cirrhosis there were no significant differences of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta levels between portal and hepatic veins, our work reveals a critical relationship of Cox-2/PGE2 and HGF/MET signaling in promoting glioma cells proliferation, HGF upregulates the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in HEPG2 cells., Intramuscular injection of pUDK-HGF is safe, and may provide symptomatic relief for critical limb ischemia patients., The findings support a role for HGF in regulating both myoblast cell number and terminal differentiation., Data show that monoclonal antibody ARGX-111 inhibits hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-dependent proto-oncogene protein c-met (MET) activity by competing with HGF for binding to MET., The findings suggest that the oncogenic activity of hepsin arises not only from elevated expression level but also from depletion of HAI-1, events which together trigger gain-of-function activity impacting HGF/MET signalling and epithelial cohesion, Direct binding of CD44v6 to HGF and VEGF was demonstrated in pull-down assays, Peptide HGP-1 could disrupt the activation of HGF/MET signaling to influence tumor cell activity., HGF/cMET signaling plays and important role in adrenocortical carcinoma growth and resistance to commonly used treatments., HGF and its receptor, cMET, are antagonized in human lung cancer cells treated with YangZheng XiaoJi, Case Report, study suggests that GPC3 is involved in HCC cell migration and motility through HS chain-mediated cooperation with the HGF/Met pathway, showing how HS targeting has potential therapeutic implications for liver cancer, HGF secreted by ovarian cancer cells induces the mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stimulates the invasion of mesothelial cells. HGF secreted by ovarian cancer cells plays an important role in cancer peritoneal implantation., integrin alpha6beta4 stimulates invasion by promoting autocrine EGFR signaling through transcriptional up-regulation of key EGFR family members and by facilitating HGF-stimulated EGFR ligand secretion, Treatment of silicosis with HGF-expressed autologous bone marrow stromal cells has been reported., The signal transduction mechanisms in a gene interaction network describing hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated cell migration and proliferation from gene-expression measured with microarray, Adenoviral delivery of truncated MMP-8 fused with the hepatocyte growth factor mutant 1K1 ameliorates liver cirrhosis and promotes hepatocyte proliferation., High serum HGF levels in breast cancer patients are associated with clinically detectable regional node metastasis and, paradoxically, with longer relapse-free survival in stage II/III breast cancer., we suggest that combinatorial therapeutic strategies with HGF and c-Met inhibitors comprise promising candidates for overcoming sorafenib resistance., these data demonstrate that FGF-2 priming enhances the angiogenic potential of SHED through the secretion of both HGF and VEGF., level of HGF is associated with incident diabetes and may reflect a unique type of impaired metabolism, Pre-osteoblasts stimulate migration of breast cancer cells via the HGF/MET pathway., Report the application of advanced quantitative fluorescence microscopy techniques to study changes in the oligomerization state of the RTK Met in response to stimulation by its endogenous ligand hepatocyte growth factor.,
OMIM_DISEASE Deafness, autosomal recessive 39,
SP_COMMENT function:HGF is a potent mitogen for mature parenchymal hepatocyte cells, seems to be an hepatotrophic factor, and acts as growth factor for a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types. It has no detectable protease activity., online information:Hepatocyte growth factor entry, similarity:Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. Plasminogen subfamily., similarity:Contains 1 PAN domain., similarity:Contains 1 peptidase S1 domain., similarity:Contains 4 kringle domains., subunit:Dimer of an alpha chain and a beta chain linked by a disulfide bond.,